Abstract

As an emerging class of luminescent materials, Carbon dots (CDs) have attracted tremendous attention in the metal-free room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) material, but the methods to enhance the emission intensity and prolonging the lifetime of RTP CDs were seldom reported. Herein, we developed a method to improve the emission intensity and increase the lifetime of green RTP CDs. The RTP lifetime of CDs has been extended about 12-fold (from 45 to 550 ms) through introducing polymer and the secondary modification of urea realized by means of heat treatment. Moreover, the emission intensity of RTP CDs has been increased about 20 times. It has been found that the improvement of RTP lifetime and emission intensity is benefited from the decreasing vibration and rotation of the excited triplet species, thus suppressing the non-radiative transitions. Furthermore, the prepared CDs with strong RTP both exhibit great potential in light-emitting diodes and anti-counterfeiting application.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Afterglow luminescent materials with a long-lived emission lifetime have received considerable attentions in optoelectronics, advanced security imaging, molecular imaging, and data security [14]. Numerous efficient afterglow phenomena have been well exhibited in the inorganic materials. Nevertheless, these afterglow materials normally involve the doping or co-doping with transition metals and rare-earth ions, whose high cost and cytotoxicity is a noticeable concern [58]. For the above reasons, the metal-free organic afterglow materials provide a potential alternative and gain the extensive attentions by researchers. However, achieving effective room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) in organic materials is still a great challenge due to their poor intersystem crossing (ISC) and rapid rate of nonradiative deactivation [910].

Carbon dots (CDs) as an emerging class of luminescent materials have the huge potential to be developed as the effective metal-free RTP material, because the effective singlet-to-triplet ISC can be activated through the assistant of the functional groups (such as C = N and C = O bonds), or by doping of nitrogen and phosphorus elements, which facilitates the transition of the triplet states excitons [1118]. So far, effective RTP performances of CDs have been developed through the construction of the polymer structure, or by mixing CDs with different matrices [1524]. Till date, considerable attention was paid to adjust the RTP emission wavelength, some examples include color-tunable RTP from CDs produced through heating treatment of a series fluorescence CDs with boric acid or melting urea, but only a few studies on the lifetime-tunable of CD-based RTP have been reported [2527]. However, for their practical application, such as anti-counterfeiting and data encryption, the adjustments of RTP lifetimes are equally important [26]. Thus, it is important to develop new synthetic methods toward CDs with the lifetime-tunable RTP emission.

In this work, we developed a facile method to adjust lifetime and improve emission intensity of RTP CDs with green emitting color. Firstly, the solid-state RTP CD1 with weak green emission was synthesized through the solvothermal reaction of urea in dimethylformamide (DMF), as shown in Fig. 1. And then, inspired by the concept of crosslink-enhanced emission (CEE) effect, through introducing polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the process of the CD formation (named CD2), the RTP lifetime of CDs increased from 45 to 139 ms, and the emission intensity was also improved. Furthermore, the CD2 were further modified with urea by a heating treatment (uCD2), and the RTP lifetime was further improved, leading to an increase of lifetime from 139 to 550 ms. It has been found that the increase of RTP lifetime benefits from the decreasing vibration and rotation of C = O/C = N bonds at the CDs surface, so as to protect triplet states from quenching. Finally, naked-eye-observable time-resolved anti-counterfeiting application was prepared based on the modified CDs.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. The synthesis process for CD1, CD2, and uCD2.

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2. Results and discussion

From transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the CD1 is found to be nearly monodisperse with an average particle diameter of 2.0 nm (Fig. 2(a)-(b)). The surface groups and chemical compositions of the CD1 are identified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. As seen in Fig. 2(c), the CD1 displays a broad absorption peaks from 2700 to 3600 cm-1, attributed to the stretching vibrations of hydroxyl (-OH), amino (-NH2), and methylene (-CH2-) groups [2829]. In addition, the stretching vibrations of C = N at 1665 cm-1 in the CNH group, and the stretching of C = O at 1636 cm-1 in the amide group are detected [30]. As shown in Fig. 2(d) and Fig S1 in the Supplement 1, the CD1 mainly contains C, N, and O, elements with compositions of 74.6%, 5.4%, and 20%, respectively [3133]. The HR XPS spectrum for the C 1s indicates the presence of C-C/C = C (284.6 eV), C-N (285.2 eV), C-O (286.2 eV) and C = O (288.8 eV) bonds in the CDs, [34] and the corresponding spectrum for the N 1s contains two components that can be assigned to C-N (399.6 eV), and N-H (401.2 eV), respectively [27].

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) TEM image of CD1. (b) The size distribution of CD1 particles. (c-d) The FT-IR and XPS spectrum of CD1. (e) The FL and RTP emission spectra of CD1. (f) Proposed RTP emission processes of CD1 powder.

