Abstract

The temporal statistics of laser speckle from vascular tissues on skin surface have been measured. Based on a temporal spectral analysis of the speckle signal, a new method of monitoring skin blood flow is proposed.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Dainty, ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).
  2. O. J. Løkberg, P. Neiswander, in Optics in Biomedical Sciences, G. von Bally, P. Greguss, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin1982), p. 154.
  3. A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Appl. Opt. 14, 189 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  5. T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. T. Feke, C. E. Riva, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 526 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, M. Kano, Appl. Opt. 21, 1785 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. D. Stern, Nature 254, 56 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  10. D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).
  13. H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.
  14. T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1984

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

1982

1981

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Feke, C. E. Riva, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 526 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

1975

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stern, Nature 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Appl. Opt. 14, 189 (1975).
[PubMed]

Asakura, T.

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Benedek, G. B.

Bowen, P. D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Bowman, R. L.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Briers, J. D.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chimosky, J. E.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Feke, G. T.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Hironaga, M.

Hoki, N.

Holloway, G. A.

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Iwai, T.

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kajiya, F.

Kano, M.

Keiser, H. R.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Koyama, J.

Koyama, T.

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lappe, D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Løkberg, O. J.

O. J. Løkberg, P. Neiswander, in Optics in Biomedical Sciences, G. von Bally, P. Greguss, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin1982), p. 154.

Mishina, H.

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neiswander, P.

O. J. Løkberg, P. Neiswander, in Optics in Biomedical Sciences, G. von Bally, P. Greguss, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin1982), p. 154.

Nihira, K.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Nilsson, G. E.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

Nohira, K.

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

Oberg, P. A.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ohura, T.

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Riva, C. E.

Shintomi, Y.

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Stern, M. D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

M. D. Stern, Nature 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takai, N.

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

Tenland, T.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, D.

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Experientia

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka)

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

Nature

M. D. Stern, Nature 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. C. Dainty, ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).

O. J. Løkberg, P. Neiswander, in Optics in Biomedical Sciences, G. von Bally, P. Greguss, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin1982), p. 154.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Biomedical speckle patterns produced by skin surface. (a), (b) Taken for a fingertip with different exposure times: (a) 0.5 sec, (b) 1 sec. (c) Obtained from a styrene-form plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Speckle intensity fluctuations of scattered light. (a), (b) Normal skin blood flow and reduced flow, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of experimental system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSD's of speckle signals for three different regions of skin surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of signal processor. The ratio HLR of the high- to the low-frequency components is calculated digitally from 65,536 data points sampled in a period of about 20 sec.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of HLR for different levels of skin blood flow: (a) normal flow, (b) reduced flow, (c) enhanced flow.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PSD curves obtained for the regions (a)–(c) in Fig. 6.

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