Abstract

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are miniature devices integrated into a vast range of industrial and consumer applications. Optical MEMS are developed for dynamic spatiotemporal control in lightwave manipulation and communication as modulators, switches, multiplexers, spectrometer, etc. However, they have not been shown to function similarly in sub-nm wavelength regimes, namely, with hard x-rays, as high-brilliance pulsed x-rays have proven powerful for addressing challenges in time-domain science, from energy conversion to neurobiological control. While desirable temporal properties of x-ray pulses can be enhanced by optics, conventional x-ray optics are inherently massive in size, hence, never dynamic. We demonstrate highly ultrafast x-ray optics-on-a-chip based on MEMS capable of modulating hard x-ray pulses exceeding 350 MHz, 103× higher than any other mechanical modulator, with a pulse purity >106 without compromising the spectral brilliance. Moreover, the timing characteristics of the devices can be tuned on-the-fly to deliver optimal pulse properties to create a host of dynamic x-ray instruments and applications, impossible with traditional optics of 109× bulkier and more massive. The advent of the ultrafast optics-on-a-chip heralds a new paradigm of x-ray photonics, time-domain science, and accelerator diagnostics, especially at not only the future-generation light sources that offer coherent and high-frequency pulses but also lab-based facilities that normally do not offer timing structures.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

A leading scientific frontier in the 21st century is to understand the temporal and spatial evolution of complexity in matter with a desire to control the chemical, material, and biological processes that span from femtoseconds to milliseconds and from picometers to mesoscopic scales [15]. Over the past century, the research world and consumers alike enjoyed a dramatic expansion of light-based science and applied technology as scientific research continues to be indebted to light, optics, and photonics [6]. Conventional photonics benefits from the strong interaction between visible-to-infrared light and materials, as many devices exploit nonlinear interactions in ultrafast laser applications and thus enable time-domain science [712]. Since the advent of high-brilliance, and high-intensity x-ray synchrotron sources, time-resolved x-ray techniques have become a powerful tool for understanding structures and dynamics in fast-evolving systems [1316] that are not accessible by visible-light-based optical methods. Next-generation synchrotron sources, based on multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattices [1719], promise a two-to-three-order increase in brilliance, and correspondingly, the more than 50-times increase in brightness per pulse can be ideal for time-resolved experiments using coherent light [2022]. However, a major paradox now being recognized with synchrotron light sources is the challenge to serve two distinct classes of research which requires simultaneous brilliance of the source and flexible timing structure [23]. A host of new and upgraded low-emittance x-ray sources may not be able to provide optimal timing structures suitable for traditional time-resolved experiments. Rather, they are designed with high-repetition timing structures aimed at reducing the charge density per electron bunch [24]. Such densely packed bunch patterns in time result in high repetition rate pulses on the order of 100 to 500 MHz, which would only allow gaps of a couple of nanoseconds between bunches. Therefore, time-resolved experiments that require well-spaced x-ray pulses would become difficult, if not impossible, at the otherwise ideal bright light source facilities.

Currently, there are simply no ultrafast x-ray optics to modulate hard x rays (photon energy above 5 keV) temporally. Mechanical choppers, as the mainstream devices for x-ray modulation, have the advantage of preserving the peak brilliance and can tolerate heat load from white or broad-spectra pink beams [2529]. However, limited by the mechanical and materials properties, state-of-art mechanical choppers can only handle an input rate up to about 15 MHz [25], still far too slow to handle a 100s of MHz repetition rate typical at current synchrotron sources [Fig. 1(a)]. Besides, these x-ray absorption-based fast mechanical choppers suffer a reduction in pulse-picking purity in hard x-ray applications. Even with an interferometer-based modulator driven by an electromagnetic-mechanical oscillator, the macro-scale device also suffers from the low resonance frequency, among other difficulties [30]. There have been many attempts to tackle the problems at the storage-ring level by introducing modifications to the accelerators [23,31,32]. These accelerator-based schemes use either an electron kicker [23,31] or a quasi-resonant excitation [32] to steer electrons slightly off-axis, creating spatial separation between the deflected bunch and the rest of bunches. The deflected bunch can thus be singled out spatially. The picked single bunch also retains the spectral distribution and, therefore, the capabilities for white and pink-beam experiments, at the cost of a significant reduction in peak brilliance. The highest source frequency reported so far is about 27 MHz demonstrated at soft x-ray beamlines [32]; the limit is estimated to be ca. 100 MHz, at which point kicking or exciting the electrons is expected to interfere with the neighboring bunches. Hard x-ray operation using the accelerator approaches is in principle feasible but not yet demonstrated at any high-energy source.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. A brief survey of x-ray pulse modulators. (a) “Phase diagram” of current x-ray pulse modulation devices characterized by the source frequency of x-ray pulses that the device can handle, and the output x-ray pulse frequency. The symbols indicate different types of devices: circles for mechanical choppers, triangles for accelerator-based methods, and squares for our MEMS devices. (b) Relationship between MEMS diffractive time window, DTW (tw), and the oscillation amplitude and frequency of the resonator. The broken lines mark the DTW values of 2 ns, 200 ps, and 20 ps, respectively. Depending on the magnitudes of tw and the x-ray pulse width (tp), the MEMS devices can be used for pulse modulation (Region I, > 200 ps), pulse dispersion (Region II, ≤ 200 ps but ≥ 20 ps), or pulse slicing (Region III, ≤ 20 ps).

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Therefore, timing experiments at synchrotron sources need a much faster hard x-ray pulse picking device that can break these barriers. Hard x-ray optics-on-a-chip based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be a new and revolutionary approach [33,34]. In the MEMS photonics community, the wavelength of interest has been mainly visible to infrared for a wide range of imaging and telecommunication applications [3537]. Recently, we extended the application to the x-ray regime with a design based on fast-oscillating x-ray diffracting resonators (Visualization 1), modulating x-ray beams with a diffractive time window (DTW) [34]. These miniature resonators, fabricated on a single semiconductor chip, are subject to a mechanical limit similar to mechanical choppers. However, favored by the scaling law of miniaturization, the MEMS devices can operate robustly at an angular speed of 107 degrees/s. Consequently, we recently achieved a DTW of 300 picoseconds [34], implying an ability to modulate x-ray with a source frequency exceeding 3 GHz [Fig. 1(a)], which heralds a new paradigm of ultrafast and highly dynamic x-ray optics-on-a-chip for the current and future hard x-ray sources.

The DTW of MEMS devices is a function of the oscillation amplitude and frequency [33]. Depending on the width of DTW (tw) compared to the input x-ray pulse duration (tp) and spacing at a synchrotron source, we can categorize the applications of MEMS-based x-ray optics-on-a-chip to three different operation modes. For pulse modulation or pulse picking, a moderate DTW of a few nanoseconds is sufficient to satisfy the requirements of modulating sub-GHz pulse trains, as shown in the modulation Region I in Fig. 1(b). As the DTW continues to be improved to be comparable to or narrower than the x-ray pulse, MEMS devices will be able to disperse the temporal width of an x-ray pulse spatially in a similar fashion as x-ray streaking camera [38] as shown in Region II in Fig. 1(b). With a combination of an ultrahigh-frequency MEMS (>100 MHz) and a high oscillation amplitude (> 1°), single x-ray pulses at the synchrotron sources can be sliced [Region III in Fig. 1(b)]. The latter two schemes promise a sub-pulse temporal resolution without altering accelerator or storage-ring operation.

In this work, we demonstrate the ultrafast pulse-picking capability of MEMS devices at a high-energy and hard-x-ray synchrotron source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS), that offers multiple pulse structures in the time domain. These MEMS devices are capable of picking single x-ray pulses from all available pulse structures at APS, including the 352-MHz pulse train with a pulse interval of 2.84 ns, the shortest at the APS. We demonstrate immediate applications of the MEMS device as an ultrafast diagnostic tool for the APS electron storage ring that monitors electron injection to individual electron bunches. This unprecedented performance of MEMS devices implies that the devices will be capable of handling the fastest pulse rates from any synchrotron source, in particular new and future low-emittance, high-repetition-rate sources.

