Abstract

Dynamical tunable plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) possesses the unique characteristics of controlling light propagation states, which promises numerous potential applications in efficient optical signal processing chips and nonlinear optical devices. However, previously reported configurations are sensitive to polarization and can merely operate under specific single polarization. In this work we propose an anisotropic PIT metamaterial device based on a graphene-black phosphorus (G-BP) heterostructure to realize a dual-polarization tunable PIT effect. The destructive interference coupling between the bright mode and dark modes under the orthogonal polarization state pronounced anisotropic PIT phenomenon. The coupling strength of the PIT system can be modulated by dynamically manipulating the Fermi energy of the graphene via the external electric field voltage. Moreover, the three-level plasmonic system and the coupled oscillator model are employed to explain the underlying mechanism of the PIT effect, and the analytical results show good consistency with the numerical calculations. Compared to the single-polarization PIT devices, the proposed device offers additional degrees of freedom in realizing universal tunable functionalities, which could significantly promote the development of next-generation integrated optical processing chips, optical modulation and slow light devices.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a coherent nonlinear optical effect that occurs in three-level atomic systems and gives rise to a sharp transparency window within a broad absorption band [1,2]. On account of extreme dispersion, the EIT effect enables widespread applications in the fields of nonlinear optics and integrated optical processing chips [3]. Whereas, its practical implementation is strictly limited by stable gas lasers and low-temperature environments [4]. To mimic the EIT phenomenon, the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect results from the strong destructive interference coupling phenomenon between bright and dark plasmonic modes, and has shown great potential in optical sensors [5,6], modulators [79], optical buffers [10], and slow light devices [11]. Recently, plenty of metal-based metamaterial structures, including waveguide structures [12], split-ring resonance structures [13] and multi-nanorod array structures [14], have been proposed and demonstrated to realize the PIT effects. However, once these metal-based devices are fabricated, the tunability of the PIT windows is hard to obtain owing to its fixed spectral response and operating frequency [15,16]. Meanwhile, these PIT structures unavoidably suffer from limited plasma lifetime and high ohmic loss [10]. These shortcomings severely hinder the practical applications of the tunable PIT devices.

To address this issue, graphene, an emerging two-dimensional material composed of honeycomb carbon atoms, has been proposed to design tunable PIT devices, since its plasmonic response can be actively adjusting via the controllable Fermi energy [1719]. Due to its superior optical properties, including flexible tunability, tightly field confinement, and low propagation loss [2022], a variety of graphene-based PIT devices, such as graphene-metal hybrid structures [16,23], multi-layer graphene structures [24,25], and graphene-based metastructures [26,27], have been studied to actively adjust the PIT effects. However, these devices are sensitive to polarization, and can merely operate under single specific polarization. Limited by its isotropic property, the graphene-based PIT devices are hard to independently tune the PIT effects under two orthogonal polarizations [16,28,29], severely leading to low efficiency in practical applications. In particular, different polarization states could carry independent information in an optical signal processing system. The anisotropic PIT devices greatly increase the information capacity, and offer additional degrees of freedom to design universal tunable devices.

Unlike graphene, as another newly emerging two-dimensional van der Waals material, black phosphorus (BP), has attracted extensive attention owing to its high carrier density, remarkable electrical and optical properties. Especially, its atoms covalently bond with three others and form a hexagonal lattice with a puckered honeycomb structure. This special atomic structure gives rise to the highly in-plane anisotropic properties, offering additional degrees of freedom to design tunable PIT devices [3033]. By adjusting the electron density along the two lattice directions in BP, the wavelength of the PIT window in the corresponding direction can be dynamically tuned in a wide range. However, the plasmon resonances of the doped and patterned BP are relatively weak, resulting in a low group index or a weak transmission coefficient of the PIT windows, which is not conducive to the design of high-performance anisotropic tunable devices. Herein, we proposed an anisotropic PIT metamaterial device based on graphene-black phosphorus (G-BP) heterostructure to realize a dual-polarization tunable PIT effect. Capitalizing on the advantages of graphene and BP, the proposed structure exhibits strong anisotropic plasmon responses, a feature that is not available in PIT structures based on monolayer graphene or monolayer BP. By dynamically manipulating the Fermi energy of the graphene via the external electric field voltage, the PIT windows can be independently adjusted under two orthogonal polarizations. Owing to its dual-polarization tunable property, the designed PIT devices open up a new opportunity toward efficient optical signal processing chips and slow light devices.

