Abstract

We report on the characterization of single-mode and multimode proton-exchanged periodically segmented waveguides in lithium niobate. Variation of effective indices of different modes for different annealing times as a function of duty cycle and period of segmentation is presented. It is shown that the proton-exchanged periodically segmented waveguide can be modeled by an equivalent z-invariant depth-independent graded-index waveguide with a Gaussian index distribution. Although the depth of the equivalent waveguide is independent of duty cycle, the peak refractive-index change increases almost linearly with the duty cycle and saturates at large duty cycles. The results should benefit the design of linear and nonlinear devices that are based on segmented waveguides.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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