Abstract

A smart digital micromirror device (DMD) was employed to realize the on-chip scanning in versatile hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems in our previous research. However, the rotation manner around the diagonal of the DMD makes the imaging subsystem and the spectral dispersion subsystem unable to be in the same horizontal surface. This leads to the difficulty in designing the opto-mechanical structures, system assembly and adjustment of the light path to a certain extent. On the other hand, the HSI system also needs a larger space to accommodate the two subsystems simultaneously since either of them has to incline against the horizontal surface. Moreover, there exists the interference of the reflected light between the adjacent micromirrors during the scanning process performed by the DMD, causing the loss of optical information about the object. Here, a novel linear micromirror array (MMA) based on the microelectromechanical system process that rotates around one lateral axis of the micromirror is developed, which is helpful to simplify the optical system of HSI and obtain more optical information about the detected target. The MMA has 32 independent linear micromirrors across an aperture of 5mm×6.5mm, under which there are dimple structures and a common bottom electrode. Finally, the MMA with a 98.6% filling factor is successfully fabricated by employing the bulk micromachining process. The experimental results show that the maximum rotational angle is 5.1° at a direct current driving voltage of 30 V. The proposed micromirror array is promising to replace the DMD and shows potential as a spatial light modulator in the fields of hyperspectral imaging, optical communication, and so on.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Pushbroom hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is one of the most commonly used HSI methods [1], which shows outstanding performance in many fields such as remote sensing [2], medical diagnosis [3] and food quality analysis [4]. It has to rely on the relative movement between a mechanical slit and an object being scanned line by line. Therefore, the traditional pushbroom HSI instruments for the ground applications need the slit or the object to be placed on the bulky platforms such as a conveyor belt or a translation stage [5,6], inevitably leading to a larger system volume and the higher energy consumption [7].

Advancements in spatial light modulators (SLMs) based on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) process have provoked revolutionary changes to the HSI system. They enable to steer or manipulate the phase of optical beams and have the prominent advantages of low energy consumption and small size [8], serving as the core of many optical applications, including the light detection and ranging (LiDAR) [911], microscopic imaging [1214], holographic displays [1517]. Especially in the field of HSI [1821], MEMS-based SLMs show more excellent performance. Typically, a pixel-level programmable digital micromirror device (DMD) made by Texas Instrument, as a representative commercial SLM, has appeared in the snapshot spectral imaging systems as binary-coded masks to replace the mechanical ones [1,22,23]. Different from them, to overcome the drawbacks of large volume and high energy consumption in traditional pushbroom HSI systems, DMD-based HSI systems with tunable spatial and spectral resolution were presented in our group by employing the DMD as a scanner to realize rapid scanning on the chip [18,24]. As shown in Fig. 1(a), these customized HSI systems mainly consist of an imaging subsystem, a DMD and a spectral dispersion subsystem. Compared with the slit’s scanning, energy consumption and system weight have been reduced to some extent because of the small size and a low driving voltage of the DMD and the absence of mechanical moving parts. However, since the DMD unit can only rotate around the diagonal, the incident light I and the reflected light $I^{\prime}$ cannot be concurrently in the same horizontal surface when the DMD is horizontally placed (see Fig. 1(b)), resulting in that at least one of the two subsystems has to be tilted according to the horizontal plane. This makes the systems need a higher space height in the Y direction, which is not conducive to the system’s miniaturization. Obviously, it is easier to design the opto-mechanical structures, set up a prototype and debug the light path for an optical system whose elements are all placed in the same horizontal surface. Moreover, when the DMD performs scanning by columns, the adjacent micromirrors hinder the propagation of the partial reflected lights, i.e. $I_1^{\prime}$ and $I_2^{\prime}$, as depicted in Fig. 1(c), and there is gap between them (see Fig. 1(d), the black lines in the graph represent the gaps between the mirrors and the red dashed box represents a modulation unit), causing the loss of light and the resolution about the observed targets. To surmount these barriers, it would be beneficial to develop a new linear micromirror array (MMA) that can rotate around one lateral axis of each micromirror, so that the light path is always horizontal, which will result in a much easier installation and adjustment procedure of such system. Furthermore, the linear micromirror structure will help to decrease the loss of light and raise the system resolution (see in Fig. 1(e)).

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Main components of the DMD-based HSI system. (b) Light path diagram illustrating the optical scanning of the DMD in free space. (c) Partially magnified view of the micromirror array to describe the rotation manner of each micromirror and the capable blocking of the partial propagating reflected lights, i.e. $I_1^{\prime}$ and $I_2^{\prime}$. (d) The image of an object on the DMD in our previous research. (e) The image of an object on the MEMS-based MMA as proposed in this work.

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Compared with other actuators operating such as electrothermally [25], electromagnetically [26], and piezoelectrically [27], electrostatic actuators are widely used in MMAs, owing to their fast response with low energy consumption [2830]. Generally, electrostatic actuators are mainly classified into two types: comb actuators and parallel-plate actuators. The former can offer a larger actuation force density, enabling a larger rotational angle of the micromirror with a low driving voltage [25,30,31]. However, it is difficult for comb actuators to achieve a high filling factor due to their complicated structures and the fussy microfabrication process. On the contrary, parallel-plate actuators are compact and exhibit a direct mapping between the driving voltage and corresponding actuation forces. And they can be easily fabricated thanks to their simple structures [32]. Thus, a large variety of MMAs based on parallel-plate actuators have been reported. But previously designed MMAs [28,29,33,34], all use voltages above 121 V. It is necessary to use the redundant voltage amplification module to provide the driving voltage, seriously impeding the system miniaturization and further increasing the energy consumption.

