Abstract

The temporal statistics of laser speckle from vascular tissues on skin surface have been measured. Based on a temporal spectral analysis of the speckle signal, a new method of monitoring skin blood flow is proposed.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Dainty, ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).
  2. O. J. Løkberg, P. Neiswander, in Optics in Biomedical Sciences, G. von Bally, P. Greguss, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin1982), p. 154.
  3. A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Appl. Opt. 14, 189 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  5. T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. T. Feke, C. E. Riva, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 526 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, M. Kano, Appl. Opt. 21, 1785 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. D. Stern, Nature 254, 56 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  10. D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).
  13. H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.
  14. T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (1)

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

1982 (1)

1981 (2)

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Feke, C. E. Riva, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 526 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

1975 (3)

T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Appl. Opt. 14, 189 (1975).
[PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stern, Nature 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakura, T.

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Benedek, G. B.

Bowen, P. D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Bowman, R. L.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Briers, J. D.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chimosky, J. E.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Feke, G. T.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Hironaga, M.

Hoki, N.

Holloway, G. A.

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Iwai, T.

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kajiya, F.

Kano, M.

Keiser, H. R.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Koyama, J.

Koyama, T.

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lappe, D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Løkberg, O. J.

O. J. Løkberg, P. Neiswander, in Optics in Biomedical Sciences, G. von Bally, P. Greguss, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin1982), p. 154.

Mishina, H.

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neiswander, P.

O. J. Løkberg, P. Neiswander, in Optics in Biomedical Sciences, G. von Bally, P. Greguss, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin1982), p. 154.

Nihira, K.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Nilsson, G. E.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

Nohira, K.

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

Oberg, P. A.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ohura, T.

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Riva, C. E.

Shintomi, Y.

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

Stern, M. D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

M. D. Stern, Nature 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takai, N.

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

Tenland, T.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, D.

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, EEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Experientia (1)

T. Koyama, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, Experientia 31, 1420 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 597 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) (1)

K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, Jpn. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (Keisei Geka) 27, 311 (1984).

Nature (1)

M. D. Stern, Nature 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

T. Iwai, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Opt. Acta 28, 1425 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nihira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, in ICO-13 Conference Digest (Organizing Committee, ICO-13, Sapporo, Japan1984), p. 258.

J. C. Dainty, ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).

O. J. Løkberg, P. Neiswander, in Optics in Biomedical Sciences, G. von Bally, P. Greguss, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin1982), p. 154.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Biomedical speckle patterns produced by skin surface. (a), (b) Taken for a fingertip with different exposure times: (a) 0.5 sec, (b) 1 sec. (c) Obtained from a styrene-form plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Speckle intensity fluctuations of scattered light. (a), (b) Normal skin blood flow and reduced flow, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of experimental system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSD's of speckle signals for three different regions of skin surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of signal processor. The ratio HLR of the high- to the low-frequency components is calculated digitally from 65,536 data points sampled in a period of about 20 sec.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of HLR for different levels of skin blood flow: (a) normal flow, (b) reduced flow, (c) enhanced flow.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PSD curves obtained for the regions (a)–(c) in Fig. 6.

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