Abstract

We investigate the sensitivity limit of absorption spectroscopy. An experiment is described in which the decrease in transmitted light intensity that is due to absorption by a single, electromagnetically confined atomic ion is observed.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A concise historical review is given by R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Dover, New York, 1963), pp. 1–17.
  2. See, for example, K. Shimoda, ed., High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976);R. A. Keller, ed., Laser-based Ultrasensitive Spectroscopy and Detection V, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.426 (1983);M. D. Levenson, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Bialas, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, Opt. Commun. 59, 27 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Le Boiteux, D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, A. Pesnelle, S. Runge, M. Perdrix, Opt. Commun. 52, 274 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. See, for example, R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, London, 1973), p. 287.
  6. J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Hemmati, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, Opt. Lett. 8, 73 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. J. Snyder, R. K. Raj, D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, Opt. Lett. 5, 163 (1980);L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Sheng, M. Hohenstatt, J. L. Hall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 91 (1983);E. A. Whittaker, G. C. Bjorklund, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 81 (1983);M. Ducloy, J. J. Synder, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 426, 87 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. G. Dehmelt, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 3, 53 (1967);Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 5, 109 (1969);D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, R. S. Van Dyck, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 19, 135 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Bloembergen, E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 73, 679 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. H. Hughes, E. B. Wilson, Phys. Rev. 71, 562L (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. E. Drullinger, D. J. Wineland, J. C. Bergquist, Appl. Phys. 22, 365 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bialas, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, Opt. Commun. 59, 27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Le Boiteux, D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, A. Pesnelle, S. Runge, M. Perdrix, Opt. Commun. 52, 274 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Hemmati, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, Opt. Lett. 8, 73 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

1967 (1)

H. G. Dehmelt, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 3, 53 (1967);Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 5, 109 (1969);D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, R. S. Van Dyck, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 19, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

N. Bloembergen, E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 73, 679 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

R. H. Hughes, E. B. Wilson, Phys. Rev. 71, 562L (1947).
[CrossRef]

Begemann, M. H.

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hemmati, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, Opt. Lett. 8, 73 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Drullinger, D. J. Wineland, J. C. Bergquist, Appl. Phys. 22, 365 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bialas, J.

J. Bialas, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, Opt. Commun. 59, 27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

J. Bialas, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, Opt. Commun. 59, 27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, D.

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 73, 679 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Dehmelt, H. G.

H. G. Dehmelt, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 3, 53 (1967);Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 5, 109 (1969);D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, R. S. Van Dyck, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 19, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

R. E. Drullinger, D. J. Wineland, J. C. Bergquist, Appl. Phys. 22, 365 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

Gudeman, C. S.

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hemmati, H.

Hughes, R. H.

R. H. Hughes, E. B. Wilson, Phys. Rev. 71, 562L (1947).
[CrossRef]

Hulet, R. G.

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hemmati, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, Opt. Lett. 8, 73 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Boiteux, S.

S. Le Boiteux, D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, A. Pesnelle, S. Runge, M. Perdrix, Opt. Commun. 52, 274 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

See, for example, R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, London, 1973), p. 287.

Neuhauser, W.

J. Bialas, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, Opt. Commun. 59, 27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Perdrix, M.

S. Le Boiteux, D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, A. Pesnelle, S. Runge, M. Perdrix, Opt. Commun. 52, 274 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pesnelle, A.

S. Le Boiteux, D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, A. Pesnelle, S. Runge, M. Perdrix, Opt. Commun. 52, 274 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pfaff, J.

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pound, R. V.

N. Bloembergen, E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 73, 679 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

N. Bloembergen, E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 73, 679 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Raj, R. K.

Runge, S.

S. Le Boiteux, D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, A. Pesnelle, S. Runge, M. Perdrix, Opt. Commun. 52, 274 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sawyer, R. A.

A concise historical review is given by R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Dover, New York, 1963), pp. 1–17.

Saykally, R. J.

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, J. J.

Toschek, P. E.

J. Bialas, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, Opt. Commun. 59, 27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, E. B.

R. H. Hughes, E. B. Wilson, Phys. Rev. 71, 562L (1947).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Drullinger, D. J. Wineland, J. C. Bergquist, Appl. Phys. 22, 365 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adv. At. Mol. Phys. (1)

H. G. Dehmelt, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 3, 53 (1967);Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 5, 109 (1969);D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, R. S. Van Dyck, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 19, 135 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

R. E. Drullinger, D. J. Wineland, J. C. Bergquist, Appl. Phys. 22, 365 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Bialas, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, Opt. Commun. 59, 27 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Le Boiteux, D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, A. Pesnelle, S. Runge, M. Perdrix, Opt. Commun. 52, 274 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (2)

N. Bloembergen, E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 73, 679 (1948).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hughes, E. B. Wilson, Phys. Rev. 71, 562L (1947).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

See, for example, R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, London, 1973), p. 287.

A concise historical review is given by R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Dover, New York, 1963), pp. 1–17.

See, for example, K. Shimoda, ed., High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976);R. A. Keller, ed., Laser-based Ultrasensitive Spectroscopy and Detection V, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.426 (1983);M. D. Levenson, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the apparatus. Absorption from a single 198Hg+ ion is detected as a change in current in the vacuum photodiode. This absorption is modulated at frequency Ω by applying a voltage Vm to one endcap electrode of the trap. To avoid a false signal from stray radiation picked up by the detector, the sign of Vm is alternated at frequency ω. To avoid drifts at the output of mixer M2, a third modulation at 0.5 Hz of the phase of ω and the sign of the signal at M2 is converted to dc by the up/down counter. Vm, ϕΩ, and ϕω2 are adjusted to maximize the display output.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption signal observed as the 194-nm source is tuned through ν0. Lower trace shows the simultaneously observed fluorescence scattering; the flat-topped appearance of this curve is due to the frequency modulation of the ion resonance. Integration times per point are 50 and 10 sec in the upper and lower traces, respectively.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I s = η P e β / ( h ν ) .
i n = ( i D 2 + i T 2 + i sh 2 ) 1 / 2 .
S / N = I s / i n = N σ 0 K e β P / ( A h ν 0 ) [ i D 2 + i T 2 + 2 e 2 β P Δ ν / ( h ν 0 ) ] 1 / 2 .
S / N = ( π 2 ) 1 = e β γ / ( 2 Δ ν 1 / 2 ) [ 4 k B T / R D + e 2 β γ A / ( σ 0 K ) ] 1 ½ 2 .

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