Abstract

We report a normal-incidence grating coupler that is monolithically integrated with a GexSi1−x rib waveguide. The design, fabrication, and testing procedures are described for a 0.33-μm-period grating coupler integrated with a Ge0.04Si0.96 waveguide. Also, a theoretical analysis based on coupler-mode theory has been carried out to predict the coupling efficiency and its dependence on the angle of incidence of light. For normal incidence the measured efficiency of 6.5% was found to be in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of 6.9%. The measured FWHM of the acceptance angle about the normal was 5°, compared with the theoretical prediction of 3°.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 3116 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, J.-M. Halbout, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. Lorenzo, R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1987.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, J. M. Halbout, Electron Lett. 28, 159 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Mayer, K. H. Jung, W. D. Lee, D.-L. Kwong, J. C. Campbell, Opt. Lett. 17, 1812 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. E. Bean, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1992

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, J. M. Halbout, Electron Lett. 28, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mayer, K. H. Jung, W. D. Lee, D.-L. Kwong, J. C. Campbell, Opt. Lett. 17, 1812 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, J.-M. Halbout, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. P. Lorenzo, R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1987.
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 3116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978

K. E. Bean, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bean, J. C.

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bean, K. E.

K. E. Bean, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Halbout, J. M.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, J. M. Halbout, Electron Lett. 28, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Halbout, J.-M.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, J.-M. Halbout, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 3116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, S. S.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, J. M. Halbout, Electron Lett. 28, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K. H.

Katz, L. E.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 3116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 3116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

Lee, H. J.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 3116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

Logan, R. A.

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzo, J. P.

J. P. Lorenzo, R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Luryi, S.

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

May, P. G.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, J.-M. Halbout, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, R. A.

Orlowsky, K. J.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 3116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pearsall, T. P.

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pesarcik, S. F.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, J. M. Halbout, Electron Lett. 28, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

J. P. Lorenzo, R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Treyz, G. V.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, J. M. Halbout, Electron Lett. 28, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, J.-M. Halbout, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, K. J. Orlowsky, L. E. Katz, Appl. Opt. 26, 3116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. P. Lorenzo, R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1987.
[CrossRef]

H. Temkin, T. P. Pearsall, J. C. Bean, R. A. Logan, S. Luryi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 963 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Electron Lett.

S. F. Pesarcik, G. V. Treyz, S. S. Iyer, J. M. Halbout, Electron Lett. 28, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, J.-M. Halbout, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

K. E. Bean, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electric-field (E-FIELD) profile of a normally incident plane wave a0(x) and the guided mode E0(x) over the grating region. The profiles are Airy functions in the gratings (0 < x < 0.08 μm)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental configuration for measuring the efficiency of the grating coupler as a function of the angle of incidence. The inset shows the near-field profile of the guided mode at the end face of the waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the coupling efficiency between the theoretical prediction and the measured data.

Equations (2)

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K 1 z + q * 2 π Λ = K 2 z + Δ ,
κ = 0 h E 0 ( x ) * A 1 * a 0 ( x ) * d x ,

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