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The luminescence performances of the CD1 have been investigated. Fig S2 (black line) shows two strong UV-vis absorption peaks of CD1 water solution, at around 270 nm from π→π* transitions of the aromatic sp2 domain of C = C bonds, and the shoulder at 310 nm from the n→π* transition of C = O/C = N bonds [4]. It is found that CD1 powder presents blue fluorescence (FL) emission at around 465 nm under the excitation of 365 nm UV lamp, and a green emitting RTP at around 540 nm can be detected after switch off the lamp (Fig. 2(e)), which is associated to the triplet states of excitons in CD1 that consisting with the literatures (Fig. 2(f)) [3536]. As shown in Fig S3 and Table S1, the RTP dynamic process can be fitted by a tri-exponential with average decay lifetime of 45 ms. The multiplex dynamics may be due to a wide range of chemical environments for the C = O/C = N bonds on the surface of CDs [20]. To confirm this possible explanation, the phosphorescence excitation (PLE) spectrum of the CD1 was detected under 540 nm emission (Fig S2, red line). In PLE spectrum of CD1 powder, the excitation band at 310 nm nearly overlap with its absorption peak, suggesting the phosphorescence comes from the C = N/C = O bonds of CD1 [4,20].

The current works demonstrate that the polymer-like structure of CDs could decrease vibration and rotation of the excited triplet species, thus suppressing the non-radiative transitions and generate RTP [19]. Inspiring by these works, we introduced PVP in the process of the CD formation. The morphology of CD2 was characterized by the TEM image, as shown in Fig. 3(a). It is found that the CD2 are well dispersed nanoparticles with a mean particle diameter of 2.3 nm. The HRTEM image provided as insets of Fig. 3(a) shows the crystalline part is surrounded by non-crystalline region, which indicates wrapped PVP chains [28]. Figure 3(b) shows the comparison of the RTP emission spectra for CD1 and CD2. The two samples exhibit similar RTP behaviours, but the emission intensity of CD2 is stronger. The decay processes of RTP emission for CD2 was presented in Fig. 3(c). It is found that the lifetime for CD2 increases clearly comparing with that of CD1, from 45 ms in CD1 to 139 ms in CD2. The increased RTP lifetime for the CD2 is probably due to the linkage of PVP polymer chains at the surface of CDs, which can decrease vibration and rotation of the excited triplet species, thus inhibiting non-radiative relaxation channels [19].

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) TEM image of CD2 (Inset provide the HRTEM image). (b) The RTP emission spectra of CD1 and CD2. (c) RTP lifetime decay curve of CD2, under excitation at 365 nm.

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The RTP emission intensity of CDs was further enhanced by heating treatment of CDs with urea. As shown in Fig. 4(a), (a) bright green RTP emission was observed from uCD2 powder when the UV light was turned off, with commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates (Fig S4) of (0.329, 0.456), which is consistent with the RTP phenomenon observed by the naked eye. By reference to the previously reported method, the phosphorescence quantum yield (QY) of the uCD2 powder has been calculated with 5.3% [17]. In the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns (Fig. 4(b)), the peaks of uCD2 are almost the same as those of the melting urea, indicating that the CDs particles are composited with the urea matrix for CD/urea composite sample. To obtain insights into the RTP properties of the uCD2, their FL and RTP decay spectra were further measured. As expected, it is found that uCD2 exhibit higher RTP emission intensity compared with that of CD2 (Fig. 4(c)). The RTP decay process (Fig. 4(d)) can be fitted by the three-exponential parameters as summarized in Table S1 in the Supplement 1. Compared with CD2, clear increases in the average lifetimes are seen for the uCD2 (increase from 139 to 550 ms). On one hand, it can be attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonds through interactions between the C = O/C = N of CDs and amino groups of melting urea as shown in Fig. 4(e) [20,37]. The formation of hydrogen bonds could rigidify and decrease vibration and rotation of C = O/C = N bonds, inhibiting non-radiative relaxation channels, thus leading to enhancement of the RTP emission [2025]. On the other hand, the melting urea could act as a rigid matrix, exhibiting strong suppression in the non-radiative pathways, which is similar to the matrix packing mechanism [20]. To further prove the role of the melting urea, we prepared uCD2 powder at different reaction times from 0 to 6 h. Optimal RTP emission is found to be excited for 3 h (Fig S5). At short reaction times (2 h), only a small portion of urea is converted into melting urea, which leads to low emission due to insufficient hydrogen bonds between urea and CDs [20]. At long reaction times (6 h), almost all urea is depleted so that they cannot offer strong rigidity to restrict the vibration, resulting in relatively poor phosphorescence [20].