2. Optics-on-a-chip approach

In order to efficiently modulate the periodic x-ray pulses from synchrotron sources, the MEMS resonators must be frequency-matched to the repetition rate of x-ray pulses or their subharmonics. Compared to an unmatched device relying on a fortuitous chance to diffract an x-ray pulse [33], a frequency-matched device can increase this efficiency by a factor up to 107. We have developed an extremely precise approach to tune the resonance frequency of devices to match the storage-ring frequency or its harmonics by adjusting the moment of inertia of resonators using focused ion beam micromachining as described in our previous work [34]. The tuned MEMS devices can be triggered by the storage ring bunch clock and the trigger delay can be adjusted so that the Bragg diffraction condition is met when a synchrotron x-ray pulse impinges on the single-crystal silicon MEMS element. As shown in Fig. 2(a), when the device is perfectly aligned, in one angular cycle of the MEMS oscillator and at time instances tB1 and tB2, the diffraction condition is satisfied in the opposite rotation directions; two narrow diffractive windows allow deflection of single x-ray pulses. The interval between the two diffraction events is precisely half the MEMS oscillation period. Therefore, there are two diffraction events in each oscillation cycle resulting in a pulse-picking frequency twice the MEMS oscillation frequency.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. MEMS-based resonator as an x-ray pulse picking device. (a) Timing relationship between the sinusoidal oscillation of a single-crystal MEMS resonator and the x-ray diffraction events. (b-f) Schematic of pulse picking using a frequency-matched MEMS oscillator. Incident x-ray pulse train having a source frequency of f0 (b) impinges a MEMS resonator oscillating at a sub-harmonic frequency of f0/2N (c). Key components of the MEMS device, including the x-ray-diffracting resonator and the combdrives, are labeled in (c). The static rocking curve of (004) Bragg peak of the silicon resonator is shown in (d). The diffracted x-ray pulses are down-sampled to f0/N (e) as only the pulses coinciding with the diffractive window are diffracted (f). (g-i) The diffractive time window profile can be viewed as a summation of two branches of dynamic rocking curves [CW peak in (g) and CCW peak in (h)]. The diffractive time window profile, measured by scanning the time delay between x-ray pulses and MEMS oscillation (i), therefore, is symmetric and retains the features of static Bragg peak on each side.

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Figures 2(b)–2(f) illustrate how a frequency-matched device operates at a synchrotron source in a pulse-picking scheme. Denoting the repetition rate of x-ray pulses as f0, the resonant frequency of a frequency-matched MEMS device can be denoted as f0/2N, a sub-frequency of f0, where N is an integer. The tuned MEMS devices can be excited by the sub-frequency of synchrotron within the device’s narrow resonance frequency range [39]. The microstructure of a MEMS resonator is shown in Fig. 2(c), where the center element is the single-crystal silicon resonator. As the resonator starts to oscillate, an ultrashort DTW (tw) opens at the Bragg condition when a single x-ray pulse can be diffracted and selected at a rate of f0/N from the high-frequency (f0) pulse train. At all other times, the x-ray pulse will transmit through the silicon piece with a reduced intensity due to absorption. The factor of two for the MEMS resonance frequency comes from the fact that the Bragg condition is satisfied twice in one oscillation cycle [Fig. 2(a)].

The DTW of the MEMS devices is characterized by mapping out the Bragg reflection of the silicon resonator in the time domain. Figure 2(d) shows a typical rocking curve of the (004) Bragg reflection, consisting of a narrow peak with a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of $\mathrm{\Delta }{\theta _{({004} )}} = \; $0.0032° and secondary peaks at higher angles [33]. A surface doping step in the fabrication process leads to near-surface strain, causing these secondary peaks and a rocking curve width that is somewhat broader than expected from a calculation based on the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction [40]. When the device oscillates, the features of the static rocking curve are precisely mapped into the time-domain rocking curve, i.e., DTW profiles. Owing to the frequency match, scanning the time delay between x-ray pulses and the phase of the MEMS oscillation can map out the DTW efficiently. As shown in Figs. 2(g)–2(i), the DTW can be viewed as a summation of two dynamic rocking curves in one oscillation cycle, one from the clockwise (CW) rotation [Fig. 2(g)], the other the counterclockwise (CCW) rotation [Fig. 2(h)].

The control of the DTW width has been elaborated previously [34]. Briefly, for a MEMS oscillator with a resonance frequency ${f_m}$ and amplitude of ${\alpha _m}$, the minimum DTW width is determined by

$${t_w} = \frac{{\Delta {\theta _{({hkl} )}}}}{{2\pi {f_m}{\alpha _m}\; }},$$
where $\mathrm{\Delta }{\theta _{({hkl} )}}$ is the rocking curve width of (hkl) Bragg reflection of the silicon crystals, at the maximum achievable angular velocity of ${\dot{\theta }_{max}} = 2\pi {f_m}{\alpha _m}$. Therefore, it becomes possible to tune the DTW from a few ns down to even ps by varying ${\alpha _m}$ with the excitation voltage and the ambient pressure [34]. For the application of x-ray pulse modulation, ${t_w}$ has to be smaller than the pulse intervals. Given ${f_m}$ on the order of 100 kHz, the oscillators were so designed that ${\alpha _m}$ can be driven to several degrees. With $\mathrm{\Delta }{\theta _{({hkl} )}}$ being about 0.003°, the MEMS devices used in this work had ${t_w}$ values between 0.5 and 1 ns.

3. Device preparation, characterization, and measurements

3.1 Preparation of MEMS-based optics-on-a-chip devices

The basic idea is to utilize combdrive actuators to create a fast-oscillating x-ray diffracting resonator. The MEMS-based optics-on-a-chip devices are designed at the Center of Nanoscale Materials of Argonne National Laboratory. We choose single crystal silicon as the structural material since silicon has been the mainstay of both x-ray optics and MEMS devices. As shown in Fig. 2(c), the lateral dimension of the silicon resonator is 250 µm by 250 µm, comparable to the size of synchrotron x-ray beams and orders of magnitude smaller than conventional x-ray optics. The thickness of the resonator is 25 µm. The silicon resonator is connected to the silicon substrate by a pair of combdrive actuators, which provides the electrostatic force to drive the oscillation of the resonator. The dimension, interspacing, and arrangement of the combdrive are designed so that the resonance frequency of the silicon resonator, on the order of 100 kHz, will be close to a subharmonic frequency of x-ray pulses at APS. Finite-element analysis and ConventorWare simulation were used to calculate the expected modal response and resonance frequency of MEMS devices.

The fabrication of the MEMS device was carried out at MEMSCAP, a commercial foundry, using a SOIMUMPS process. The fabrication process introduced phosphorus doping onto the surface of the silicon resonator, which is responsible for the shoulder peaks appearing at higher angles to the Bragg reflection [Fig. 2(c)]. This well-developed commercial process can produce hundreds of devices at one time, rendering a minimum per-device cost. After being diced into a 5-mm square piece, the device was mounted on a chip carrier with silver paste. Electronic wiring was wire-bonded to connect the contact pins of the chip carrier to the combdrive actuators of the device.

3.2 Frequency response and tuning of the devices

The tuning curves of MEMS devices, i.e., oscillation amplitude vs. driving frequency, were characterized optically. A 638-nm red laser was aligned to impinge on the silicon resonator from an angle. The trace of the laser reflection was broadened by the oscillation of the MEMS devices. By measuring the length of the broadened reflection, we characterized the oscillation amplitude, with a typical range of a few degrees to 20 degrees. Square-wave electric voltage, with a typical amplitude of 40-100 V, was used to drive the devices.

The resonance frequency of an as-fabricated device, however, is always slightly different from the target frequency. We delicately tuned the frequency of MEMS devices using Focused Ion Beam (FEI, Nova 600 NanoLab) micromachining process. This tuning was carried out in the cleanroom at CNM of Argonne. The standard program for silicon milling was used to micromachine away small volumes of silicon at the outer edge of the silicon resonator, avoiding introducing undesirable modes. As the resonator becomes lighter, the moment of inertia decreases and leads to an increase in the resonance frequency. This process was repeated until the range of the tuning curves of the device encompassed a targeted subharmonic of the repetition rate of x-ray pulses.