In this paper, we report on a MEMS-based linear MMA with a high filling factor for spatial light modulation. Unlike the diagonal rotation of the DMD unit, this micromirror rotates around one lateral axis, which enables a totally horizontal light path. Linear micromirrors are utilized to reduce the loss of light and improve the HSI system resolution. We extended the filling factor of the MMA over 98%. In the end, the MMA with high light efficiency was achieved via a bulk micromachining process with only three lithographic masks. The developed MMA would behave as a key spatial light modulator for various potential applications, such as HSI, microscopic imaging, LIDAR systems, and so on.

2. Design and fabrication

2.1 Linear MMA designed with a high filling factor

The three-dimensional (3D) diagram of a high-filling-factor MMA is shown in Fig. 2(a). The proposed MMA consists of 32 linear micromirrors. The close-up view including five micromirrors are shown in an enlarged picture, where some micromirror plates with a reflective gold film are suspended on the common bottom electrode by a pair of serpentine supporting beams connected with anchors. Figure 2(b) gives the main structural parameters of the MMA. Like the surface micromachining process, a dimple structure is specially employed to reduce the stiction when the micromirrors are released and maximize the MMA’s rotational angle [35]. Furthermore, the dimple structure also serves two extra functions for the MMA: (1) preventing the pull-in failure that is commonly existing for the electrostatic parallel-plate actuation; and (2) enhancing the robustness of the micromirror unit like a reinforcing rib, making the whole reflective surface planar when the micromirror is rotated.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the proposed MMA. (a) Three-dimensional view with a locally enlarged picture. (b) Structural parameters of the micromirror unit. (c)-(e) Operational principle of the designed MMA.

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Figures 2(c)-(e) show the operational principle of the designed MMA, taking only one micromirror unit for simplicity. When a certain driving voltage is applied on the left, the bottom of the dimple will touch the substrate immediately. Then, with the further increase of the voltage (see Fig. 2(d)), the movement of the micromirror plate will show an approximately pure rotation due to the dimple structure. As shown in Fig. 2(e), when the driving voltage is applied on the right, the situation is similar. The main parameter values of the proposed MEMS-based MMA are listed in Table 1. In addition, Fig. 3 gives the first three mechanically resonant modes of the micromirror, in which the second mode is desired and rotational around Y axis, and its resonant frequency is 5.17 kHz.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Finite element simulation results of modal analysis.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Device parameters of the designed MMA.

2.2 Linear MMA fabricated by the bulk micromachining process

During the surface micromachining process, release holes are necessary to facilitate the release of the sacrificial layer, leading to a low optical quality of the micromirror surface. Therefore, the proposed MMA will be fabricated through a bulk micromachining technology accompanied by the Si-Glass wafer-level bonding process, which owns the following prominent merits: (1) parallel fabrication of two different substrates, and (2) low residual stress after the wafer-level integration.

Figure 4 shows the fabrication process flow. As shown in Fig. 4(a), the starting 4-inch SOI wafers were cleaned in piranha solution to remove all the organic contaminants. The SOI wafer was composed of a 15-µm-thick device layer, a 1.5-µm-thick buried oxide (BOX) and a 350-µm-thick handle layer. Dimples and anchors were patterned on the device layer of the SOI wafer by normal photolithography, followed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching as shown in Fig. 4(b). Meanwhile, preparing a clean 4-inch BF33 glass wafer as shown in Fig. 4(c). Then, a 10-nm-thick Cr film was deposited to promote the adhesion, followed by coating a 75-nm-thick Au film as shown in Fig. 4(d). Later, to form electrical wirings and pads, the above metal films were patterned on the BF33 glass substrate by wet etching as illustrated in Fig. 4(e). Subsequently, the glass substrate and SOI wafer were integrated at the wafer level by employing a Si-Glass anodic bonding technique as depicted in Fig. 4(f). After that, the handle layer was removed completely through the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) with the BOX layer serving as an etch stop (see Fig. 4(g)), followed by the removal of the BOX layer as shown in Fig. 4(h). To avoid some unnecessary warping and breaking of the silicon film of the device layer, it is critical to design air channels on the device layer and anneal after the bonding. In order to improve the reflectivity of micromirror, a gold film with the thickness of 300 nm was deposited and patterned by the wet etching method as shown in Fig. 4(i) and Fig. 4(j) respectively. In the end, both the micromirror plates and the serpentine supporting beams were defined and released through the DRIE process as shown in Fig. 4(k).

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Cross-sectional view of the fabrication process flow. (a) Start with a SOI wafer. (b) Fabrication of dimple and anchor structures. (c) BF33 glass as the bottom electrode substrate. (d) Deposition of Au and Cr films. (e) Grounding electrode and pad are defined. (f) Si-Glass anodic bonding, (g) DRIE of SOI handle layer. (h) Removal of SOI buried oxide. (i) Deposition of Au film as the reflective surface. (j) Pattern of Au film. (k) Release of the micromirror plate.

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The one-dimensional (1D) MEMS-based MMA has been fabricated through a bulk-micromachining process with only three lithographic masks. To illustrate the macroscopic size of the MMA with a high filling factor, one MMA chip is demonstrated together with a ruler, as shown in Fig. 5(a). The SEM pictures of the fabricated MMA are shown in Figs. 5(b)-(f). The close-up view of some micromirrors in Fig. 5(c) clearly shows the micromirror structures. It is observed that the micromirror surface is flat and smooth enough, and with no release holes, greatly enhancing the optical efficiency of the MMA. The anchors, the serpentine supporting beams and other core structures are shown in Figs. 5(d)-(e). The high filling factor of 98.57% is achieved. The roughness of the micromirror surface is measured in three different regions (S1, S2, S3) by the DektakXT stylus profilometer (see Fig. 6(a)). The detailed measured results give 0.89 nm, 1.04 nm and 0.98 nm, respectively, for a 200-µm length, as shown in Fig. 6(b).