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) Photographs of the uCD2 powder taken at the different delay times after UV excitation light (365 nm) has been turned off. (b) The XRD patterns of urea and uCD2. (c) RTP emission spectra of CD2 and uCD2. (d) RTP lifetime decay curve of uCD2, under excitation at 365 nm. (e) Schematic illustration for the possible interactions of CDs surface groups with melting urea.

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The uCD2 fabricated here are highly stable, and a slight decay is detected of their initial FL intensity, under continuous illumination with a UV light source for 10 h (Fig S6). The excellent photo-stability of CDs and coupled with their low cost and environment-friendliness are compelling for the application in lighting application [38]. According to the literature, in order to achieve the white light emitting color, we developed CDs@EuCl3 composite through mixing the CDs with EuCl3 (details are demonstrated in the Experimental section) [39]. The FL spectra of CDs@EuCl3 composite with different amounts of EuCl3 and CDs (mass ratios: 50:11, 50:9, 50:6, 50:2, and 50:0) under 380 nm excitation are shown in Fig. 5(a). From the FL spectra, it can be clearly found that the proportion of red emission increases significantly compared to blue emission, and the luminescent colors of the CDs@EuCl3 composite can be regulated from blue to white in line with different proportions of red and blue emissions (Fig. 5(b)). Importantly, a pure white light emission with CIE coordinates of (0.331, 0.324) and QY of 16.9% was achieved under 380 nm irradiation. Then, we combined the CDs@EuCl3 sample with a 380 nm UV chip to fabricate a WLED, as shown in Fig. 5(c). This device gives an intense white light with CIE coordinates of (0.325, 0.319), Ra (average CRI value) (72.0) and luminous efficiency (10.6 lm W-1). The stability of the WLED based on CDs@EuCl3 composite was monitored for 10 h under continuous operation (Fig S7) and a 11% decrease meant nice stability, indicating promising practical lighting applications. In addition, the RTP properties of the CDs powder could be developed for promising applications in anti-counterfeiting [30]. As shown in the bottom of Fig. 5(d), (a) panda image was printed onto a non-luminescent background paper using the uCD2 water solution as ink. After complete drying, a bright blue panda was observed under UV excitation and the green phosphorescence signal of the panda also can be recognized after removing the UV lamp, owing to the ultralong phosphorescence lifetime of the uCD2.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) FL emission spectra of CDs@EuCl3 composites with different mass ratios: 50:11, 50:9, 50:6, 50:2, and 50:0. All samples were excited at 380 nm. (b) CIE chromaticity diagram showing the color coordinates of the samples presented in (a). (c) FL emission spectrum of the CDs@EuCl3 composites based WLED (inset: Photograph of the WLED operated at 10 mA). (d) Digital images of the sealed panda on a non-luminescent background paper using uCD2-based ink under 365 nm UV lamp on and off, respectively.

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3. Conclusion

In summary, we presented a facile and cost-effective strategy to increase the lifetime of green RTP CDs through the multi-step modification. Through modulating the surface composition of the CDs with different modifiers, the RTP lifetime remarkably improved, which was attributed to the confinement of vibration and rotation of the triplet states, thus inhibiting non-radiative relaxation channels. Furthermore, the RTP CDs has been demonstrated to be a potential security ink, which could be employed in the fields of anti-counterfeiting. Moreover, benefitting from the high operability of CDs, the RTP CDs have also been successfully applied to light-emitting diode applications. Our results are important for the rational design of CD-based materials to realize efficient RTP emission.

4. Experimental section

4.1 Chemicals

All reagents were used as received without further purification. Dimethylformamide (DMF, 99.5%), citric acid (99.5%) was purchased from Beijing Chemical Works. Urea (99%) was purchased from Xilong Scientific Company Limited. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

4.2 Preparation of CD1, CD2 powder

For CD1: 1 g urea was dissolved in 10 mL DMF solution. Then the well-stirred solution was reacted at 180 °C for 8 h for the formation of CD1. For CD2: 1 g urea and 0.5 g PVP were dissolved in 10 mL DMF solution. Then the well-stirred (1 h) solution was reacted at 180 °C for 8 h for the formation of CD2. After the reaction, the reactors were cooled to room temperature naturally, and then the solution was dialyzed with a dialysis bag. The CDs powder was then obtained by drying at 60 ℃.

4.3 Preparation of uCD2 powder

Firstly, CD2 powder (200 mg) and urea (300 mg) were dissolved in 5 ml water solution in beaker by shaking for 10 min to completely dissolve the urea and CDs. Then the beaker was put into oil bath at 150 °C for 3 h. After the reaction, the uCD2 powders were obtained by ice bath.