3.3 X-ray measurement of MEMS devices

X-ray measurement of MEMS devices was carried out at the 7ID-C station of the APS/ANL. A schematic of the optical layout is included in Supplementary Note 1 and Fig. S1. X-ray pulse train, produced by the Undulator-A source at Sector 7 of the APS storage ring, with a photon energy of 8 keV, were focused horizontally down to about 10 µm at the center of the MEMS devices using a rhodium-coated KB mirror. In the vertical plane or the diffraction plane, the x-ray beam was defined to about 20 µm by a set of slits to preserve the low divergence of the incident beam. The MEMS devices were housed in a customized chamber controlling the temperature and ambient pressure of the sample environment. The angular position of the MEMS device was aligned to the (004) silicon Bragg reflection, using a high-precision six-circle diffractometer. The diffracted x-ray pulses were collected with customized avalanched photodiodes (APD). The signal of the APD was sent to a scaler (Joerger, VSC16) to acquire integrated x-ray intensity in the photon-counting mode, as in the delay scan cases. Alternatively, the APD signal was fed directly to a high-speed oscilloscope (Yokogawa, DLM4058) to record real-time x-ray response. In this case, x-ray pulses are recorded as negative voltage peaks in oscilloscope traces.

X-ray measurements were performed using three operation modes of the APS: 24-bunch mode, 324-bunch mode, and hybrid mode, each with different intervals of x-ray pulses. A master clock signal, in phase with the x-ray pulses, was frequency-divided to trigger the operation of the MEMS devices. The electronic signal was amplified (Trek, 2100HF) to 40-100 V peak-to-peak square-wave to drive the oscillation of the MEME device. The relative time delay between the driving signal and x-ray pulses can be tuned with a precision of 20 ps using a delay generator (Stanford Research Systems, DG645).

4. Manipulating high-frequency hard-x-ray pulses up to 372 MHz

4.1 X-ray optics-on-a-chip as a chopper with extremely high pulse pick purity

We first show the concept of using the MEMS device as an x-ray pulse modulator by picking hard-x-ray pulses of 8 keV from the pulse train in 24-bunch mode at APS. This mode features 24 x-ray pulses in one revolution cycle, evenly distributed in the APS 3.68-µs storage ring with an interval of 153 ns [Fig. 3(a)]. Thanks to such a large pulse interval, this mode is currently the main mode used at APS for time-resolved experiments, especially nuclear resonance scattering measurements using Fe57 which has a decay time of about 150 ns. For other timing experiments, electronically gated area detectors are often used to single out the response of a single x-ray pulse [41]. For our test, the 153-ns pulse interval is also suitable for testing the pulse-picking purity (or modulation dynamics) of MEMS devices, as described as follows.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Demonstrating the pulse-picking capability of MEMS devices in the APS 24-bunch mode. (a) schematic of x-ray fill pattern. (b) Real-time response of the APD to an x-ray pulse train in the 24-bunch mode at the APS, with the MEMS device turned off (blue) or on (red). The time covers four revolution cycles at the APS x-ray pulses or one oscillation cycle of the MEMS device. Two x-ray pulses of the same bunch were picked by the MEMS device in one device oscillation cycle. (c) Magnified view of the shaded area in Panel c. Two separated but identical ticks are marked on the vertical axis for comparison of the signal magnitude. (d) Delay scan spanning > 153-ns covering an entire x-ray pulse cycle in a log-linear scale. The profile is composed of scans with different magnitudes of x-ray attenuators to extend the dynamic range of the APD-based counting detector and counter. (e) Spatial profiles of diffracted x-ray beam from the MEMS device when the device is OFF (black) or ON (red). The measurement was carried out by using a fine detector slit of 10 μm, and the profiles were normalized to unity in each experimental condition. The spatial profiles also resemble the static rocking curve with shoulders on the higher angle side.

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Real-time oscilloscope-trace measurements provide a straightforward method to demonstrate the capability of pulse picking function using the MEMS devices. When the MEMS device was kept idle at the Bragg condition (OFF state), diffracted x-ray pulses from all available 24 bunches were collected by an APD with a time resolution of 12 ns full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM), sufficiently better than the 153-ns pulse interval. The signal from x-ray pulses striking the APD is manifested as evenly separated negative-voltage peaks in Fig. 3(b), with an interval corresponding to the x-ray bunches. The MEMS device used here oscillates at 67.889 kHz, which matches one-fourth of the APS operation frequency (271.554 kHz). Adjusting the time delay so that the DTW coincides with x-ray bunches, MEMS devices singled out one x-ray pulse from every 48 pulses, as shown in Fig. 3(b). Note that a number of low-peak ripples, not aligned to any x-ray pulses, appearing after each main peak, result from the electronic noise of the APD amplifier. This is more clearly observed in the magnified view in Fig. 3(c). The APD signal was averaged (over 2,000 repetitions for OFF state and over 105 repetitions for ON state) to reduce shot-to-shot noise, so the signal magnitude shows the relative intensities of the x-ray pulses from different bunches in the storage ring. In OFF state, all the peaks have nearly the same magnitude since the electron charge is approximately evenly distributed in the 24 bunches. In ON state, the picked peak preserves the same magnitude, indicating that the diffraction efficiency of the silicon resonator is preserved to be close to unity when the MEMS device oscillates. A separate measurement showed the measured intensity of a single x-ray bunch agrees with the prediction based on the expected output x-ray rate, confirming that the pulse-picking efficiency is close to 100% [34].

To achieve a large dynamic range for time-resolved x-ray measurements, the purity or contrast of picked x-ray pulses must be sufficiently high. Since the real-time waveform of the APD signal [Figs. 3(b) and 3(c)] has a limited dynamic range and is not suitable to evaluate the pulse-picking purity, we instead used a delay scan [Fig. 3(d)] where the x-ray intensity can be precisely measured in photon-counting mode. Thanks to the narrow DTW, the x-ray intensity quickly falls off as the delay time deviates from the peak. The maximum intensity contrast reaches -62 dB (or better than six orders of magnitude) at 76 ns from the peak. This large intensity contrast is also partially owing to the diamond-cubic crystalline structure of silicon [40]: the out-of-plane Bragg reflections of the (001) oriented Si resonator are so sparse and well separated in the angular domain that there is no other Bragg reflection in the vicinity of the chosen (004) reflection.

The high purity of x-ray modulation using MEMS devices provides another advantage over other techniques, particularly in the hard-x-ray regime. Mechanical choppers modulate x rays based on x-ray absorption, where the absorption cross-section inversely scales to the cube of the x-ray photon energy [40]. The fastest mechanical chopper with a 70-ns time window would only reach a purity of about 30 dB for 8-keV phonons over 800-ns a pulse interval [25]. To retain the same purity at higher photon energies will require a thicker or heavier rotating disk that compromises the rotation speed needed for narrower time windows. In the accelerator-based approaches, an electron kicker can reach a purity higher than 30 dB [23]. Quasi-resonant excitation can achieve a purity of 40 dB but at the cost of more than three orders of magnitude reduction in beam intensity or photons per pulse [32]. The 62-dB pulse-picking purity using MEMS devices thus offers time-resolved hard-x-ray measurements a much better dynamical range without compromising the spectral brilliance of the beam.

We also show, due to the excellent mechanical properties of the silicon-based resonator in the MEMS devices, the diffracted x-ray beam maintains its spatial profile when the device is rapidly oscillating. In Fig. 3(e) we compare the beam's spatial profile at the Bragg condition when the MEMS device is turned off and on. The measurement was performed by scanning a 10-µm fine slit in front of the detector. With the device oscillating at an angular speed far exceeding 106 degrees/s, any dynamic structural distortion of the MEMS element would contribute to a widening of the spatial profile of the diffracted beam. The beam's spatial size in the dynamic case is only increased by < 30% compared to the static case, confirming that the MEMS devices, serving as x-ray optics, preserve the x-ray beam profile in a practical x-ray experiment.

