Abstract

We describe the ultrahigh-frequency stabilization of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser by use of a high-power-acceptance photodetector. The photodetector, which is constructed with an optical power divider and eight combined photodiodes, is developed to reduce shot-noise-limited FM noise. The laser frequency is locked to a Fabry–Perot cavity with a finesse of 25,600 by the Drever–Hall technique. By using the optical power of 47 mW at the photodetector, we reduce the relative FM noise at the error signal to the shot-noise limit of 4.2×10-5Hz/Hz below the Fourier frequency of 500 Hz.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. Ch. Salomon, D. Hils, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Zhu, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 802 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1992 (3)

1990 (1)

M. Ohtsu, M. Murata, M. Kourogi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

Ch. Salomon, D. Hils, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

G. A. Kerr, N. A. Robertson, J. Hough, Appl. Phys. B 37, 11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Brillet, A.

Byer, R. L.

N. M. Sampas, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 18, 947 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Day, E. K Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crégut, O.

Day, T.

T. Day, E. K Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

Gustafson, E. K

T. Day, E. K Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E. K.

Hall, J. L.

M. Zhu, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 802 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Salomon, D. Hils, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Appl. Opt. 21, 1686 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmcke, J.

Hils, D.

Ch. Salomon, D. Hils, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

G. A. Kerr, N. A. Robertson, J. Hough, Appl. Phys. B 37, 11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, G. A.

G. A. Kerr, N. A. Robertson, J. Hough, Appl. Phys. B 37, 11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

K. Nakagawa, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 17, 934 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohtsu, M. Murata, M. Kourogi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. A.

Ma, L.-S.

J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Maischberger, K.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Man, C. N.

Munleyand, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Murata, M.

M. Ohtsu, M. Murata, M. Kourogi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

Ohtsu, M.

K. Nakagawa, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 17, 934 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohtsu, M. Murata, M. Kourogi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rayman, M. D.

J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, N. A.

G. A. Kerr, N. A. Robertson, J. Hough, Appl. Phys. B 37, 11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rüdiger, A.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, Ch.

Sampas, N. M.

Schilling, R.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schnupp, L.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, D.

Ueda, K.

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, Opt. Lett. 18, 505 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uehara, N.

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, Opt. Lett. 18, 505 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

Winkler, W.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. Hough, D. Hils, M. D. Rayman, L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. B 33, 179 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kerr, N. A. Robertson, J. Hough, Appl. Phys. B 37, 11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Ohtsu, M. Murata, M. Kourogi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Day, E. K Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. D (1)

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for frequency stabilization using the high-power-acceptance photodetector, which consists of an optical power divider (OPD) and eight combined photodiodes (PD’s). The reference FP cavity has a finesse of 25,600 and is fixed in a vacuum tank at a pressure of 10−6 Torr by a sputter ion pump. L’s, lenses; M’s, mirrors; OSC, oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the high-power-acceptance photodetector constructed with the OPD and the eight PD’s: (a) a schematic diagram of the OPD. The incident beam of optical power Pi is equally divided into eight beams of Pi/2n, where n = 3. (b) The electric circuit of the eight PD’s and the amplifier. The radio-frequency photocurrent at 20.0 MHz is converted into a voltage signal by the LC resonant circuit, which consists of a variable inductor (L) and the total junction capacitances (~240 pF) of the eight PD’s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative FM noise spectra at the error signal at a free-running state [curve (a)] at a stabilized state [curve (b)]. The calculated shot-noise limit is 4.2 × 10 - 5 Hz / Hz.

Equations (1)

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δ ν ( f ) = π c R e { [ η R J 0 2 ( m ) + 2 J 1 2 ( m ) ] M + ( 1 - M ) } 1 / 2 8 L F 2 T M J 0 ( m ) J 1 ( m ) I 0 × [ 1 + ( 2 f Δ ν v ) ] 1 / 2 ,

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