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Fabricated MEMS MMA. (a) The photograph of the MMA compared with a ruler. (b) The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the MMA. (c) Close-up view of six micromirrors. (d) Close-up view of the anchor. (e) Close-up view of the bottom electrode and the micromirror plate. (f) Close-up view of the serpentine supporting beams.

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 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. (a) The DektakXT stylus profilometer picture to measure the device’s surface roughness. (b) The detailed testing result about the roughness of the surface in three different regions (S1, S2, S3).

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3. Results and discussion

To evaluate the electromechanical performance, a 3D interferometer (Veeco, WYKO) and direct current (DC) voltage source are utilized. The picture of the experimental system is shown in Fig. 7(a). The DC voltage source can generate a high voltage within the range of 0∼3000 V. When a DC voltage is applied to a micromirror unit, its rotational state can be directly recorded by the 3D interferometer. Through exerting a series of driving voltages, the measured displacement vs. driving voltage relationship can be obtained for the MMA, which is given in Fig. 7(b). The testing results show that the pull-in voltage is about 30 V. As a result, the driving circuitry of the MMA can be simplified and the energy consumption will be lower compared with some existing MMAs.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Electromechanical performance test of the MMA. (a) Experimental setup for characterizing the electromechanical property. (b) Operational behavior of a micromirror unit when actuated by an increased or decreased driving voltage.

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To measure the maximum optical rotational angle of the developed MMA, an experimental setup was established, as shown in Fig. 8(a). A laser beam with the wavelength of 640 nm was employed. The MMA sample concerned in this paper was indicated by an arrow in the magnified view, in which the MMA chip was adhered to a printed circuit board (PCB) and wire bonded. The observed results presented in Figs. 8(b)-(d) illustrate that the light spot position can be changed with different driving voltages. P1 is an initial position and P2 is the position after rotation. In the case of torsional mode operation, the optical and mechanical rotation angles of the MMA can be calculated (see Fig. 8(e)). The optical rotational angle θ is 10.2°, and thus the mechanical rotational angle α is 5.1°.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Optical experiments of the developed MMA. (a) Setup of experimental system. (b)-(d) Recorded light spot position when the driving voltage is 0 V, 26 V, and 30 V, respectively. (e) Schematic diagram for calculating the rotational angle. (f)-(h) Some typical working states for the MMA, with one micromirror, two micromirrors, and three alternative micromirrors actuated, respectively.

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Figures 8(f)-(h) show the observed microscopy results when different number of micromirrors are actuated. When the driving voltage was 0 V, the reflection image is dark. As the driving voltage increases, the reflection image gets brighter due to that more light is reflected into the objective lens. As seen from the above experimental results, the proposed MMA chip can be used in the HSI system in the future to realize the function of adjusting the slit width by changing the number of columns per modulation unit. And then some scanning modes including rough scanning, fine scanning, and regional scanning can be achieved like our previous HSI systems.

4. Conclusion

A MEMS-based linear micromirror array with a high filling factor for spatial light modulation has been designed and successfully fabricated. The rotating manner around one lateral axis of the MMA can keep the whole optical path horizontal, greatly contributing to the system’s miniaturization. The linear mirror is exploited to decrease the loss of optical information and enhance the resolution of the object. Meanwhile, a 98.6% high filling factor is achieved via 32 linear micromirrors, which is beneficial to improve the light efficiency. The high optical quality and low residual stress, as demonstrated by the fabricated micromirror structure, are guaranteed by exploiting the bulk micromachining technology based on the SOI wafer. The maximal optical rotational angle is 10.2° with an applied bias of 30 V. The MEMS-based MMA proposed here will be greatly attractive for establishing a new HSI system similar to our previous prototypes [18,24], in which the original DMD will be replaced by this MMA, and a further miniaturization of such HSI system can be expected.

Funding

Science, Technology and Innovation Commission of Shenzhen Municipality (JCYJ20180508151936092); National Natural Science Foundation of China (51975483); Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo (202003N4033); Key Research Projects of Shaanxi Province (2020ZDLGY01-03).

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the useful discussions and encouragement from Dr. Xue Dong, Dr. Wenli Li, and Dr. Jiancun Zhao.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

References

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5. J. H. Cheng, D. W. Sun, and H. Pu, “Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen–thawed fish muscle,” Food Chem. 197, 855–863 (2016). [CrossRef]  

6. A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018). [CrossRef]  

7. S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016). [CrossRef]  

8. Y. Wang, G. Zhou, X. Zhang, K. Kwon, P.-A. Blanche, N. Triesault, K.-S. Yu, and M. C. Wu, “2D broadband beamsteering with large-scale MEMS optical phased array,” Optica 6(5), 557–562 (2019). [CrossRef]  

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10. J. Rodriguez, B. Smith, B. Hellman, A. Gin, and A. J. Espinoza, “Multi-beam and single-chip LIDAR with discrete beam-steering by digital micromirror device,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI(2018).

11. Y. Takashima and B. Hellman, “Review paper: imaging lidar by digital micromirror device,” Opt. Rev. 27(5), 400–408 (2020). [CrossRef]  

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14. N. Chakrova, B. Rieger, and S. Stallinga, “Development of a DMD-based fluorescence microscope,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXII(2015).