2. Structure and principle

The schematic diagram of the G-BP PIT metamaterial nanostructure is shown in Fig. 1(a), which is composed of the graphene-black phosphorus nanodisk (GBPD) and the graphene-black phosphorus nanostrips (GBPS). To study the proposed PIT effect based on G-BP metamaterials, numerical simulation calculations are performed by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In the simulation, the x- and y-directions are set as periodic boundary conditions, and the perfect matching layer is applied to the z-direction. The polarized plane electromagnetic wave is incident along the z-axis direction, and the angle of polarization direction is defined as θ with respect to the x-axis. As indicated in Fig. 1(b), the radius R of GBPD is 100 nm, the length Lh and width Wh of horizontal GBPS are 320 nm and 30 nm, respectively, the length Lv and width Wv of vertical GBPS are 170 nm and 25 nm, respectively. It is noting that when the diameter of GBPD and GBPS are larger than 20 nm, the quantum confinement effects associated to the type of edges can be ignored [34,35]. The gap distance d between GBPD and horizontal GBPS, GBPD and vertical GBPS are 15 nm and 7.5 nm, respectively. Both the graphene layer and BP layer are set to be 0.5 nm thick, and the mesh size gradually increases outside the graphene and BP layer, where the maximum element size is set as 0.05 nm. All nanostructures are placed on a 120 nm thick CaF2 layer with a relative permittivity of 2.05 [26]. The substrate beneath CaF2 is Si with a relative permittivity of 11.7 [36].

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of the proposed G-BP PIT metamaterial structure. The G-BP pattern structures integrate with the CaF2/Si layers. (b) The cross-section and top view of the unit cell, Px= Py = 350 nm, R = 100 nm, Lh = 320 nm, Wh = 30 nm, Lv = 170 nm and Wv = 25 nm. The transmission spectra of PIT metamaterial structure based on (c) monolayer graphene, (d) monolayer BP and (e) G-BP heterostructure along the x- and y-directions with the same electron doping n = 1.9×1013 cm-2. The inset shows the schematic diagram of the corresponding metamaterial structure.

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In the infrared region, the surface conductivity of graphene can be described by the Drude model as [37]

$$\sigma (\omega ) = \frac{{{e^2}{E_F}}}{{\pi \hbar }}\frac{i}{{\omega + i{\tau ^{ - 1}}}},$$
where e is the elementary charge, τ is the electron relaxation time, ћ is the reduced Planck constant, ω is the angular frequency of the incident light, and EF is the Fermi energy. The EF of graphene can be calculated by ${E_F} = \hbar {\nu _F}{(\pi n)^{1/2}}$[10], where vF = 106 m/s is the Fermi velocity, and n is the doping concentration. The dielectric constant of graphene can be described by ${\varepsilon _\textrm{g}}(\omega )\textrm{ = 1 + i}{\sigma _g}(\omega )/({\varepsilon _0}\omega {t_g})$ [38], where σg is surface conductivity of graphene, ε0 is the dielectric constant of vacuum, tg is the thickness of graphene.

The anisotropic conductivity σjj of the monolayer BP can be given by a simple semiclassical Drude model [39]

$${\sigma _{jj}}(\omega ) = \frac{{i{D_j}}}{{\pi (\omega + i\eta /\hbar )}},{D_j} = \pi {e^2}\frac{n}{{{m_j}}},$$
where j = x or y denotes the direction concerned, e is the elementary charge, Dj is the Drude weight, η = 10 meV is the relaxation rate. mj is the electron mass along the x- and y-direction. For monolayer BP, mx ≈ 0.15m0, my ≈ 0.7m0, where m0 = 9.10938×10−31 kg is the standard electron rest mass [17,40]. The dielectric constant of black phosphorus can be described by ${\varepsilon _{\textrm{BP}}}(\omega )\textrm{ = 5}\textrm{.76 + i}{\sigma _{BP}}(\omega )/({\varepsilon _0}\omega {t_{BP}})$[41], where σBP is surface conductivity of black phosphorus, tBP is the thickness of black phosphorus. The doping concentration n of black phosphorus is set the same as that of graphene throughout the simulations [17,42], and the electron doping n = 1.9×1013 cm-2 is set at the beginning.