4.4 Preparation of CDs@EuCl3 composite

Firstly, uCD2 powder (100 mg) and EuCl3 (22, 18, 12, or 4 mg) were dissolved in 10 ml water solution in beakers by shaking for 10 min to completely dissolve the EuCl3 and CDs. Then the beaker was put into oil bath at 150 °C for 3 h. After the reaction, the CDs@EuCl3 composite powder were obtained by ice bath.

4.5 Characterization

For the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution microscopy observations were performed with a JEOL-2100F microscope. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra were measured with a Shimadzu UV-3101PC UV-Vis scanning spectrophotometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed with an ESCALab220i-XL electron spectrometer from VG Scientific. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were obtained on a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer. Photoluminescence spectra were recorded at room temperature by using one FLS980 spectrometer (Edinburgh Instruments Ltd). The excitation source was a 450W Xe arc lamp. Phosphorescence emission spectra of CDs were measured by a QE Pro (Ocean Insight). Phosphorescence lifetimes were measured using PLS980. The absolute emission quantum efficiency values were measured at room temperature using a calibrated integrating sphere in FLS980 spectrometer.

Funding

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics (IOSKL2017KF10); Youth Science Foundation of Henan Normal University (2020QN016); Science and Technology Project of Henan Province (212102210222); Science and Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province (19HASTIT019); Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province (202300410295, 202300410297); National Natural Science Foundation of China (61703216, U1904178).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

Supplemental document

See Supplement 1 for supporting content.

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References

  • View by:

  1. K Jiang, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Afterglow of carbon dots: mechanism, strategy and applications,” Mater. Chem. Front. 4(2), 386–399 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  2. W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. K Jiang, S Hu, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Photo-stimulated polychromatic room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots,” Small 16(31), 2001909 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  5. H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. J Zhao, W Wu, J Sun, and S Guo, “Triplet photosensitizers: from molecular design to applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(12), 5323 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. K Jiang, Y Wang, C Cai, and H Lin, “Conversion of carbon dots from fluorescence to ultralong room-temperature phosphorescence by heating for security applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(26), 1800783 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  12. K Jiang, Y Wang, X Gao, C Cai, and H Lin, “Facile, quick, and gram-scale synthesis of ultralong-lifetime room-temperature-phosphorescent carbon dots by microwave irradiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57(21), 6216–6220 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. C Lin, Y Zhuang, W Li, T Zhou, and R Xie, “Blue, green, and red full-color ultralong afterglow in nitrogen-doped carbon dots,” Nanoscale 11(14), 6584–6590 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  15. L Bai, N Xue, X Wang, W Shi, and C Lu, “Activating efficient room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots by synergism of orderly non-noble metals and dual structural confinements,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6658–6664 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  18. C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  19. S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y Gao, H Zhang, S Shuang, and C Dong, “Visible-light-excited ultralong-lifetime room temperature phosphorescence based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots for double anticounterfeiting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 8(7), 1901557 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  23. J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  25. W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  26. H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  30. D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  32. K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  33. W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  34. L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  37. J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  39. X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2020 (8)

K Jiang, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Afterglow of carbon dots: mechanism, strategy and applications,” Mater. Chem. Front. 4(2), 386–399 (2020).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, S Hu, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Photo-stimulated polychromatic room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots,” Small 16(31), 2001909 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y Gao, H Zhang, S Shuang, and C Dong, “Visible-light-excited ultralong-lifetime room temperature phosphorescence based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots for double anticounterfeiting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 8(7), 1901557 (2020).
[Crossref]

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (7)

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

C Lin, Y Zhuang, W Li, T Zhou, and R Xie, “Blue, green, and red full-color ultralong afterglow in nitrogen-doped carbon dots,” Nanoscale 11(14), 6584–6590 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

K Jiang, Y Wang, C Cai, and H Lin, “Conversion of carbon dots from fluorescence to ultralong room-temperature phosphorescence by heating for security applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(26), 1800783 (2018).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, X Gao, C Cai, and H Lin, “Facile, quick, and gram-scale synthesis of ultralong-lifetime room-temperature-phosphorescent carbon dots by microwave irradiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57(21), 6216–6220 (2018).
[Crossref]

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

L Bai, N Xue, X Wang, W Shi, and C Lu, “Activating efficient room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots by synergism of orderly non-noble metals and dual structural confinements,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6658–6664 (2017).
[Crossref]

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J Zhao, W Wu, J Sun, and S Guo, “Triplet photosensitizers: from molecular design to applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(12), 5323 (2013).
[Crossref]

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

An, Z

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, G

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bai, J

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bai, L

L Bai, N Xue, X Wang, W Shi, and C Lu, “Activating efficient room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots by synergism of orderly non-noble metals and dual structural confinements,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6658–6664 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bai, X