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References

  • View by:

  1. X. Lin, G. Wetzstein, Y. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Dual-coded compressive hyperspectral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2044 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Boreman and Glenn, “Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 013602 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, and S. Oshita, “Rapid and non-destructive detection of chicken adulteration in minced beef using visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and machine learning,” J. Food Eng. 170, 8–15 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. H. Cheng, D. W. Sun, and H. Pu, “Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen–thawed fish muscle,” Food Chem. 197, 855–863 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Wang, G. Zhou, X. Zhang, K. Kwon, P.-A. Blanche, N. Triesault, K.-S. Yu, and M. C. Wu, “2D broadband beamsteering with large-scale MEMS optical phased array,” Optica 6(5), 557–562 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Wang and C. W. Ming, “Micromirror based optical phased array for wide-angle beamsteering,” in The 30th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2017)(2017), pp. 897–900.
  10. J. Rodriguez, B. Smith, B. Hellman, A. Gin, and A. J. Espinoza, “Multi-beam and single-chip LIDAR with discrete beam-steering by digital micromirror device,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI(2018).
  11. Y. Takashima and B. Hellman, “Review paper: imaging lidar by digital micromirror device,” Opt. Rev. 27(5), 400–408 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. V. Vienola, M. Damodaran, B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, and J. Boer, “Parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope for retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5335–5338 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Chakrova, B. Rieger, and S. Stallinga, “Development of a DMD-based fluorescence microscope,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXII(2015).
  15. M. Chlipala and T. Kozacki, “Color LED DMD holographic display with high resolution across large depth,” Opt. Lett. 44(17), 4255–4258 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Lim, K. Hong, H. Kim, H. E. Kim, E. Y. Chang, S. Lee, T. Kim, J. Nam, H. G. Choo, J. Kim, and J. Hahn, “360-degree tabletop electronic holographic display,” Opt. Express 24(22), 24999–25009 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Pan, G. Wang, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral imaging system with tunable spatial and spectral resolution,” Opt. Express 27(12), 16995–17006 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Abdo, V. Badilita, and J. Korvink, “Spatial scanning hyperspectral imaging combining a rotating slit with a Dove prism,” Opt. Express 27(15), 20290–20304 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. M. P. Arnob, H. Nguyen, Z. Han, and W. C. Shih, “Compressed sensing hyperspectral imaging in the 0.9-2.5 mum shortwave infrared wavelength range using a digital micromirror device and InGaAs linear array detector,” Appl. Opt. 57(18), 5019–5024 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Zamkotsian, Y. Pétremand, P. Lanzoni, S. Lani, and M. Despont, “Large 1D and 2D micro-mirror arrays for universe and Earth observation,” in MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVIII(2019).
  22. Y. Wu, I. O. Mirza, G. R. Arce, and D. W. Prather, “Development of a digital-micromirror-device-based multishot snapshot spectral imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2692–2694 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. Dunlop-Gray Matthew, Phillip K. Poon, Dathon Golish, Esteban Vera, and Michael E. Gehm, “Experimental demonstration of an adaptive architecture for direct spectral imaging classification,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18307 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. X. Dong, G. Tong, X. Song, X. Xiao, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral microscopy with flexible multiline parallel scanning,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 68 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. C. L. Hung, H. Y. H. Lai, T.-W. Lin, S.-G. Fu, and M. S. C. Lu, “An electrostatically driven 2D micro-scanning mirror with capacitive sensing for projection display,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222, 122–129 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. C.-H. Ou, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Keikoin, T. Ono, M. Esashi, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Two-dimensional MEMS Fe-based metallic glass micromirror driven by an electromagnetic actuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SD), SDDL01 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Li, J. Xu, S. Zhong, and Y. Wu, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a high fill-factor micromirror array for wavelength selective switch applications,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 171(2), 274–282 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. B. Hopkins, R. M. Panas, Y. Song, and C. D. White, “A High-Speed Large-Range Tip-Tilt-Piston Micromirror Array,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(1), 196–205 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. M. Weber, W. Noell, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, and N. Rooij, “High aspect ratio micromirror array with two degrees of freedom for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering7594 (2010).
  32. Y. Song, R. M. Panas, and J. B. Hopkins, “A review of micromirror arrays,” Precis. Eng. 51, 729–761 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. D. Canonica, F. Zamkotsian, P. Lanzoni, W. Noell, and N. de Rooij, “The two-dimensional array of 2048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055009 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. Y. U. Yiting, W. Z. Yuan, B. Yan, L. TaiPing, and J. ChengYu, “A new micro programmable blazed grating (µPBG) and its application to multispectral imaging,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 55(11), 1112–1116 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2021 (2)

X. Dong, G. Tong, X. Song, X. Xiao, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral microscopy with flexible multiline parallel scanning,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 68 (2021).
[Crossref]

P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (2)

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Takashima and B. Hellman, “Review paper: imaging lidar by digital micromirror device,” Opt. Rev. 27(5), 400–408 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

2018 (3)

Y. Song, R. M. Panas, and J. B. Hopkins, “A review of micromirror arrays,” Precis. Eng. 51, 729–761 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. P. Arnob, H. Nguyen, Z. Han, and W. C. Shih, “Compressed sensing hyperspectral imaging in the 0.9-2.5 mum shortwave infrared wavelength range using a digital micromirror device and InGaAs linear array detector,” Appl. Opt. 57(18), 5019–5024 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

J. B. Hopkins, R. M. Panas, Y. Song, and C. D. White, “A High-Speed Large-Range Tip-Tilt-Piston Micromirror Array,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(1), 196–205 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Dunlop-Gray Matthew, Phillip K. Poon, Dathon Golish, Esteban Vera, and Michael E. Gehm, “Experimental demonstration of an adaptive architecture for direct spectral imaging classification,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lim, K. Hong, H. Kim, H. E. Kim, E. Y. Chang, S. Lee, T. Kim, J. Nam, H. G. Choo, J. Kim, and J. Hahn, “360-degree tabletop electronic holographic display,” Opt. Express 24(22), 24999–25009 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, and S. Oshita, “Rapid and non-destructive detection of chicken adulteration in minced beef using visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and machine learning,” J. Food Eng. 170, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. H. Cheng, D. W. Sun, and H. Pu, “Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen–thawed fish muscle,” Food Chem. 197, 855–863 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