4.2 X-ray optics-on-a-chip modulator for the future

Future MBA-based storage rings, including the upgraded APS (APS-U) will produce low-emittance x-rays with a high repetition rate [42]. For example, the APS current standard 24-bunch mode favored by most time-resolved experiments will no longer be available at the APS-U. Rather, the 324-bunch mode will become the primary operation mode, which has evenly distributed x-ray pulses similar to the 24-bunch mode, but with a much higher frequency of 88 MHz and thus a much briefer pulse interval of 11.4 ns [Fig. 4(a)]. Parenthetically, we also note that the timing pattern of the 324-bunch mode is similar to the multibunch mode at MAX IV, the first commissioned synchrotron facility with a low-emittance MBA lattice [43]. There are simply no mechanical choppers or area detectors that can isolate a single x-ray pulse in this input frequency range. The accelerator-based approach, on the other hand, have the potential of handling the 88-MHz pulse trains but has yet to be demonstrated at a synchrotron facility [31].

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Modulating x-ray pulses and storage ring diagnostics in the APS 324-bunch mode using MEMS devices. (a) Schematic of x-ray fill pattern in 324-bunch mode at APS: 88 MHz pulse rate and 11.37 ns pulse intervals. (b) Demonstration of MEMS-based x-ray chopper in the APS 324-bunch mode: 324 pulses from a complete synchrotron cycle when the device is off and its incident angle satisfies the Bragg condition, and one single pulse selected when the device is on. (c) Magnified view of the x-ray pulses in the vicinity of the selected pulse when the device is off and on. Variation of the storage-ring bunch current leads to a variation of the peak intensity up to 50%. (d) Illustration of the chopper function by a delay scan of delaying the chopper timing window with respect to the synchrotron phase. The scan covers three adjacent x-ray pulses over 30 ns with a delay step of 0.2 ns. The scan shows the device DTW value of about 0.70 ns, and the measured time interval between the x-ray pulses is 11.37 ns. The scan also demonstrated the temporal stability of the device over the 175 s duration of the scan. (e) Time-resolved delay scans using the MEMS devices, covering eleven x-ray bunches, measured before and after the bunch injection in the APS storage ring. The curves are shifted horizontally for clarity. The stars next to a bunch indicate that the bunch was refilled during the injection in the APS storage ring. (f) Peak intensities of five consecutive x-ray bunches over the course of 11 hours. Bunch injection occurred at an elapsed time of 300 mins and affected two out of the five bunches. An additional bunch, not shown here, was used to normalize the long-term intensity baseline variation.

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MEMS devices with nanosecond DTW are expected to be capable of modulating x-ray pulses in 324-bunch mode, which we demonstrate as follows. Figure 4(b) shows a real-time oscilloscope trace using a MEMS device as a beam chopper. A faster APD (resolution of 1.8 ns in FWHM) was used to resolve the x-ray pulses with the short pulse interval of 324-bunch mode. In fact, if using the same slow APD (with a 12-ns FWHM) as in Fig. 3(c), the APD response will appear to be a DC signal due to the long responsive time (Supplementary Note 2 and Fig. S2). With a customized, fast APD in place, the oscilloscope trace in Fig. 4(b), seen especially in the magnified view of Fig. 4(c), resolves individual x-ray bunches even when the MEMS device is off. All 324 bunches in one revolution cycle are recorded in a fast digitizing oscilloscope when the MEMS device is off and the incident angle is set at the Bragg angle. When the MEMS device is turned on, only a single pulse is picked out by diffraction, and the other 323 bunches are transmitted and not detected. As shown in the magnified view in Fig. 4(c), noticeable electronic noise is also detected, which is not associated with any of the x-ray bunches. This pulse-picking capability of MEMS devices in 324-bunch mode marks a breakthrough in x-ray optics that single-pulse picking from densely packed fill patterns is now readily available.

When each of the 324 x-ray pulses was isolated, we found the peak height in the APD oscilloscope traces varies significantly between the bunches, despite that these bunches nominally have the same electron charges. Since the APD waveform measured in the integrating mode lacks the dynamic range for precise intensity determination, we again performed delay scans over the time range covering several consecutive x-ray pulses. Figure 4(d) shows a scan over a 30-ns delay time, covering three adjacent x-ray bunches. Each DTW is 0.70 ns wide and has the characteristic features of static Bragg diffraction rocking curves. The separation of the DTW peaks is 11.37 ns, agreeing well with the specification of the storage-ring timing pattern. The intensity outside of the DTWs is negligible, indicating a high single-pulse selection purity with minimum leakage of adjacent x-ray bunches. We also observed the variation in the DTW height, which allowed us to evaluate individual bunch charge. In this particular scan, the intensity of the two weaker bunches is 37 and 33%, respectively, lower than the strongest one in the measurement range. This capability of the MEMS optics can be used to make ultrafast diagnostics of storage ring parameters and properties in real-time.

With the unprecedented pulse picking capability, the miniature but versatile MEMS-based x-ray optics are extremely effective in accelerator and storage-ring diagnostics at synchrotron facilities. Here we show an example of using MEMS devices to monitor the bunch injection process in the APS 324 bunch mode. In this mode, the lifetime of the electron bunches is ca. 60 hours. Electrons are injected every 12 hours to restore the storage current to around 100 mA. This is performed in a “fill-on-fill” method where electrons are injected at the full 7-GeV energy into buckets with the lowest charge, without closing the x-ray shutters. In Fig. 4(e), the bunch intensity is shown for eleven consecutive bunches before and after an electron injection. We identified that five bunches out of eleven were topped up with additional electrons, which boosted the charge by 40 to 60% in multiple injections. The other six had little intensity change, and therefore, did not receive an injection. Knowledge of the bunch-by-bunch intensity in a time-resolved experiment is critical because the pulse intensity and the dead-time of counting detectors could vary between bunches [44], rendering the normalization with the averaged bunch current over the entire storage ring erroneous.

With this bunch selection capability, we set up a measurement for the accelerator/storage ring diagnostics by tracking the individual electron bunch intensity due to charge injection in the APS 324-bunch mode. As summarized in Fig. 4(f), we followed the intensity evolution of five consecutive bunches with 100-ps time resolution over the course of 11 hours. At the elapsed time of the 300-min mark, the two bunches showed instantaneous increases in x-ray intensity. For any practical time-resolved study in 324-bunch mode, this intensity-tracking measurement provides the precise information required for intensity normalization and resolving any ambiguity of systematic changes of dynamic phenomena. So far, no effective measurement is possible for systems due to the lack of ultrafast tools for single-bunch diagnosis. Furthermore, since the oscillation frequency of MEMS devices can already match the revolution cycle of the storage ring, the bunch intensity can be monitored cycle by cycle without losing any temporal information. The limit of this single-cycle approach is that we monitor one x-ray bunch at a time. Using a fast APD, on the other hand, can provide a full map of all bunches and follow the injection sequences during the electron injection (Supplementary Note 3 and Fig. S3). However, we note that monitoring the exact bunch used as an x-ray probe is sufficient in the type of time-resolved measurements where only one bunch is used. In such a measurement, we can use any x-ray detector to measure the singled-out bunch, even if the detector is too slow to isolate the response of a single bunch by itself (in almost all situations). In comparison, beam position monitors often employed in synchrotron monitoring systems lack the sensitivity for single-bunch measurement, particularly in high-repetition-rate bunch modes. The high time resolution with an exceptionally narrow time window and high purity and dynamic range of x-ray pulse picking and modulation prove invaluable for monitoring the synchrotron pulse intensity in real-time while the bunch charges are manipulated in the storage ring.

