Abstract

The saturation spectroscopy of molecular transitions at 1.5 μm is reported. We show that it is possible, with a low-power laser diode, to obtain 2-MHz-wide acetylene saturated-absorption lines, and we give what is to our knowledge the first experimental estimation of 13C2H2 saturation intensity. To our knowledge, these lines are the narrowest reported 1.5-μm frequency references and should be suitable for high-quality 1.5-μm laser frequency standards.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 281 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Lucero, Y. C. Chung, S. Reilly, R. W. Tkach, Opt. Lett. 16, 849 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 134 (1992).
  4. S. L. Gilbert, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 146 (1992).
  5. M. Labachelerie, C. Latrasse, K. Diomandé, P. Kemssu, P. Cerez, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 185 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Bertinetto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 154 (1992).
  7. D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).
  8. V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221 (1991).
  9. K. Shimoda, in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 1–49.
  10. M. Okai, T. Tsushiya, K. Uomi, N. Chinone, T. Harada, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 427 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Nakagawa, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 17, 934 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. S. Letokhov, in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 95–199.

1992

P. Bertinetto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 154 (1992).

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 134 (1992).

S. L. Gilbert, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 146 (1992).

K. Nakagawa, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 17, 934 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

A. J. Lucero, Y. C. Chung, S. Reilly, R. W. Tkach, Opt. Lett. 16, 849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Labachelerie, C. Latrasse, K. Diomandé, P. Kemssu, P. Cerez, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221 (1991).

M. Okai, T. Tsushiya, K. Uomi, N. Chinone, T. Harada, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alekseev, V. A.

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221 (1991).

Bertinetto, P.

P. Bertinetto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 154 (1992).

Breton, M.

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 134 (1992).

Cerez, P.

M. Labachelerie, C. Latrasse, K. Diomandé, P. Kemssu, P. Cerez, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chinone, N.

M. Okai, T. Tsushiya, K. Uomi, N. Chinone, T. Harada, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

Cyr, N.

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 134 (1992).

Diomandé, K.

M. Labachelerie, C. Latrasse, K. Diomandé, P. Kemssu, P. Cerez, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, G.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).

Gilbert, S. L.

S. L. Gilbert, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 146 (1992).

Gubin, M. A.

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221 (1991).

Hansell, P. S.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).

Harada, T.

M. Okai, T. Tsushiya, K. Uomi, N. Chinone, T. Harada, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Julien, C.

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 134 (1992).

Kemssu, P.

M. Labachelerie, C. Latrasse, K. Diomandé, P. Kemssu, P. Cerez, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knight, D. J. E.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).

Kourogi, M.

Labachelerie, M.

M. Labachelerie, C. Latrasse, K. Diomandé, P. Kemssu, P. Cerez, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Latrasse, C.

M. Labachelerie, C. Latrasse, K. Diomandé, P. Kemssu, P. Cerez, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, M.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).

Leeson, H. C.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 95–199.

Lucero, A. J.

Meldau, J.

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).

Nakagawa, K.

Ohtsu, M.

Okai, M.

M. Okai, T. Tsushiya, K. Uomi, N. Chinone, T. Harada, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Protsenko, E. D.

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221 (1991).

Reilly, S.

Sakai, Y.

S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 1–49.

Sudo, S.

S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Têtu, M.

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 134 (1992).

Tkach, R. W.

Tremblay, P.

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 134 (1992).

Tsushiya, T.

M. Okai, T. Tsushiya, K. Uomi, N. Chinone, T. Harada, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Uomi, K.

M. Okai, T. Tsushiya, K. Uomi, N. Chinone, T. Harada, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yasaka, H.

S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Okai, T. Tsushiya, K. Uomi, N. Chinone, T. Harada, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

M. Labachelerie, C. Latrasse, K. Diomandé, P. Kemssu, P. Cerez, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

V. A. Alekseev, M. A. Gubin, E. D. Protsenko, Laser Phys. 1, 221 (1991).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

P. Bertinetto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 154 (1992).

D. J. E. Knight, P. S. Hansell, H. C. Leeson, G. Duxbury, J. Meldau, M. Lawrence, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 106 (1992).

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 134 (1992).

S. L. Gilbert, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1837, 146 (1992).

Other

K. Shimoda, in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 1–49.

V. S. Letokhov, in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 95–199.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: ISO, 60-dB isolator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; DBM, double-balanced mixer; IF, intermediate frequency; OL, local oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recorded saturated-absorption peak under medium conditions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the line contrast on gas pressure and laser input power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Estimation of saturation power as a function of gas pressure.

Equations (5)

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I s = ɛ 0 c 2 2 d 2 T τ ,
I s ( W / m 2 ) = 22 × 10 6 [ C 0 + 10 p ( Torr ) ] 2 .
C ( p ) = δ κ κ 2 [ 1 + ρ a ( p ) ] [ 2 + ρ a ( p ) ] ,
P in = β T [ F ( p ) / π ] 2 P 0 .
I s ( W / m 2 ) = 15 × 10 6 [ 0.1 + 10 p ( Torr ) ] 2 ,

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