K. V. Vienola, M. Damodaran, B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, and J. Boer, “Parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope for retinal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5335–5338 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. L. Hung, H. Y. H. Lai, T.-W. Lin, S.-G. Fu, and M. S. C. Lu, “An electrostatically driven 2D micro-scanning mirror with capacitive sensing for projection display,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222, 122–129 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

X. Lin, G. Wetzstein, Y. Liu, and Q. Dai, “Dual-coded compressive hyperspectral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2044 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. D. Canonica, F. Zamkotsian, P. Lanzoni, W. Noell, and N. de Rooij, “The two-dimensional array of 2048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055009 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Li, J. Xu, S. Zhong, and Y. Wu, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a high fill-factor micromirror array for wavelength selective switch applications,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 171(2), 274–282 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, I. O. Mirza, G. R. Arce, and D. W. Prather, “Development of a digital-micromirror-device-based multishot snapshot spectral imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2692–2694 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. U. Yiting, W. Z. Yuan, B. Yan, L. TaiPing, and J. ChengYu, “A new micro programmable blazed grating (µPBG) and its application to multispectral imaging,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 55(11), 1112–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Boreman and Glenn, “Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 013602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Abdo, M.

Arce, G. R.

Arnob, M. M. P.

Badilita, V.

Bancu, M. G.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, K.

S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baranowski, P.

A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bekaert, P.

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Blanche, P.-A.

Boer, J.

Boni, N.

P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
[Crossref]

Boreman, D.

D. Boreman and Glenn, “Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 013602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Braaf, B.

Canonica, M. D.

M. D. Canonica, F. Zamkotsian, P. Lanzoni, W. Noell, and N. de Rooij, “The two-dimensional array of 2048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carminati, R.

P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
[Crossref]

Chakrova, N.

N. Chakrova, B. Rieger, and S. Stallinga, “Development of a DMD-based fluorescence microscope,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXII(2015).

Chang, E. Y.

Cheng, J. H.

J. H. Cheng, D. W. Sun, and H. Pu, “Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen–thawed fish muscle,” Food Chem. 197, 855–863 (2016).
[Crossref]

ChengYu, J.

Y. U. Yiting, W. Z. Yuan, B. Yan, L. TaiPing, and J. ChengYu, “A new micro programmable blazed grating (µPBG) and its application to multispectral imaging,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 55(11), 1112–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chlipala, M.

Choo, H. G.

Dai, Q.

Damodaran, M.

Dan, D.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Rooij, N.

M. D. Canonica, F. Zamkotsian, P. Lanzoni, W. Noell, and N. de Rooij, “The two-dimensional array of 2048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Despont, M.

F. Zamkotsian, Y. Pétremand, P. Lanzoni, S. Lani, and M. Despont, “Large 1D and 2D micro-mirror arrays for universe and Earth observation,” in MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVIII(2019).

Diodoro, B. D.

P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

X. Dong, G. Tong, X. Song, X. Xiao, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral microscopy with flexible multiline parallel scanning,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 68 (2021).
[Crossref]

X. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Pan, G. Wang, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral imaging system with tunable spatial and spectral resolution,” Opt. Express 27(12), 16995–17006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Esashi, M.

C.-H. Ou, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Keikoin, T. Ono, M. Esashi, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Two-dimensional MEMS Fe-based metallic glass micromirror driven by an electromagnetic actuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SD), SDDL01 (2019).
[Crossref]

Espinoza, A. J.

J. Rodriguez, B. Smith, B. Hellman, A. Gin, and A. J. Espinoza, “Multi-beam and single-chip LIDAR with discrete beam-steering by digital micromirror device,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI(2018).

Fei, B.

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, P.

P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.-G.

A. C. L. Hung, H. Y. H. Lai, T.-W. Lin, S.-G. Fu, and M. S. C. Lu, “An electrostatically driven 2D micro-scanning mirror with capacitive sensing for projection display,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222, 122–129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fujita, H.

S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fung, C. D.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gehm, Michael E.

Gin, A.

J. Rodriguez, B. Smith, B. Hellman, A. Gin, and A. J. Espinoza, “Multi-beam and single-chip LIDAR with discrete beam-steering by digital micromirror device,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI(2018).

Glenn,

D. Boreman and Glenn, “Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 013602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Golish, Dathon

Hahn, J.

Han, Z.

Hellman, B.

Y. Takashima and B. Hellman, “Review paper: imaging lidar by digital micromirror device,” Opt. Rev. 27(5), 400–408 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Rodriguez, B. Smith, B. Hellman, A. Gin, and A. J. Espinoza, “Multi-beam and single-chip LIDAR with discrete beam-steering by digital micromirror device,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI(2018).

Hong, K.

Hopkins, J. B.

Y. Song, R. M. Panas, and J. B. Hopkins, “A review of micromirror arrays,” Precis. Eng. 51, 729–761 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Hopkins, R. M. Panas, Y. Song, and C. D. White, “A High-Speed Large-Range Tip-Tilt-Piston Micromirror Array,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(1), 196–205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, J. C.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hung, A. C. L.

A. C. L. Hung, H. Y. H. Lai, T.-W. Lin, S.-G. Fu, and M. S. C. Lu, “An electrostatically driven 2D micro-scanning mirror with capacitive sensing for projection display,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222, 122–129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ichihashi, Y.

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jackin, B. J.

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jorissen, L.

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jutzi, F.

S. M. Weber, W. Noell, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, and N. Rooij, “High aspect ratio micromirror array with two degrees of freedom for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering7594 (2010).

Kamruzzaman, M.

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, and S. Oshita, “Rapid and non-destructive detection of chicken adulteration in minced beef using visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and machine learning,” J. Food Eng. 170, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawai, M.