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, C

K Jiang, Y Wang, C Cai, and H Lin, “Conversion of carbon dots from fluorescence to ultralong room-temperature phosphorescence by heating for security applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(26), 1800783 (2018).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, X Gao, C Cai, and H Lin, “Facile, quick, and gram-scale synthesis of ultralong-lifetime room-temperature-phosphorescent carbon dots by microwave irradiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57(21), 6216–6220 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cao, C

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, D

D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, P

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, R

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, T

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
[Crossref]

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deng, R

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y

Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, B

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dong, C

Y Gao, H Zhang, S Shuang, and C Dong, “Visible-light-excited ultralong-lifetime room temperature phosphorescence based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots for double anticounterfeiting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 8(7), 1901557 (2020).
[Crossref]

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, H

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dong, L

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Fan, L

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feng, T

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, W

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, X

K Jiang, Y Wang, X Gao, C Cai, and H Lin, “Facile, quick, and gram-scale synthesis of ultralong-lifetime room-temperature-phosphorescent carbon dots by microwave irradiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57(21), 6216–6220 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y Gao, H Zhang, S Shuang, and C Dong, “Visible-light-excited ultralong-lifetime room temperature phosphorescence based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots for double anticounterfeiting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 8(7), 1901557 (2020).
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Geng, Y

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gong, A

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gou, H

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gou, S

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Gu, Ran

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

Guan, S

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, C

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
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Guo, S

J Zhao, W Wu, J Sun, and S Guo, “Triplet photosensitizers: from molecular design to applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(12), 5323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, J

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, M

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hao, J

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, J

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

He, Y

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

He, Z

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hirata, S

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holá, K

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, C

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, G

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Hu, H

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, S

K Jiang, S Hu, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Photo-stimulated polychromatic room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots,” Small 16(31), 2001909 (2020).
[Crossref]

Hu, T

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, P

D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, W

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, X

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huo, F

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, G

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, K

K Jiang, S Hu, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Photo-stimulated polychromatic room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots,” Small 16(31), 2001909 (2020).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Afterglow of carbon dots: mechanism, strategy and applications,” Mater. Chem. Front. 4(2), 386–399 (2020).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, X Gao, C Cai, and H Lin, “Facile, quick, and gram-scale synthesis of ultralong-lifetime room-temperature-phosphorescent carbon dots by microwave irradiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57(21), 6216–6220 (2018).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, C Cai, and H Lin, “Conversion of carbon dots from fluorescence to ultralong room-temperature phosphorescence by heating for security applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(26), 1800783 (2018).
[Crossref]

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaji, H

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kalytchuk, S

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ke, C

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lai, W

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lam, J

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lei, B

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, H

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Q

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, R

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, S

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, W

C Lin, Y Zhuang, W Li, T Zhou, and R Xie, “Blue, green, and red full-color ultralong afterglow in nitrogen-doped carbon dots,” Nanoscale 11(14), 6584–6590 (2019).
[Crossref]

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, X

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z

K Jiang, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Afterglow of carbon dots: mechanism, strategy and applications,” Mater. Chem. Front. 4(2), 386–399 (2020).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, S Hu, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Photo-stimulated polychromatic room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots,” Small 16(31), 2001909 (2020).
[Crossref]

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liao, Q

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lin, C

C Lin, Y Zhuang, W Li, T Zhou, and R Xie, “Blue, green, and red full-color ultralong afterglow in nitrogen-doped carbon dots,” Nanoscale 11(14), 6584–6590 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lin, H

K Jiang, S Hu, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Photo-stimulated polychromatic room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots,” Small 16(31), 2001909 (2020).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Afterglow of carbon dots: mechanism, strategy and applications,” Mater. Chem. Front. 4(2), 386–399 (2020).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, X Gao, C Cai, and H Lin, “Facile, quick, and gram-scale synthesis of ultralong-lifetime room-temperature-phosphorescent carbon dots by microwave irradiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57(21), 6216–6220 (2018).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, C Cai, and H Lin, “Conversion of carbon dots from fluorescence to ultralong room-temperature phosphorescence by heating for security applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(26), 1800783 (2018).
[Crossref]

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, W

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, K

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liu, S

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu Y, A

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Long, P

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lou, Q

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Lu, C

L Bai, N Xue, X Wang, W Shi, and C Lu, “Activating efficient room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots by synergism of orderly non-noble metals and dual structural confinements,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6658–6664 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, S

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lv, W

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, H

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, L

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ma, P

Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
[Crossref]

Marder, S

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meng, Z

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nachtigallová, D

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ning, F

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

Otyepka, M

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pan, G

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pan, L

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, W

Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
[Crossref]