In practice, such device may be fabricated by the following steps [43]. Firstly, the monolayer graphene can be grown on copper foil by chemical vapor deposition method. The bulk BP is fabricated from red phosphorus through a high-pressure and temperature process. Subsequently, the monolayer BP can be peeled off from the bulk BP, and be transferred onto the CaF2/Si substrate via mechanical exfoliation method. Then immediately, the monolayer graphene is transferred on the top of BP flake by a PMMA-assisted method. Finally, the PIT device based on G-BP heterostructure can be fabricated by Nano-printing technique.

To investigate the anisotropic characteristics of the proposed metamaterial structure, we first compare the optical response of the metamaterials based on monolayer graphene, monolayer BP and G-BP heterostructure. In order to achieve the PIT effect in the metamaterial structures based on monolayer graphene and monolayer BP, the length of nanostrips is adjusted to realize the coupling between the nanostrips and nanodisk, where the other structure parameters are fixed. Thus, the Lh and Lv are set to 255 nm and 170 nm in metamaterial structure based on monolayer graphene, respectively. The Lh and Lv are set to 320 nm and 100 nm in metamaterial structure based on monolayer BP, respectively. Their corresponding transmission spectra with the polarization along x- and y-direction as shown in Figs. 1(c)–1(e). It can be seen from Fig. 1(c) that the transmission spectrum exhibits a prominent transparency window with a maximum transmission coefficient of 44.72% at 12.35 μm along the y-direction. While it exhibits a typical Lorentz line-shape spectrum without a transparency window at 12.98 μm along the x-direction. The generation of transparency window along the y-direction results from the coupling between horizontal nanostrips with the suitable structural parameters and nanodisk. However, limited by its isotropic property, the graphene-based PIT device is hard to realize the dual-polarization PIT effects. As depicted in Fig. 1(d), a weak transparency window with a maximum transmission coefficient of 85.85% is observed at 17.01 μm for the x-direction in BP-based metamaterial structure, owing to its relatively weak plasmon resonance. In contrast, it is worth noting that the metamaterial based on G-BP heterostructure exhibits strong and prominent transparency windows for both polarization directions, but with different center wavelengths due to the relatively plasmon resonance and anisotropic feature of G-BP heterostructure. As shown in Fig. 1(e), the maximum transmission coefficients of transparency windows located at 12.08 μm (49.66%) and 11.72 μm (53.40%) for the x and y polarization directions, respectively. This powerful anisotropic characteristic of the metamaterial based on G-BP heterostructure allows us to realize the dual-polarization induced transparency windows.

3. Results and discussion

To investigate the mechanism of the induced transparency windows in the proposed G-BP PIT metamaterial structure, we numerically calculated the transmission spectra in different configurations along the x- and y-polarization directions. The transmission spectra of the GBPS and GBPD for the x-direction are shown in Fig. 2(a). The corresponding electric field distributions at the transmission dip (10.45 μm) are displayed in Fig. 2(b). It can be seen that the strong plasmonic resonant peak can be observed for the GBPD, which can be served as bright mode. While for the GBPS, the plasmonic response can’t be directly excited, which can be served as the dark mode. When the GBPD and GBPS are combined, the coupling between the bright mode and dark mode results in a PIT window in the transmission spectrum, as shown in Fig. 2(e). A transparency window with a center wavelength at 10.45 μm appears between two dips at 10.13 μm and 12.11 μm.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Transmission spectra of the dark mode (GBPS) and bright mode (GBPD) along the (a) x- and (c) y-directions. The corresponding electric field distributions at transmission dips along the (b) x- and (d) y-directions. Transmission spectra of the G-BP PIT metamaterial structure along the (e) x- and (g) y-directions. The corresponding electric field distributions along the (f) x- and (h) y-directions.

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To further explain this PIT phenomenon, the electric field distributions in the G-BP metamaterial are shown in Fig. 2(b) and 2(f). The electromagnetic energy is distributed in the GBPD at 10.45 μm as shown in Fig. 2(b), corresponding to the plasmonic response of GBPD. When the strong coupling between GBPD and GBPS occurs, it can be seen that the electromagnetic energy transferred from GBPD to vertical GBPS at 10.45 μm due to the near-field coupling between the bright mode and dark mode, thus generating a typical PIT effect and the emergence of the transparency window. While at 10.13 μm and 12.11 μm, the electromagnetic energy is distributed in GBPS and GBPD.