S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Keikoin, Y.

C.-H. Ou, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Keikoin, T. Ono, M. Esashi, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Two-dimensional MEMS Fe-based metallic glass micromirror driven by an electromagnetic actuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SD), SDDL01 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, H. E.

Kim, J.

Kim, T.

Kirkos, G. A.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Korvink, J.

Kozacki, T.

Kudrle, T. D.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kwon, K.

Lafruit, G.

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Lai, H. Y. H.

A. C. L. Hung, H. Y. H. Lai, T.-W. Lin, S.-G. Fu, and M. S. C. Lu, “An electrostatically driven 2D micro-scanning mirror with capacitive sensing for projection display,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222, 122–129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Langfelder, G.

P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
[Crossref]

Lani, S.

F. Zamkotsian, Y. Pétremand, P. Lanzoni, S. Lani, and M. Despont, “Large 1D and 2D micro-mirror arrays for universe and Earth observation,” in MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVIII(2019).

S. M. Weber, W. Noell, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, and N. Rooij, “High aspect ratio micromirror array with two degrees of freedom for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering7594 (2010).

Lanzoni, P.

M. D. Canonica, F. Zamkotsian, P. Lanzoni, W. Noell, and N. de Rooij, “The two-dimensional array of 2048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055009 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zamkotsian, Y. Pétremand, P. Lanzoni, S. Lani, and M. Despont, “Large 1D and 2D micro-mirror arrays for universe and Earth observation,” in MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVIII(2019).

Lee, S.

Li, S.

S. Li, J. Xu, S. Zhong, and Y. Wu, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a high fill-factor micromirror array for wavelength selective switch applications,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 171(2), 274–282 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y.

Lin, T.-W.

A. C. L. Hung, H. Y. H. Lai, T.-W. Lin, S.-G. Fu, and M. S. C. Lu, “An electrostatically driven 2D micro-scanning mirror with capacitive sensing for projection display,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222, 122–129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

Lin, Y.-C.

C.-H. Ou, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Keikoin, T. Ono, M. Esashi, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Two-dimensional MEMS Fe-based metallic glass micromirror driven by an electromagnetic actuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SD), SDDL01 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lu, G.

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, M. S. C.

A. C. L. Hung, H. Y. H. Lai, T.-W. Lin, S.-G. Fu, and M. S. C. Lu, “An electrostatically driven 2D micro-scanning mirror with capacitive sensing for projection display,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222, 122–129 (2015).
[Crossref]

Makino, Y.

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, and S. Oshita, “Rapid and non-destructive detection of chicken adulteration in minced beef using visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and machine learning,” J. Food Eng. 170, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mastrangelo, C. H.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Matthew, Dunlop-Gray

Mazurek, W.

A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ming, C. W.

Y. Wang and C. W. Ming, “Micromirror based optical phased array for wide-angle beamsteering,” in The 30th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2017)(2017), pp. 897–900.

Ming, L.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mirza, I. O.

Mita, M.

S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Müller, P.

S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nam, J.

Nguyen, H.

Noell, W.

M. D. Canonica, F. Zamkotsian, P. Lanzoni, W. Noell, and N. de Rooij, “The two-dimensional array of 2048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055009 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Weber, W. Noell, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, and N. Rooij, “High aspect ratio micromirror array with two degrees of freedom for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering7594 (2010).

Oi, R.

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ono, T.

C.-H. Ou, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Keikoin, T. Ono, M. Esashi, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Two-dimensional MEMS Fe-based metallic glass micromirror driven by an electromagnetic actuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SD), SDDL01 (2019).
[Crossref]

Oshita, S.

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, and S. Oshita, “Rapid and non-destructive detection of chicken adulteration in minced beef using visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and machine learning,” J. Food Eng. 170, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ou, C.-H.

C.-H. Ou, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Keikoin, T. Ono, M. Esashi, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Two-dimensional MEMS Fe-based metallic glass micromirror driven by an electromagnetic actuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SD), SDDL01 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

Panas, R. M.

Y. Song, R. M. Panas, and J. B. Hopkins, “A review of micromirror arrays,” Precis. Eng. 51, 729–761 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Hopkins, R. M. Panas, Y. Song, and C. D. White, “A High-Speed Large-Range Tip-Tilt-Piston Micromirror Array,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(1), 196–205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pareek, A.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pétremand, Y.

F. Zamkotsian, Y. Pétremand, P. Lanzoni, S. Lani, and M. Despont, “Large 1D and 2D micro-mirror arrays for universe and Earth observation,” in MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVIII(2019).

Poon, Phillip K.

Prather, D. W.

Pu, H.

J. H. Cheng, D. W. Sun, and H. Pu, “Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen–thawed fish muscle,” Food Chem. 197, 855–863 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qi, Y.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rho, V.

P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
[Crossref]

Rieger, B.

N. Chakrova, B. Rieger, and S. Stallinga, “Development of a DMD-based fluorescence microscope,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXII(2015).

Rodriguez, J.

J. Rodriguez, B. Smith, B. Hellman, A. Gin, and A. J. Espinoza, “Multi-beam and single-chip LIDAR with discrete beam-steering by digital micromirror device,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI(2018).

Rooij, N.

S. M. Weber, W. Noell, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, and N. Rooij, “High aspect ratio micromirror array with two degrees of freedom for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering7594 (2010).

Schuhladen, S.

S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shih, W. C.

Shone, T.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siedliska, A.

A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Smith, B.

J. Rodriguez, B. Smith, B. Hellman, A. Gin, and A. J. Espinoza, “Multi-beam and single-chip LIDAR with discrete beam-steering by digital micromirror device,” in Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI(2018).

Song, X.