Pang, X

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Peng, C

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Peng, Q

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pu, K

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Redfern, S

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rogach, A

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shan, C

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Shao, H

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shen, D

Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, H

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, J

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, W

L Bai, N Xue, X Wang, W Shi, and C Lu, “Activating efficient room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots by synergism of orderly non-noble metals and dual structural confinements,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6658–6664 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shuai, Z

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shuang, S

Y Gao, H Zhang, S Shuang, and C Dong, “Visible-light-excited ultralong-lifetime room temperature phosphorescence based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots for double anticounterfeiting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 8(7), 1901557 (2020).
[Crossref]

Smith, A

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Song, H

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, Q

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

Song, Y

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Su, Q

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sudolská, M

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, H

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, J

J Zhao, W Wu, J Sun, and S Guo, “Triplet photosensitizers: from molecular design to applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(12), 5323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, L

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, S

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, X

Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
[Crossref]

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Tang, B

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, G

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tao, S

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tian, X

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

Tong, X

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

Totani, K

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ushakova, E

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wan, Z

D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, C

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, F

Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J

Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, M

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, N

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, W

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, X

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

L Bai, N Xue, X Wang, W Shi, and C Lu, “Activating efficient room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots by synergism of orderly non-noble metals and dual structural confinements,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6658–6664 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y

K Jiang, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Afterglow of carbon dots: mechanism, strategy and applications,” Mater. Chem. Front. 4(2), 386–399 (2020).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, S Hu, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Photo-stimulated polychromatic room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots,” Small 16(31), 2001909 (2020).
[Crossref]

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, C Cai, and H Lin, “Conversion of carbon dots from fluorescence to ultralong room-temperature phosphorescence by heating for security applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(26), 1800783 (2018).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, X Gao, C Cai, and H Lin, “Facile, quick, and gram-scale synthesis of ultralong-lifetime room-temperature-phosphorescent carbon dots by microwave irradiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57(21), 6216–6220 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, A

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, S

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, W

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
[Crossref]

J Zhao, W Wu, J Sun, and S Guo, “Triplet photosensitizers: from molecular design to applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(12), 5323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, X

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Xi, K

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xia, C

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, R

C Lin, Y Zhuang, W Li, T Zhou, and R Xie, “Blue, green, and red full-color ultralong afterglow in nitrogen-doped carbon dots,” Nanoscale 11(14), 6584–6590 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, C

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, H

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, W

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, X

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z

Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
[Crossref]

Xue, N

L Bai, N Xue, X Wang, W Shi, and C Lu, “Activating efficient room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots by synergism of orderly non-noble metals and dual structural confinements,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6658–6664 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, B

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, H

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, M

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, S

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, J

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, Q

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, B

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yuan, F

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y

D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zang, J

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zboril, R

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Q

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zeng, S

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhai, Y

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y Gao, H Zhang, S Shuang, and C Dong, “Visible-light-excited ultralong-lifetime room temperature phosphorescence based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots for double anticounterfeiting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 8(7), 1901557 (2020).
[Crossref]

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D

Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J

J Zhao, W Wu, J Sun, and S Guo, “Triplet photosensitizers: from molecular design to applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(12), 5323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhen, X

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, M

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhong, H

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T

C Lin, Y Zhuang, W Li, T Zhou, and R Xie, “Blue, green, and red full-color ultralong afterglow in nitrogen-doped carbon dots,” Nanoscale 11(14), 6584–6590 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y

D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, J

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Y

C Lin, Y Zhuang, W Li, T Zhou, and R Xie, “Blue, green, and red full-color ultralong afterglow in nitrogen-doped carbon dots,” Nanoscale 11(14), 6584–6590 (2019).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

C Xia, S Zhu, S Zhang, Q Zeng, S Tao, X Tian, Y Li, and B Yang, “Carbonized polymer dots with tunable room-temperature phosphorescence lifetime and wavelength,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(34), 38593–38601 (2020).
[Crossref]

B Yuan, S Guan, X Sun, X Li, H Zeng, Z Xie, P Chen, and S Zhou, “Highly efficient carbon dots with reversibly switchable green-red emissions for trichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(18), 16005–16014 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

K Holá, M Sudolská, S Kalytchuk, D Nachtigallová, A Rogach, M Otyepka, and R Zbořil, “Graphitic nitrogen triggers red fluorescence in carbon dots,” ACS Nano 11(12), 12402–12410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (4)

W Li, S Wu, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, Y Liu, B Lei, L Ma, and X Wang, “Enhanced biological photosynthetic efficiency using light-harvesting engineering with dual-emissive carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(44), 1804004 (2018).
[Crossref]

