Abstract

We have measured the third-order susceptibility, χ(3), versus concentration for a number of molybdenum-based metal-organic complexes in solution, using independent degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan techniques. Good agreement was obtained between the degenerate four-wave mixing and Z-scan measurements. The variation of χ(3) with concentration yielded the second-order hyperpolarizability γ. A close correlation was observed between the number of delocalized π electrons and the magnitude of γ.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, Opt. Lett. 17, 1055 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. R. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 10.
  4. J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. Prasad, J. Tufariello, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. C. Gale, G. E. Burgess, T. Zhai, M. L. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3072 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. M. Gray, C. S. Kraihanzel, J. Organomet. Chem. 146, 23 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. McAuliffe, W. Levason, Phosphine, Arsine and Stibine of the Transition Elements (Elsevier, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.
  11. T. Zhai, “A DFWM study of the third-order optical nonlinearity of transition metal containing organic complexes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala., 1994), pp. 75–81.
  12. M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfloger, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2019 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Grossman, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, J. Messier, ed. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 76.

1993 (1)

D. C. Gale, G. E. Burgess, T. Zhai, M. L. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (3)

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. Prasad, J. Tufariello, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfloger, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2019 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

G. M. Gray, C. S. Kraihanzel, J. Organomet. Chem. 146, 23 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, G. E.

D. C. Gale, G. E. Burgess, T. Zhai, M. L. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Caro, R. G.

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Casstevens, M. K.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfloger, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2019 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gale, D. C.

D. C. Gale, G. E. Burgess, T. Zhai, M. L. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

C. Grossman, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, J. Messier, ed. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 76.

Ghosal, S.

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. Prasad, J. Tufariello, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gower, M. C.

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gray, G. M.

G. M. Gray, C. S. Kraihanzel, J. Organomet. Chem. 146, 23 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, C.

C. Grossman, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, J. Messier, ed. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 76.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

C. Grossman, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, J. Messier, ed. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 76.

Hoffman, C. A.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z. H.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kraihanzel, C. S.

G. M. Gray, C. S. Kraihanzel, J. Organomet. Chem. 146, 23 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

Levason, W.

C. A. McAuliffe, W. Levason, Phosphine, Arsine and Stibine of the Transition Elements (Elsevier, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.

Lewis, M. L.

D. C. Gale, G. E. Burgess, T. Zhai, M. L. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McAuliffe, C. A.

C. A. McAuliffe, W. Levason, Phosphine, Arsine and Stibine of the Transition Elements (Elsevier, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.

Michael, R. R.

Pfloger, J.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfloger, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2019 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P.

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. Prasad, J. Tufariello, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfloger, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2019 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. R.

P. R. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 10.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfloger, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2019 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. Prasad, J. Tufariello, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-bahae, M.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Snow, A. W.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tufariello, J.

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. Prasad, J. Tufariello, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

P. R. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 10.

Williams, W. E.

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. Y.

C. Grossman, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, J. Messier, ed. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 76.

Zamani-Khamiri, O.

C. Grossman, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, J. Messier, ed. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 76.

Zhai, T.

D. C. Gale, G. E. Burgess, T. Zhai, M. L. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhai, “A DFWM study of the third-order optical nonlinearity of transition metal containing organic complexes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala., 1994), pp. 75–81.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Lindle, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, A. W. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. J. Soileau, W. E. Williams, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfloger, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2019 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Organomet. Chem. (1)

G. M. Gray, C. S. Kraihanzel, J. Organomet. Chem. 146, 23 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. Ghosal, M. Samoc, P. Prasad, J. Tufariello, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 2847 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. C. Gale, G. E. Burgess, T. Zhai, M. L. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3072 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. Grossman, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, J. Messier, ed. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 76.

P. R. Prasad, D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 10.

C. A. McAuliffe, W. Levason, Phosphine, Arsine and Stibine of the Transition Elements (Elsevier, New York, 1979), Chap. 5.

T. Zhai, “A DFWM study of the third-order optical nonlinearity of transition metal containing organic complexes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala., 1994), pp. 75–81.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Z-scan and DFWM experiments for NLO materials evaluation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concentration dependence of the third-order susceptibility χ(3) for cis-Mo(CO)4(PPH3)2 solutions in electrostatic units (left-hand-scale) and SI units (right-hand scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of γ on the number of aromatic rings for a series of Mo metal-organic complexes in electrostatic units (left-hand scale) and SI units (right-hand scale).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Second-Order Hyperpolarizabilitya for Various Mo Metal-Organic Complexes

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( z , Δ Φ 0 ) 1 + 4 Δ Φ 0 ( z / z 0 ) [ ( z / z 0 ) 2 + 1 ] [ ( z / z 0 ) 2 + 9 ] ,
Re χ ( 3 ) ( n 0 2 c λ 32 π 3 ) Δ Φ 0 I 0 L eff ,
| χ ( 3 ) | sample = | χ ( 3 ) | ref ( I sig I ref ) 1 / 2 ( n sample n ref ) 2 ( L ref L sample ) × { α L exp [ ( α L ) / 2 ] [ 1 exp ( α L ) ] } ,
χ solution ( 3 ) = f 4 ( N solute γ solute + N solvent γ solvent ) ,

Metrics