4.3 Ultimate pulse picking capability at 352 MHz

The ultrafast x-ray modulator is capable of functioning at the next level. We now demonstrate the ultimate performance of a MEMS device with the highest-frequency pulse trains at the APS. In a special timing mode, hybrid singlet mode, which exists for time-resolved experiments that use slower mechanical choppers that could pick a singlet bunch well-separated from the rest of the pulse trains (in an eight-septuplet pattern) as shown Fig. 5(a). More specifically, the singlet has about 16% of the total electron charge, and the eight groups of seven consecutive bunches (septuplets) have the remaining 84% charge. As illustrated in Fig. 5(a), the singlet is 1.59 µs away from the closest septuplets. The bunches in the septuplets have a gap of 2.84 ns, or a repetition rate of 352 MHz, the frequency of the APS storage-ring RF (radiofrequency) cavity. This high-repetition-rate x-ray pulse train, without modulation, is not suitable for traditional x-ray timing experiments because of such a short pulse-to-pulse interval.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. X-ray pulse modulation in the APS singlet-hybrid mode. (a) Schematic diagram of the electron fill pattern of the hybrid-singlet mode at the APS. (b) Real-time x-ray response of a set of the septuplet pulses measured by a transiently digitized signal from an ultrafast APD when the MEMS-based x-ray chopper is off and on, revealed the extraordinary ability of the device for picking a single x-ray pulse from the 352-MHz pulse train. The MEMS device was timed to pick the middle (or the fourth) pulse in the seven-pulse train with the inter-pulse distances of 2.84 ns. (c) Delay scan covering one set of the septuplets using a MEMS device with a DTW width of 1.0 ns. The delay scan can be fitted with a superposition of seven DTWs (blue line) which included the side peaks in the static rocking curves (see text and Fig. 2). (d) Delay scan of another set of septuplets using a narrow (10 µm) detector slit to cut off the shoulder peaks in the diffracted beam that result from dopant-induced strain [Fig. 2(d) and associated discussion]. The scan profile can be fitted with the superposition of seven silicon (004) Bragg-component-only DTWs (green line).

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The oscilloscope trace measurement becomes challenging also due to the short pulse interval of septuplets. Limited by the finite responsive time of the APD detector of approximately 1.8 ns FWHM, the signals from the bunches in the septuplets recorded in the oscilloscope trace certainly overlapped with each other when the MEMS device is off, as shown in Fig. 5(b). The background level gradually increases, as understood as the pile-on signal from the APD. Nevertheless, we can verify the 2.84-ns separation of the septuplet pulses in this low-contrast APD signal trace.

When the MEMS device was turned on and the delay between the oscillation of MEMS resonator and x-ray pulses was properly adjusted, a single x-ray pulse out of the septuplets was picked by the MEMS device and detected by the APD. Without the interference of neighboring bunches, the waveform of the single APD peak resembles the one measured in Fig. 4(c), where the bunches are much further apart (Supplementary Note 4 and Fig. S4). The extraordinary result of a slow detector being able to detect a single x-ray bunch from the 352-MHz pulse train shows precisely the advantage of using MEMS devices as x-ray modulators to create a new timing pattern for time-resolved experiments.

As shown in Fig. 2(d) and discussed earlier, the high pulse-picking purity is relatively straightforward to achieve in 24 and 324 bunch modes, given the narrow DTW width much narrower than the x-ray bunch spacing. This is no longer true for the 2.84-ns separation of septuplet bunches. We have devised approaches to mitigate the challenges of maintaining a high pulse-picking purity. Figure 5(c) shows a delay scan covering one set of septuplets, with a relatively wide DTW of 1.0 ns. The seven peaks arise from the seven x-ray pulses in the septuplet, and their contrast is not great. Between the peaks, the neighboring x-ray bunches have low but observable diffraction intensity due to the shoulders in the static and dynamic rocking curves of MEMS resonator. The pulse selection contrast can be verified by a simple fit of the delay scan using a superposition of seven 1.0-ns DTW profiles, including the side diffraction shoulders seen in Fig. 2(i). The experiment data and fitting curve agree extremely well, as shown in Fig. 5(c). Our current devices all have the dopant-induced side shoulders associated with the rocking curves due to the fabrication processes, which cannot simply be eliminated at the device level. However, improvement of pulse-picking purity of the 352-MHz pulse train can be realized using a set of narrow (10 µm) detector slits in front of the APD detector to cut off the shoulder peaks in the spatial profile of the diffracted beam caused by the dopant. This approach is possible because the side peaks in DTW arise from compressively strained silicon layers, so these side peaks are separated spatially from the Bragg peak along the two-theta direction (Supplementary Note 5 and Fig. S5). As the slits limit the two-theta acceptance of the detector for the diffracted beam to 0.009°, the delay scan, shown in Fig. 5(d), demonstrates that the intensity between the septuplet peaks drops to zero, and the pulse pick contrast is greatly improved. The fit shown in Fig. 5(d) needs only the Si(400) Bragg peaks, with no shoulders from the doped layers. This high contrast is achieved with a minor cost of approximately 20% reduction of diffraction efficiency.

We also use the 352-MHz septuplet pulse train of hybrid singlet mode to show the wide operational flexibility in modulating x-ray pulses. First, tuning the delay time of the MEMS device relative to the storage ring allows us to pick any particular x-ray bunch out of the seven, as showcased in Fig. 6(a). Second, tuning the width of DTW enables controlled multiple-pulse picking to create novel temporal structures of the x-ray beam. By decreasing the excitation voltage (or increasing the ambient pressure), the oscillation amplitude of MEMS crystal element can be reduced from 20° to 1°, corresponding to a factor of twenty in tuning the width of DTW as shown in Eq. (1). When the excitation voltage is reduced from 90 to 50 V, the DTW is widened from 1.0 to 4.4 ns, encompassing two adjacent x-ray bunches. Therefore, we can achieve an operational condition at which two adjacent x-ray pulses can be picked simultaneously. Varying the delay time allows us to select different pairs of consecutive x-ray bunches in this two-pulse picking case, as shown Fig. 6(b). The same scheme can be extended to three-pulse picking at a voltage of 43.5 V (or DTW of 7.2 ns), as shown in Fig. 6(c). However, to the extent that the DTW profile is more a Gaussian than a square function, the contrast of the pulse-picking within the DTW is scaled by the profile. Also, the two-pulse and three-pulse picking are contaminated by adjacent x-ray bunches due to wider DTW and, more importantly, the presence of parasitic side peaks in addition to the silicon (400) Bragg reflection. Nevertheless, this multi-pulse picking capability will prove particularly useful in experiments requiring multiple x-ray exposures, for example, those used in temporal-spatial correlation measurements of materials dynamics. And we emphasize that changing between pulse-picking operation modes is straightforward and on-the-fly, just by tuning the excitation voltage or ambient pressure and adjusting the operating phase, which does not require any hardware modification.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Demonstration of on-the-fly tuning of DTW width to modulate diffracted beam time pattern in the APS hybrid mode. As the width of the DTW increases with decreasing driving voltages [34], the operation of MEMS devices can be tuned to allow (a) a single pulse, (b) two pulses, and (c) three pulses being picked, respectively. The excitation voltage was set to 90, 50, and 43.5 V to achieve the DTW widths of 1.0, 4.4, and 7.2 ns. The corresponding DTW profiles for each operation condition are displayed on the same time scale for reference. By shifting the operational phase of the MEMS device, the chopper can be shifted continuously to pick any portion of the septuplets.

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5. Conclusion and discussion

The demonstration of using MEMS devices at the APS marks the first time that the optical modulation of x-ray pulses can be achieved on a single-pulse or multi-pulse basis for 352-MHz x-ray pulse trains. We demonstrated an ultrafast x-ray optics-on-a-chip based on MEMS oscillators that control and manipulate hard x-rays with a temporal resolution orders of magnitude higher than any current x-ray manipulating device. This capability will particularly benefit future low-emittance synchrotron sources such as APS-U, where the ability to handle high-repetition x-rays is a prerequisite. Time-resolved measurements will be not only possible with the high-repetition x-ray sources but also with great operation flexibilities and a very high dynamical range. With the capability to diagnose and monitor the x-ray bunch structure, this work is also the first step to realizing the practical applications of x-ray optics-on-a-chip. We further note that thanks to the sophisticated MEMS design and fabrication, the same type of MEMS devices can be tailored to accommodate the operation frequency of other synchrotron sources worldwide. Currently, we use MEMS devices with different frequencies to control the output pulse frequency. We plan to increase the devices’ resonance frequency to > 1 MHz so that multiple pulses can be selected in each synchrotron cycle. Also, since the MEMS elements are semitransparent to x-ray pulses when they are not at Bragg angle, it is possible to use a series of them in the x-ray beam to create a pulse train with spacings much shorter than that determined by the MEMS frequency or even with arbitrary values. Conversely, a slower MEMS can be designed to generate pulse trains with lower frequencies. For example, at the APS, a 4.85 kHz MEMS can select a pulse every 103.5 µs. However, the slower devices would have a relatively wide diffractive time window. Suppose a lower-frequency but narrow-window chopper is desired. In that case, a high-frequency MEMS device can be used in tandem with a synchronized lower-frequency-MEMS or even a conventional mechanical chopper.