S Hirata, K Totani, J Zhang, T Yamashita, H Kaji, S Marder, T Watanabe, and C Adachi, “Efficient Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Organic Amorphous Materials under Ambient Conditions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(27), 3386–3397 (2013).
[Crossref]

P Long, Y Feng, C Cao, Y Li, J Han, S Li, C Peng, Z Li, and W Feng, “Self-protective room-temperature phosphorescence of fluorine and nitrogen codoped carbon dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(37), 1800791 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z Chen, K Zhang, X Tong, Y Liu, C Hu, S Liu, Q Yu, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(24), 4386–4396 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (5)

X Zhen, Y Tao, Z An, P Chen, C Xu, R Chen, W Huang, and K Pu, “Ultralong Phosphorescence of Water-Soluble Organic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Afterglow Imaging,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1606665 (2017).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, C Cai, and H Lin, “Conversion of carbon dots from fluorescence to ultralong room-temperature phosphorescence by heating for security applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(26), 1800783 (2018).
[Crossref]

L Pan, S Sun, A Zhang, K Jiang, L Zhang, C Dong, Q Huang, A Wu, and H Lin, “Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots and their applications in multicolor cellular imaging and multidimensional sensing,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7782–7787 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y Chen, M Zheng, Y Xiao, H Dong, H Zhang, J Zhuang, H Hu, B Lei, and A Liu Y, “self-quenching-resistant carbon-dot powder with tunable solid-state fluorescence and construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies for white light-emission,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 312–318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z Wang, F Yuan, X Li, Y Li, H Zhong, L Fan, and S Yang, “53% efficient red emissive carbon quantum dots for high color rendering and stable warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 29(37), 1702910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J Zhu, X Bai, X Chen, H Shao, Y Zhai, G Pan, H Zhang, E Ushakova, Y Zhang, H Song, and A Rogach, “Spectrally tunable solid-state fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots synthesized via seeded growth method,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801599 (2019).
[Crossref]

Adv. Optical Mater. (1)

Y Gao, H Zhang, S Shuang, and C Dong, “Visible-light-excited ultralong-lifetime room temperature phosphorescence based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots for double anticounterfeiting,” Adv. Optical Mater. 8(7), 1901557 (2020).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (3)

W Li, W Zhou, Z Zhou, H Zhang, X Zhang, J Zhuang, Y Liu, B Lei, and C Hu, “A universal strategy for activating the multicolor room-temperature afterglow of carbon dots in a boric acid matrix,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58(22), 7278–7283 (2019).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, Y Wang, X Gao, C Cai, and H Lin, “Facile, quick, and gram-scale synthesis of ultralong-lifetime room-temperature-phosphorescent carbon dots by microwave irradiation,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57(21), 6216–6220 (2018).
[Crossref]

S Tao, S Lu, Y Geng, S Zhu, S Redfern, Y Song, T Feng, W Xu, and B Yang, “Design of metal-free polymer carbon dots: A new class of room-temperature phosphorescent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 130(9), 2417–2422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chem (1)

W Zhao, Z He, J Lam, Q Peng, H Ma, Z Shuai, G Bai, J Hao, and B Tang, “Rational molecular design for achieving persistent and efficient pure organic room-temperature phosphorescence,” Chem 1(4), 592–602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (1)

Y Deng, D Zhao, X Chen, F Wang, H Song, and D Shen, “Long lifetime pure organic phosphorescence based on water soluble carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. 49(51), 5751 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

Q Li, M Zhou, Q Yang, Q Wu, J Shi, A Gong, and M Yang, “Efficient room-temperature phosphorescence from nitrogen-doped carbon dots in composite matrices,” Chem. Mater. 28(22), 8221–8227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (2)

H Xu, R Chen, Q Sun, W Lai, Q Su, W Huang, and X Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref]

J Zhao, W Wu, J Sun, and S Guo, “Triplet photosensitizers: from molecular design to applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(12), 5323 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

X Xu, X Zhang, C Hu, W Li, B Lei, Y Liu, and J Zhuang, “Construction of NaYF4:Eu@carbon dots nanocomposites for multifunctional applications,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 543, 156–163 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C (3)

D Chen, W Wu, Y Yuan, Y Zhou, Z Wan, and P Huang, “Intense multi-state visible absorption and full-color luminescence of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots for blue-light-excitable solid-state-lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(38), 9027–9035 (2016).
[Crossref]

G Tang, K Zhang, T Feng, S Tao, M Han, R Li, C Wang, Y Wang, and B Yang, “One-step preparation of silica microspheres with super-stable ultralong room temperature phosphorescence,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(28), 8680 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z Xu, X Sun, P Ma, Y Chen, W Pan, and J Wang, “A visible-light-excited afterglow achieved by carbon dots from rhodamine B fixed in boron oxide,” J. Mater. Chem. C 8(13), 4557–4563 (2020).
[Crossref]