X. Dong, G. Tong, X. Song, X. Xiao, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral microscopy with flexible multiline parallel scanning,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 68 (2021).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, R. M. Panas, and J. B. Hopkins, “A review of micromirror arrays,” Precis. Eng. 51, 729–761 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Hopkins, R. M. Panas, Y. Song, and C. D. White, “A High-Speed Large-Range Tip-Tilt-Piston Micromirror Array,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(1), 196–205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sosnowska, B.

A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stallinga, S.

N. Chakrova, B. Rieger, and S. Stallinga, “Development of a DMD-based fluorescence microscope,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXII(2015).

Stürmer, M.

S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, D. W.

J. H. Cheng, D. W. Sun, and H. Pu, “Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen–thawed fish muscle,” Food Chem. 197, 855–863 (2016).
[Crossref]

TaiPing, L.

Y. U. Yiting, W. Z. Yuan, B. Yan, L. TaiPing, and J. ChengYu, “A new micro programmable blazed grating (µPBG) and its application to multispectral imaging,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 55(11), 1112–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takashima, Y.

Y. Takashima and B. Hellman, “Review paper: imaging lidar by digital micromirror device,” Opt. Rev. 27(5), 400–408 (2020).
[Crossref]

Tong, G.

X. Dong, G. Tong, X. Song, X. Xiao, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral microscopy with flexible multiline parallel scanning,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 68 (2021).
[Crossref]

Triesault, N.

Tsai, Y.-C.

C.-H. Ou, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Keikoin, T. Ono, M. Esashi, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Two-dimensional MEMS Fe-based metallic glass micromirror driven by an electromagnetic actuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SD), SDDL01 (2019).
[Crossref]

Vera, Esteban

Vermeer, K. A.

Vienola, K. V.

Waelti, M.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wakunami, K.

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wallrabe, U.

S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. C.

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Wang, W.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, G. Zhou, X. Zhang, K. Kwon, P.-A. Blanche, N. Triesault, K.-S. Yu, and M. C. Wu, “2D broadband beamsteering with large-scale MEMS optical phased array,” Optica 6(5), 557–562 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang and C. W. Ming, “Micromirror based optical phased array for wide-angle beamsteering,” in The 30th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2017)(2017), pp. 897–900.

Weber, S. M.

S. M. Weber, W. Noell, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, and N. Rooij, “High aspect ratio micromirror array with two degrees of freedom for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering7594 (2010).

Wetzstein, G.

White, C. D.

J. B. Hopkins, R. M. Panas, Y. Song, and C. D. White, “A High-Speed Large-Range Tip-Tilt-Piston Micromirror Array,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(1), 196–205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Winterhalder, M.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, I. O. Mirza, G. R. Arce, and D. W. Prather, “Development of a digital-micromirror-device-based multishot snapshot spectral imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2692–2694 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Li, J. Xu, S. Zhong, and Y. Wu, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a high fill-factor micromirror array for wavelength selective switch applications,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 171(2), 274–282 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, L.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

X. Dong, G. Tong, X. Song, X. Xiao, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral microscopy with flexible multiline parallel scanning,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 68 (2021).
[Crossref]

X. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Pan, G. Wang, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral imaging system with tunable spatial and spectral resolution,” Opt. Express 27(12), 16995–17006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

S. Li, J. Xu, S. Zhong, and Y. Wu, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a high fill-factor micromirror array for wavelength selective switch applications,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 171(2), 274–282 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, B.

Y. U. Yiting, W. Z. Yuan, B. Yan, L. TaiPing, and J. ChengYu, “A new micro programmable blazed grating (µPBG) and its application to multispectral imaging,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 55(11), 1112–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yano, M.

S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yiting, Y. U.

Y. U. Yiting, W. Z. Yuan, B. Yan, L. TaiPing, and J. ChengYu, “A new micro programmable blazed grating (µPBG) and its application to multispectral imaging,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 55(11), 1112–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, K.-S.

Yu, Y.

X. Dong, G. Tong, X. Song, X. Xiao, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral microscopy with flexible multiline parallel scanning,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 68 (2021).
[Crossref]

X. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Pan, G. Wang, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral imaging system with tunable spatial and spectral resolution,” Opt. Express 27(12), 16995–17006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yuan, W. Z.

Y. U. Yiting, W. Z. Yuan, B. Yan, L. TaiPing, and J. ChengYu, “A new micro programmable blazed grating (µPBG) and its application to multispectral imaging,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 55(11), 1112–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zamkotsian, F.

M. D. Canonica, F. Zamkotsian, P. Lanzoni, W. Noell, and N. de Rooij, “The two-dimensional array of 2048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055009 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zamkotsian, Y. Pétremand, P. Lanzoni, S. Lani, and M. Despont, “Large 1D and 2D micro-mirror arrays for universe and Earth observation,” in MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVIII(2019).

Zappe, H.

S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhong, S.

S. Li, J. Xu, S. Zhong, and Y. Wu, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a high fill-factor micromirror array for wavelength selective switch applications,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 171(2), 274–282 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

Zubik, M.

A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zumbusch, A.