Although we did not measure the diffracted wavefront directly, our experiments included measuring the diffracted beam size by scanning a narrow slit in front of the detector mounted on the diffractometer detector arm. The diffracted beam intensity spatial distribution is shown in Fig. S6 and discussed in Supplementary Note 6. We observe that the wavefront perturbation is minimum even when the MEMS elements oscillate at a maximum angular velocity around 107 degree/s at the moment of diffraction. More importantly, the diffraction peak moved only about 1.4 µrad between the on and off states, indicating the ultrafast diffractive device’s excellent spatiotemporal stability.

With 352-MHz operation demonstrated, we expect this new toolbox of dynamic x-ray optics based on MEMS devices will play an increasingly important role at any current and next-generation synchrotron sources. First, the devices have the potential to produce flexible and novel timing structures to enable time-resolved x-ray experiments for any science field using moderately fast or even slow detectors at the current and future high repetition rate (e.g., > 100 MHz, or so-called continuous wave, CW) low-emittance x-ray sources around the world. Second, with little modification in the design, the MEMS devices can function as a fast multiplexer that feeds x-ray pulses to different experimental instruments from a single source. For example, an array of the MEMS devices aligned along the x-ray beam can diffract the consecutive x-ray pulses in different directions when the respective diffraction planes are at an angle. Since the MEMS crystals are thin (typically 25 µm), the absorption of x-rays above 10 keV is less than 25% when the element is not in the Bragg condition. The multiplexer arrangement can be extremely valuable at an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility where only a single beam is normally available at a time. As discussed in Supplementary Note 7, the MEMS devices do not experience any heat-load issues from the x-ray beams at the APS and other synchrotron sources. And they should operate normally at a low-repetition-rate XFEL facility. However, the feasibility of using the devices in a high-average-power and high- repetition-rate XFEL source remains to be proven. Third, coupled with a high repetition rate pulsed source, the MEMS device can perform as an ultrafast x-ray spectrometer that selects and disperses x-ray pulses with different photon energy to various spatial locations. By using a position-sensitive detector, the x-ray photon energy of each pulse would be coded in each spatial location that can be read out without an energy dispersive detector; these detectors normally do not have the time resolution suitable for time-resolved experiments.

The x-ray optics-on-a-chip concept promises great design flexibility for future synchrotron beamlines. The use of MEMS devices as optics-on-a-chip for x-ray pulse modulation is just the beginning. We note separate efforts to develop x-ray optics-on-chip for x-ray waveguiding [45]. As this family of optics continues to grow, we envision that integrating multiple miniature x-ray optics-on-a-chip could bring fundamental changes to the assembly of an x-ray beamline. We emphasize the great potential of MEMS devices shown here is achieved in devices that are not fully optimized. First, as noted several times in the results, the crystallinity of the silicon resonator is compromised by surface doping. Removing this structural imperfection will improve the static diffraction efficiency from the current 40-60% to near unity, remove the intensity shoulders from the static and dynamic rocking curves, and improve the spatial profile of diffracted x-ray beam. This can be achieved with a dedicated MEMS fabrication process that avoids the surface-doping step. A customized fabrication should also result in increased operating frequencies, from 271 kHz toward 1 MHz and beyond. High-repetition operation is not only desirable for modulation applications where a high pulse-delivery rate is favored but also one of the ways to achieve narrower DTWs. By retaining the same magnitude of oscillation amplitude, the DTW of high-frequency devices will be improved to several tens of picoseconds, thus enabling pulse dispersion and pulse slicing as outlined in Fig. 1(b). The capability to access information at a sub-pulse timescale at synchrotron storage rings will greatly facilitate studies of ultrafast dynamics, as access to XFEL sources is still highly limited. To summarize, this x-ray optics-on-a-chip device sets the stage for future dynamic and miniature x-ray optics for focusing, wavefront manipulation, multiwavelength dispersion, and pulse slicing, enabling their uses with lab- and hospital-scale x-ray sources and imaging facilities and the new generation of x-ray synchrotron sources. Those dynamical functions simply cannot be realized by current-generation x-ray optics based on macroscopic materials and devices that are of many orders of magnitude more massive and bulkier.

Funding

The Accelerator and Detector Research Program of Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under Contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357; SUF/BES/DOE, under Contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by Accelerator and Detector Research Program of Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. The use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) and Advanced Photon Source (APS) was supported by the US Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, under Contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Critical technical support of a fast APD from Michael Hu of the APS is gratefully acknowledged.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

Supplemental document

See Supplement 1 for supporting content.

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References

  • View by:
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  1. D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. van der Marel, M. Dressel, and K. Haule, “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 471–541 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Moglich, X. Yang, R. A. Ayers, and K. Moffat, “Structure and function of plant photoreceptors,” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 61(1), 21–47 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Shape and size dependence of radiative, non-radiative and photothermal properties of gold nanocrystals,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(3), 409–453 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry:  “Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. F. Johnson and N. D. Lamontagne, “A century of light,” Phys. Today 69(6), 34–39 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Chu, “Nobel lecture: The manipulation of neutral particles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70(3), 685–706 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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2019 (1)

P. Chen, I. W. Jung, D. A. Walko, Z. Li, Y. Gao, G. K. Shenoy, D. López, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast photonic micro-systems to manipulate hard x-rays at 300 picoseconds,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1158 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

P. F. Tavares, E. Al-Dmour, Å Andersson, F. Cullinan, B. N. Jensen, D. Olsson, D. K. Olsson, M. Sjöström, H. Tarawneh, S. Thorin, and A. Vorozhtsov, “Commissioning and first-year operational results of the max IV 3 GeV ring,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(5), 1291–1316 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Buzzi, M. Först, R. Mankowsky, and A. Cavalleri, “Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond x-rays,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 3(9), 299–311 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. R. Sandy, Q. Zhang, and L. B. Lurio, “Hard x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy methods for materials studies,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 48(1), 167–190 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Olsson, S. C. Leemann, G. Georgiev, and G. Paraskaki, “Pseudo-single-bunch mode for a 100 mhz storage ring serving soft x-ray timing experiments,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 894, 145–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

A. F. Johnson and N. D. Lamontagne, “A century of light,” Phys. Today 69(6), 34–39 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

D. Mukhopadhyay, D. A. Walko, I. W. Jung, C. P. Schwartz, J. Wang, D. López, and G. K. Shenoy, “X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7057 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Weckert, “The potential of future light sources to explore the structure and function of matter,” IUCrJ 2(2), 230–245 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and A. Menzel, “Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit. Erratum,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 469 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. F. Forster, B. Lindenau, M. Leyendecker, F. Janssen, C. Winkler, F. O. Schumann, J. Kirschner, K. Holldack, and A. Föhlisch, “Phase-locked mhz pulse selector for x-ray sources,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2265–2268 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Salditt, S. Hoffmann, M. Vassholz, J. Haber, M. Osterhoff, and J. Hilhorst, “X-ray optics on a chip: Guiding x rays in curved channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(20), 203902 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

