Abstract

We propose a technique for cooling optically trapped atoms to microkelvin temperatures, and lower, by using the dipole force of resonance-radiation pressure.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 4, 161 (1979); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. P. Gordon, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1606 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. For an earlier experimental observation of the effects of spontaneous heating see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Opt. Lett. 5, 111 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1336 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. F. Hess, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 854 (1985).
  7. A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, T. H. Bergeman, H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978); for a review of optical traps, see A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980); for more recent discussions, see references in Refs. 1 and 6.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. This value seems appropriate for the actual combination of levels used in sodium; see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. A 23, 491 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978); J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, Comments Atom. Mol. Phys. 10, 31 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (3)

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Hess, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 854 (1985).

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, T. H. Bergeman, H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1336 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

This value seems appropriate for the actual combination of levels used in sodium; see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. A 23, 491 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978); J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, Comments Atom. Mol. Phys. 10, 31 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978); for a review of optical traps, see A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980); for more recent discussions, see references in Refs. 1 and 6.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Gordon, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1606 (1980).
[CrossRef]

For an earlier experimental observation of the effects of spontaneous heating see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Opt. Lett. 5, 111 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 4, 161 (1979); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978); for a review of optical traps, see A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980); for more recent discussions, see references in Refs. 1 and 6.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978); J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, Comments Atom. Mol. Phys. 10, 31 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bergeman, T. H.

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, T. H. Bergeman, H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

This value seems appropriate for the actual combination of levels used in sodium; see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. A 23, 491 (1981).
[CrossRef]

For an earlier experimental observation of the effects of spontaneous heating see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Opt. Lett. 5, 111 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978); J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, Comments Atom. Mol. Phys. 10, 31 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. R.

This value seems appropriate for the actual combination of levels used in sodium; see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. A 23, 491 (1981).
[CrossRef]

For an earlier experimental observation of the effects of spontaneous heating see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Opt. Lett. 5, 111 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978); J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, Comments Atom. Mol. Phys. 10, 31 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Hess, H. F.

H. F. Hess, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 854 (1985).

Hollberg, L.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metcalf, H. J.

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, T. H. Bergeman, H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migdall, A. L.

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, T. H. Bergeman, H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, D. B.

This value seems appropriate for the actual combination of levels used in sodium; see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. A 23, 491 (1981).
[CrossRef]

For an earlier experimental observation of the effects of spontaneous heating see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Opt. Lett. 5, 111 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978); J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, Comments Atom. Mol. Phys. 10, 31 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W. D.

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, T. H. Bergeman, H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1336 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prodan, J. V.

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, T. H. Bergeman, H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

H. F. Hess, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 854 (1985).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

This value seems appropriate for the actual combination of levels used in sodium; see J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. A 23, 491 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1606 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1336 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Migdall, J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, T. H. Bergeman, H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978); for a review of optical traps, see A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980); for more recent discussions, see references in Refs. 1 and 6.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978); J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, Comments Atom. Mol. Phys. 10, 31 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Final Atomic Temperature (T2)0, Required Laser Spot Size, and Required Laser Detuning as a Function of the Laser Power Pa

Equations (14)

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p ( r ) = 4 P π w 2 1 I sat γ 2 4 Δ ν 2 2 r 2 w 2 ,
ω 2 = 2 h γ 2 π m I sat P Δ ν w 4 ,
r ( t ) = v 1 ω 2 sin ω 2 t + x 1 cos ω 2 t .
( v 2 2 ¯ ) 0 = 1 2 ω 2 2 ω 1 2 v 0 2 ,
( T 2 T 1 ) spread = 1 2 ω 2 2 ω 1 2 .
T 2 ( ½ T 1 ) = v 2 2 ¯ v 1 2 ¯ = x 1 2 ¯ x 2 2 ¯ = ( v 0 / ω 1 ) 2 ( v 0 / ω 2 ) 2 = ω 2 2 ω 1 2 ,
N < π 2 γ 2 2 Δ ν ω 2 N max .
U ( x ) = h Δ ν 2 ( 4 P π w 2 2 1 I sat γ 2 4 Δ ν 2 ) 2 x 2 w 2 2 ( 1 - 2 x 2 w 2 2 ) .
x ( t ) = v 1 ω ( 1 + 9 8 ) sin ω t + 1 8 v 1 ω 2 sin 3 ω t ,
[ v 2 ( τ 0 ) ] 1 = 9 π 2 16 ( v 0 2 - v 1 2 ) 2 w 2 4 ω 2 4 v 1 2 .
( T 2 T 1 ) anharm = 189 π 3 512 h I sat Δ ν m P ω 2 2 .
( Δ ν ) 0 = ( 64 π 5 m 2 γ 7 189 h 2 I sat ) 1 / 5 ( P x 1 2 ¯ N max 4 ) 1 / 5 .
( T 2 T 1 ) 0 = π 2 8 ( 189 2 ) 2 / 5 ( m γ I sat 2 h ) 1 / 5 [ ( x 1 2 ¯ ) 3 P 2 N max 2 ] 1 / 5 .
w 2 = 2 π ( 2 189 ) 1 / 20 ( h m γ I sat 2 ) 3 / 20 ( x 1 2 ¯ N max 6 P 6 ) 1 / 20 .

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