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Sci. (1)

L. Jorissen, R. Oi, K. Wakunami, Y. Ichihashi, G. Lafruit, K. Yamamoto, P. Bekaert, and B. J. Jackin, “Holographic Micromirror Array with Diffuse Areas for Accurate Calibration of 3D Light-Field Display,” Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7188 (2020).
[Crossref]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

Y. U. Yiting, W. Z. Yuan, B. Yan, L. TaiPing, and J. ChengYu, “A new micro programmable blazed grating (µPBG) and its application to multispectral imaging,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 55(11), 1112–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Food Chem. (1)

J. H. Cheng, D. W. Sun, and H. Pu, “Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen–thawed fish muscle,” Food Chem. 197, 855–863 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Food Eng. (1)

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, and S. Oshita, “Rapid and non-destructive detection of chicken adulteration in minced beef using visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and machine learning,” J. Food Eng. 170, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (3)

P. Frigerio, B. D. Diodoro, V. Rho, R. Carminati, N. Boni, and G. Langfelder, “Long-Term Characterization of a New Wide-Angle Micromirror With PZT Actuation and PZR Sensing,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 30(2), 281–289 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. B. Hopkins, R. M. Panas, Y. Song, and C. D. White, “A High-Speed Large-Range Tip-Tilt-Piston Micromirror Array,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 26(1), 196–205 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, M. Mita, H. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, M. Kawai, and M. Yano, “Spatial Light Phase Modulator With Bidirectional Tilt–Piston Micromirror Array—Part II: Fabrication and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 20(1), 279–287 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

M. D. Canonica, F. Zamkotsian, P. Lanzoni, W. Noell, and N. de Rooij, “The two-dimensional array of 2048 tilting micromirrors for astronomical spectroscopy,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C.-H. Ou, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Keikoin, T. Ono, M. Esashi, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Two-dimensional MEMS Fe-based metallic glass micromirror driven by an electromagnetic actuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58(SD), SDDL01 (2019).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. Schuhladen, K. Banerjee, M. Stürmer, P. Müller, U. Wallrabe, and H. Zappe, “Variable optofluidic slit aperture,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Microsyst. Nanoeng. (1)

X. Dong, G. Tong, X. Song, X. Xiao, and Y. Yu, “DMD-based hyperspectral microscopy with flexible multiline parallel scanning,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 68 (2021).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Boreman and Glenn, “Classification of imaging spectrometers for remote sensing applications,” Opt. Eng. 44(1), 013602 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Rev. (1)

Y. Takashima and B. Hellman, “Review paper: imaging lidar by digital micromirror device,” Opt. Rev. 27(5), 400–408 (2020).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Postharvest Biology & Technology (1)

A. Siedliska, P. Baranowski, M. Zubik, W. Mazurek, and B. Sosnowska, “Detection of fungal infections in strawberry fruit by VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imaging,” Postharvest Biology & Technology 139, 115–126 (2018).
[Crossref]

Precis. Eng. (1)

Y. Song, R. M. Panas, and J. B. Hopkins, “A review of micromirror arrays,” Precis. Eng. 51, 729–761 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Dan, L. Ming, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, and Y. Yang, “DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (3)

A. C. L. Hung, H. Y. H. Lai, T.-W. Lin, S.-G. Fu, and M. S. C. Lu, “An electrostatically driven 2D micro-scanning mirror with capacitive sensing for projection display,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222, 122–129 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kudrle, C. C. Wang, M. G. Bancu, J. C. Hsiao, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, G. A. Kirkos, T. Shone, C. D. Fung, and C. H. Mastrangelo, “Single-crystal silicon micromirror array with polysilicon flexures,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 119(2), 559–566 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Li, J. Xu, S. Zhong, and Y. Wu, “Design, fabrication and characterization of a high fill-factor micromirror array for wavelength selective switch applications,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 171(2), 274–282 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

S. M. Weber, W. Noell, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, and N. Rooij, “High aspect ratio micromirror array with two degrees of freedom for femtosecond pulse shaping,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering7594 (2010).

N. Chakrova, B. Rieger, and S. Stallinga, “Development of a DMD-based fluorescence microscope,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XXII(2015).

F. Zamkotsian, Y. Pétremand, P. Lanzoni, S. Lani, and M. Despont, “Large 1D and 2D micro-mirror arrays for universe and Earth observation,” in MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVIII(2019).

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Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Main components of the DMD-based HSI system. (b) Light path diagram illustrating the optical scanning of the DMD in free space. (c) Partially magnified view of the micromirror array to describe the rotation manner of each micromirror and the capable blocking of the partial propagating reflected lights, i.e. $I_1^{\prime}$ and $I_2^{\prime}$. (d) The image of an object on the DMD in our previous research. (e) The image of an object on the MEMS-based MMA as proposed in this work.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the proposed MMA. (a) Three-dimensional view with a locally enlarged picture. (b) Structural parameters of the micromirror unit. (c)-(e) Operational principle of the designed MMA.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Finite element simulation results of modal analysis.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Cross-sectional view of the fabrication process flow. (a) Start with a SOI wafer. (b) Fabrication of dimple and anchor structures. (c) BF33 glass as the bottom electrode substrate. (d) Deposition of Au and Cr films. (e) Grounding electrode and pad are defined. (f) Si-Glass anodic bonding, (g) DRIE of SOI handle layer. (h) Removal of SOI buried oxide. (i) Deposition of Au film as the reflective surface. (j) Pattern of Au film. (k) Release of the micromirror plate.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Fabricated MEMS MMA. (a) The photograph of the MMA compared with a ruler. (b) The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the MMA. (c) Close-up view of six micromirrors. (d) Close-up view of the anchor. (e) Close-up view of the bottom electrode and the micromirror plate. (f) Close-up view of the serpentine supporting beams.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) The DektakXT stylus profilometer picture to measure the device’s surface roughness. (b) The detailed testing result about the roughness of the surface in three different regions (S1, S2, S3).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Electromechanical performance test of the MMA. (a) Experimental setup for characterizing the electromechanical property. (b) Operational behavior of a micromirror unit when actuated by an increased or decreased driving voltage.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Optical experiments of the developed MMA. (a) Setup of experimental system. (b)-(d) Recorded light spot position when the driving voltage is 0 V, 26 V, and 30 V, respectively. (e) Schematic diagram for calculating the rotational angle. (f)-(h) Some typical working states for the MMA, with one micromirror, two micromirrors, and three alternative micromirrors actuated, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Device parameters of the designed MMA.

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