R. Nagaoka and K. L. Bane, “Collective effects in a diffraction-limited storage ring,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 937–960 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Holldack, R. Ovsyannikov, P. Kuske, R. Müller, A. Schälicke, M. Scheer, M. Gorgoi, D. Kühn, T. Leitner, S. Svensson, N. Mårtensson, and A. Föhlisch, “Single bunch x-ray pulses on demand from a multi-bunch synchrotron radiation source,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4010 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Einfeld, M. Plesko, and J. Schaper, “First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 856–861 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hettel, “DLSR design and plans: An international overview,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 843–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Sun, G. Portmann, M. Hertlein, J. Kirz, and D. S. Robin, “Pseudo-single-bunch with adjustable frequency: A new operation mode for synchrotron light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 264801 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. van der Marel, M. Dressel, and K. Haule, “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 471–541 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Moglich, X. Yang, R. A. Ayers, and K. Moffat, “Structure and function of plant photoreceptors,” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 61(1), 21–47 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Ejdrup, H. T. Lemke, K. Haldrup, T. N. Nielsen, D. A. Arms, D. A. Walko, A. Miceli, E. C. Landahl, E. M. Dufresne, and M. M. Nielsen, “Picosecond time-resolved laser pump/x-ray probe experiments using a gated single-photon-counting area detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 387–390 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

D. A. Walko, D. A. Arms, and E. C. Landahl, “Empirical dead-time corrections for synchrotron sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(6), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Eriksson, J. Lindgren, M. Sjöström, E. Wallén, L. Rivkin, and A. Streun, “Some small-emittance light-source lattices with multi-bend achromats,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 587(2-3), 221–226 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Wen, R. Maoz, H. Cohen, J. Sagiv, A. Gibaud, A. Desert, and B. M. Ocko, “Postassembly chemical modification of a highly ordered organosilane multilayer: New insights into the structure, bonding, and dynamics of self-assembling silane monolayers,” ACS Nano 2(3), 579–599 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. Gopalan, V. Dierolf, and D. A. Scrymgeour, “Defect–domain wall interactions in trigonal ferroelectrics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 449–489 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Gembicky, D. Oss, R. Fuchs, and P. Coppens, “A fast mechanical shutter for submicrosecond time-resolved synchrotron experiments,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(5), 665–669 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. R. Patterson, D. Hah, M. Fujino, W. Piyawattanametha, and M. C. Wu, “Scanning micromirrors: An overview,” Proc. SPIE 5604, 195–207 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

J. Liu, J. Wang, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Z. Chang, “An accumulative x-ray streak camera with sub-600-fs temporal resolution and 50-fs timing jitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(20), 3553–3555 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Wulff, A. Plech, L. Eybert, R. Randler, F. Schotte, and P. Anfinrud, “The realization of sub-nanosecond pump and probe experiments at the esrf,” Faraday Discuss. 122, 13–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(1), 331–366 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. I. Svergun and M. H. J. Koch, “Small-angle scattering studies of biological macromolecules in solution,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(10), 1735–1782 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. McPherson, W.-K. Lee, and D. M. Mills, “A synchronized rotating crystal x-ray beam chopper,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2852–2855 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. J. Bishop, C. R. Giles, and S. R. Das, “The rise of optical switching,” Sci. Am. 284(1), 88–94 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

A. McPherson, J. Wang, P. L. Lee, and D. M. Mills, “A new high-speed beam chopper for time-resolved x-ray studies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(1), 1–4 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Shape and size dependence of radiative, non-radiative and photothermal properties of gold nanocrystals,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(3), 409–453 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry:  “Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Chu, “Nobel lecture: The manipulation of neutral particles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70(3), 685–706 (1998).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1978 (1)

M. Hart and D. P. Siddons, “A fast interferometric chopper for neutrons and X rays,” Nature 275(5675), 45–46 (1978).
[Crossref]

Al-Dmour, E.

P. F. Tavares, E. Al-Dmour, Å Andersson, F. Cullinan, B. N. Jensen, D. Olsson, D. K. Olsson, M. Sjöström, H. Tarawneh, S. Thorin, and A. Vorozhtsov, “Commissioning and first-year operational results of the max IV 3 GeV ring,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(5), 1291–1316 (2018).
[Crossref]

Als-Nielsen, J.

J. Als-Nielsen and D. McMorrow, Elements of modern x-ray physics (Wiley, ed. 2nd, 2011).
[Crossref]

Andersson, Å

P. F. Tavares, E. Al-Dmour, Å Andersson, F. Cullinan, B. N. Jensen, D. Olsson, D. K. Olsson, M. Sjöström, H. Tarawneh, S. Thorin, and A. Vorozhtsov, “Commissioning and first-year operational results of the max IV 3 GeV ring,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(5), 1291–1316 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anfinrud, P.

M. Wulff, A. Plech, L. Eybert, R. Randler, F. Schotte, and P. Anfinrud, “The realization of sub-nanosecond pump and probe experiments at the esrf,” Faraday Discuss. 122, 13–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arms, D. A.

T. Ejdrup, H. T. Lemke, K. Haldrup, T. N. Nielsen, D. A. Arms, D. A. Walko, A. Miceli, E. C. Landahl, E. M. Dufresne, and M. M. Nielsen, “Picosecond time-resolved laser pump/x-ray probe experiments using a gated single-photon-counting area detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 387–390 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. A. Walko, D. A. Arms, and E. C. Landahl, “Empirical dead-time corrections for synchrotron sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(6), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. van der Marel, M. Dressel, and K. Haule, “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 471–541 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ayers, R. A.

A. Moglich, X. Yang, R. A. Ayers, and K. Moffat, “Structure and function of plant photoreceptors,” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 61(1), 21–47 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bane, K. L.

R. Nagaoka and K. L. Bane, “Collective effects in a diffraction-limited storage ring,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 937–960 (2014).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. van der Marel, M. Dressel, and K. Haule, “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 471–541 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bishop, D. J.

D. J. Bishop, C. R. Giles, and S. R. Das, “The rise of optical switching,” Sci. Am. 284(1), 88–94 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Buzzi, M.

M. Buzzi, M. Först, R. Mankowsky, and A. Cavalleri, “Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond x-rays,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 3(9), 299–311 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cavalleri, A.

M. Buzzi, M. Först, R. Mankowsky, and A. Cavalleri, “Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond x-rays,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 3(9), 299–311 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

J. Liu, J. Wang, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Z. Chang, “An accumulative x-ray streak camera with sub-600-fs temporal resolution and 50-fs timing jitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(20), 3553–3555 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, I. W. Jung, D. A. Walko, Z. Li, Y. Gao, G. K. Shenoy, D. López, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast photonic micro-systems to manipulate hard x-rays at 300 picoseconds,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1158 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

Cohen, H.

K. Wen, R. Maoz, H. Cohen, J. Sagiv, A. Gibaud, A. Desert, and B. M. Ocko, “Postassembly chemical modification of a highly ordered organosilane multilayer: New insights into the structure, bonding, and dynamics of self-assembling silane monolayers,” ACS Nano 2(3), 579–599 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coppens, P.

M. Gembicky, D. Oss, R. Fuchs, and P. Coppens, “A fast mechanical shutter for submicrosecond time-resolved synchrotron experiments,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(5), 665–669 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cullinan, F.

P. F. Tavares, E. Al-Dmour, Å Andersson, F. Cullinan, B. N. Jensen, D. Olsson, D. K. Olsson, M. Sjöström, H. Tarawneh, S. Thorin, and A. Vorozhtsov, “Commissioning and first-year operational results of the max IV 3 GeV ring,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(5), 1291–1316 (2018).
[Crossref]

Das, S. R.

D. J. Bishop, C. R. Giles, and S. R. Das, “The rise of optical switching,” Sci. Am. 284(1), 88–94 (2001).
[Crossref]

Desert, A.

K. Wen, R. Maoz, H. Cohen, J. Sagiv, A. Gibaud, A. Desert, and B. M. Ocko, “Postassembly chemical modification of a highly ordered organosilane multilayer: New insights into the structure, bonding, and dynamics of self-assembling silane monolayers,” ACS Nano 2(3), 579–599 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

V. Gopalan, V. Dierolf, and D. A. Scrymgeour, “Defect–domain wall interactions in trigonal ferroelectrics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 449–489 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dressel, M.