Mater. Chem. Front. (1)

K Jiang, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Afterglow of carbon dots: mechanism, strategy and applications,” Mater. Chem. Front. 4(2), 386–399 (2020).
[Crossref]

Nano Today (1)

Y Liang, S Gou, K Liu, W Wu, C Guo, S Lu, J Zang, X Wu, Q Lou, L Dong, Y Gao, and C Shan, “Ultralong and efficient phosphorescence from silica confined carbonnanodots in aqueous solution,” Nano Today 34, 100900 (2020).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (4)

H Gou, Y Liu, G Zhang, Q Liao, X Huang, F Ning, C Ke, Z Meng, and K Xi, “Lifetime-tunable room-temperature phosphorescence of polyaniline carbon dots in adjustable polymer matrices,” Nanoscale 11(39), 18311–18319 (2019).
[Crossref]

C Wang, Y Chen, T Hu, Y Chang, Ran Gu, M Wang, and Q Song, “Color tunable room temperature phosphorescent carbon dot-based nanocomposites obtainable from multiple carbon sources via a molten salt method,” Nanoscale 11(24), 11967–11974 (2019).
[Crossref]

C Lin, Y Zhuang, W Li, T Zhou, and R Xie, “Blue, green, and red full-color ultralong afterglow in nitrogen-doped carbon dots,” Nanoscale 11(14), 6584–6590 (2019).
[Crossref]

L Bai, N Xue, X Wang, W Shi, and C Lu, “Activating efficient room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots by synergism of orderly non-noble metals and dual structural confinements,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6658–6664 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

J Zhu, X Bai, J Bai, G Pan, Y Zhu, Y Zhai, H Shao, X Chen, B Dong, H Zhang, and H Song, “Emitting color tunable carbon dots by adjusting solvent towards light-emitting devices,” Nanotechnology 29(8), 085705 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

Y Sun, S Liu, L Sun, S Wu, G Hu, X Pang, A Smith, C Hu, S Zeng, W Wang, Y Liu, and M Zheng, “Ultralong lifetime and efficient room temperature phosphorescent carbon dots through multiconfinement structure design,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 5591 (2020).
[Crossref]

H Sun, S Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, W Lv, X Huang, F Huo, H Yang, G Jenkins, Q Zhao, and W Huang, “Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

Z An, C Zheng, Y Tao, R Chen, H Shi, T Chen, Z Wang, H Li, R Deng, X Liu, and W Huang, “Stabilizing triplet excited states for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nat. Mater. 14(7), 685–690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

J Liu, N Wang, Y Yu, Y Yan, H Zhang, J Li, and J Yu, “Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1603171 (2017).
[Crossref]

Small (2)

J He, Y Chen, Y He, X Xu, B Lei, H Zhang, J Zhuang, C Hu, and Y Liu, “Anchoring carbon nanodots onto nanosilica for phosphorescence enhancement and delayed fluorescence nascence in solid and liquid states,” Small 16(49), 2005228 (2020).
[Crossref]

K Jiang, S Hu, Y Wang, Z Li, and H Lin, “Photo-stimulated polychromatic room temperature phosphorescence of carbon dots,” Small 16(31), 2001909 (2020).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
Supplement 1       Fig S1-S7 and Table S1

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The synthesis process for CD1, CD2, and uCD2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) TEM image of CD1. (b) The size distribution of CD1 particles. (c-d) The FT-IR and XPS spectrum of CD1. (e) The FL and RTP emission spectra of CD1. (f) Proposed RTP emission processes of CD1 powder.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) TEM image of CD2 (Inset provide the HRTEM image). (b) The RTP emission spectra of CD1 and CD2. (c) RTP lifetime decay curve of CD2, under excitation at 365 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Photographs of the uCD2 powder taken at the different delay times after UV excitation light (365 nm) has been turned off. (b) The XRD patterns of urea and uCD2. (c) RTP emission spectra of CD2 and uCD2. (d) RTP lifetime decay curve of uCD2, under excitation at 365 nm. (e) Schematic illustration for the possible interactions of CDs surface groups with melting urea.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) FL emission spectra of CDs@EuCl3 composites with different mass ratios: 50:11, 50:9, 50:6, 50:2, and 50:0. All samples were excited at 380 nm. (b) CIE chromaticity diagram showing the color coordinates of the samples presented in (a). (c) FL emission spectrum of the CDs@EuCl3 composites based WLED (inset: Photograph of the WLED operated at 10 mA). (d) Digital images of the sealed panda on a non-luminescent background paper using uCD2-based ink under 365 nm UV lamp on and off, respectively.