D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. van der Marel, M. Dressel, and K. Haule, “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 471–541 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dufresne, E. M.

T. Ejdrup, H. T. Lemke, K. Haldrup, T. N. Nielsen, D. A. Arms, D. A. Walko, A. Miceli, E. C. Landahl, E. M. Dufresne, and M. M. Nielsen, “Picosecond time-resolved laser pump/x-ray probe experiments using a gated single-photon-counting area detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 387–390 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
[Crossref]

Einfeld, D.

D. Einfeld, M. Plesko, and J. Schaper, “First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(5), 856–861 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ejdrup, T.

T. Ejdrup, H. T. Lemke, K. Haldrup, T. N. Nielsen, D. A. Arms, D. A. Walko, A. Miceli, E. C. Landahl, E. M. Dufresne, and M. M. Nielsen, “Picosecond time-resolved laser pump/x-ray probe experiments using a gated single-photon-counting area detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 387–390 (2009).
[Crossref]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(1), 331–366 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Shape and size dependence of radiative, non-radiative and photothermal properties of gold nanocrystals,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(3), 409–453 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eriksson, M.

M. Eriksson, J. Lindgren, M. Sjöström, E. Wallén, L. Rivkin, and A. Streun, “Some small-emittance light-source lattices with multi-bend achromats,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 587(2-3), 221–226 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eybert, L.

M. Wulff, A. Plech, L. Eybert, R. Randler, F. Schotte, and P. Anfinrud, “The realization of sub-nanosecond pump and probe experiments at the esrf,” Faraday Discuss. 122, 13–26 (2003).
[Crossref]

Föhlisch, A.

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       A supplementary file in MS Word format
» Visualization 1       Illustration of pulse picking with a MEMS device in MP4

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. A brief survey of x-ray pulse modulators. (a) “Phase diagram” of current x-ray pulse modulation devices characterized by the source frequency of x-ray pulses that the device can handle, and the output x-ray pulse frequency. The symbols indicate different types of devices: circles for mechanical choppers, triangles for accelerator-based methods, and squares for our MEMS devices. (b) Relationship between MEMS diffractive time window, DTW (tw), and the oscillation amplitude and frequency of the resonator. The broken lines mark the DTW values of 2 ns, 200 ps, and 20 ps, respectively. Depending on the magnitudes of tw and the x-ray pulse width (tp), the MEMS devices can be used for pulse modulation (Region I, > 200 ps), pulse dispersion (Region II, ≤ 200 ps but ≥ 20 ps), or pulse slicing (Region III, ≤ 20 ps).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. MEMS-based resonator as an x-ray pulse picking device. (a) Timing relationship between the sinusoidal oscillation of a single-crystal MEMS resonator and the x-ray diffraction events. (b-f) Schematic of pulse picking using a frequency-matched MEMS oscillator. Incident x-ray pulse train having a source frequency of f0 (b) impinges a MEMS resonator oscillating at a sub-harmonic frequency of f0/2N (c). Key components of the MEMS device, including the x-ray-diffracting resonator and the combdrives, are labeled in (c). The static rocking curve of (004) Bragg peak of the silicon resonator is shown in (d). The diffracted x-ray pulses are down-sampled to f0/N (e) as only the pulses coinciding with the diffractive window are diffracted (f). (g-i) The diffractive time window profile can be viewed as a summation of two branches of dynamic rocking curves [CW peak in (g) and CCW peak in (h)]. The diffractive time window profile, measured by scanning the time delay between x-ray pulses and MEMS oscillation (i), therefore, is symmetric and retains the features of static Bragg peak on each side.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Demonstrating the pulse-picking capability of MEMS devices in the APS 24-bunch mode. (a) schematic of x-ray fill pattern. (b) Real-time response of the APD to an x-ray pulse train in the 24-bunch mode at the APS, with the MEMS device turned off (blue) or on (red). The time covers four revolution cycles at the APS x-ray pulses or one oscillation cycle of the MEMS device. Two x-ray pulses of the same bunch were picked by the MEMS device in one device oscillation cycle. (c) Magnified view of the shaded area in Panel c. Two separated but identical ticks are marked on the vertical axis for comparison of the signal magnitude. (d) Delay scan spanning > 153-ns covering an entire x-ray pulse cycle in a log-linear scale. The profile is composed of scans with different magnitudes of x-ray attenuators to extend the dynamic range of the APD-based counting detector and counter. (e) Spatial profiles of diffracted x-ray beam from the MEMS device when the device is OFF (black) or ON (red). The measurement was carried out by using a fine detector slit of 10 μm, and the profiles were normalized to unity in each experimental condition. The spatial profiles also resemble the static rocking curve with shoulders on the higher angle side.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Modulating x-ray pulses and storage ring diagnostics in the APS 324-bunch mode using MEMS devices. (a) Schematic of x-ray fill pattern in 324-bunch mode at APS: 88 MHz pulse rate and 11.37 ns pulse intervals. (b) Demonstration of MEMS-based x-ray chopper in the APS 324-bunch mode: 324 pulses from a complete synchrotron cycle when the device is off and its incident angle satisfies the Bragg condition, and one single pulse selected when the device is on. (c) Magnified view of the x-ray pulses in the vicinity of the selected pulse when the device is off and on. Variation of the storage-ring bunch current leads to a variation of the peak intensity up to 50%. (d) Illustration of the chopper function by a delay scan of delaying the chopper timing window with respect to the synchrotron phase. The scan covers three adjacent x-ray pulses over 30 ns with a delay step of 0.2 ns. The scan shows the device DTW value of about 0.70 ns, and the measured time interval between the x-ray pulses is 11.37 ns. The scan also demonstrated the temporal stability of the device over the 175 s duration of the scan. (e) Time-resolved delay scans using the MEMS devices, covering eleven x-ray bunches, measured before and after the bunch injection in the APS storage ring. The curves are shifted horizontally for clarity. The stars next to a bunch indicate that the bunch was refilled during the injection in the APS storage ring. (f) Peak intensities of five consecutive x-ray bunches over the course of 11 hours. Bunch injection occurred at an elapsed time of 300 mins and affected two out of the five bunches. An additional bunch, not shown here, was used to normalize the long-term intensity baseline variation.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. X-ray pulse modulation in the APS singlet-hybrid mode. (a) Schematic diagram of the electron fill pattern of the hybrid-singlet mode at the APS. (b) Real-time x-ray response of a set of the septuplet pulses measured by a transiently digitized signal from an ultrafast APD when the MEMS-based x-ray chopper is off and on, revealed the extraordinary ability of the device for picking a single x-ray pulse from the 352-MHz pulse train. The MEMS device was timed to pick the middle (or the fourth) pulse in the seven-pulse train with the inter-pulse distances of 2.84 ns. (c) Delay scan covering one set of the septuplets using a MEMS device with a DTW width of 1.0 ns. The delay scan can be fitted with a superposition of seven DTWs (blue line) which included the side peaks in the static rocking curves (see text and Fig. 2). (d) Delay scan of another set of septuplets using a narrow (10 µm) detector slit to cut off the shoulder peaks in the diffracted beam that result from dopant-induced strain [Fig. 2(d) and associated discussion]. The scan profile can be fitted with the superposition of seven silicon (004) Bragg-component-only DTWs (green line).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Demonstration of on-the-fly tuning of DTW width to modulate diffracted beam time pattern in the APS hybrid mode. As the width of the DTW increases with decreasing driving voltages [34], the operation of MEMS devices can be tuned to allow (a) a single pulse, (b) two pulses, and (c) three pulses being picked, respectively. The excitation voltage was set to 90, 50, and 43.5 V to achieve the DTW widths of 1.0, 4.4, and 7.2 ns. The corresponding DTW profiles for each operation condition are displayed on the same time scale for reference. By shifting the operational phase of the MEMS device, the chopper can be shifted continuously to pick any portion of the septuplets.

Equations (1)

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$${t_w} = \frac{{\Delta {\theta _{({hkl} )}}}}{{2\pi {f_m}{\alpha _m}\; }},$$