As for the y-direction, a similar PIT phenomenon can be observed and explained, only with the difference in the operating wavelength due to the anisotropic conductivity of the metamaterial. As shown in Fig. 2(c), the resonance peak of GBPD move toward longer wavelengths due to the larger electron mass of BP along the y-direction than that along the x-direction. The corresponding electric field distributions at 12.33 μm are displayed in Fig. 2(d). Consequently, a transparency window with a longer center wavelength located at 12.33 μm appears between two dips at 11.71 μm and 13.47 μm, as shown in Fig. 2(g). The induced transparency window also can be explained by the near-field coupling between the bright mode in GBPD and the dark mode in horizontal GBPS, as illustrated in the electric field distribution in Fig. 2(d) and 2(h). The electromagnetic energy in the GBPD is suppressed owing to the destructive interference, and concentrated into the dark mode in the horizontal GBPS, leading to a transparency window at 12.33 μm. Therefore, the near-field coupling between the bright and dark modes induced by the combination of the isolated GBPD and GBPS can generate a PIT window.

It is further shown that the coupling strength between bright and dark modes can be modulated by changing the gap distance between the GBPD and GBPS. Figure 3(a) shows the transmission spectra along y-direction at various dh from 5 to 20 nm with an increment of 5 nm. It is noting that as dh increases the left dips have a red-shift while the right dips have a blue-shift. Meantime, the intensity of PIT window decreases. To gain more insight into the physical mechanism, we examine the analogy between our system and atomic EIT. The widely used three-level plasmonic systems can be adapted to analyze the properties of the G-BP PIT metamaterial. The field distributions of the Ez component indicating the corresponding surface charge distributions are shown in Fig. 3 (b). There are two states in the system, the radiative plasmonic state and the dark plasmonic state. The GBPD, radiative plasmonic state $|1 \rangle = \mathop {{A_1}}\limits^\sim (\omega){e^{i\omega t}}$, is strongly coupled with the incident light served as bright mode, which has the resonant frequency ω1 and damping factors γ1, while the horizontal GBPS, dark plasmonic state $|\textrm{2} \rangle = \mathop {{A_2}}\limits^\sim (\omega) {e^{i\omega t}}$, is weakly coupled with the incident light served as a dark mode which has the resonant frequency ω2 and damping factors γ2. When two possible paths, |0〉→|1〉 and |0〉→|1〉→|2〉→|1〉 destructively interfere, the field of the radiative plasmonic state is almost diminished, reducing electromagnetic energy absorption. Moreover, the near-field coupling of |1〉 and |2〉 lead to two new hybridized modes, resulting in two transmission dips with one at high frequency |+〉 and the other at low frequency |−〉. Therefore, the band-gap is opened at the resonant frequency ω1, resulting in inefficient light absorption and the appearance of a transparent window. In this sense, the PIT effect could be considered as a by-product of mode hybridization. In the meantime, when the y-polarized light wave is incident on the metamaterial, the GBPD works as a radiative plasmonic state, and the horizontal GBPS works as a dark plasmonic state. The destructive interference between them results in another PIT window along the y-direction. It can be expected from the above analysis that the x- and y-polarized light wave produce different transparent windows with different center wavelengths, thus exhibiting dual-polarization independent resonance responses.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Evolution of transmission spectra as the diameter dh increases from 5 to 20 nm with a step of 5 nm along the y-direction. (b) Coupled energy-level model of the PIT system and the destructive interfering pathways. The field distribution of the Ez component calculated at 11.71 μm (anti-bonding mode), 13.47 μm (bonding mode), 12.33 μm (bright mode, dark mode, and PIT) when dh= 15 nm.

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The dual-polarization independent modulation of PIT windows can be achieved by manipulating the Fermi energy of graphene strips. Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the transmission spectra at various Fermi energy EFd of horizontal graphene strips from 0.4 eV to 0.5 eV with an increment of 0.025 eV along the x- and y-direction. As for the x-direction, seen from Fig. 4(a), the transparency window is immune to the change of EFd. As for the y-direction, seen from Fig. 4(b), when EFd = 0.4 eV, the transmission spectrum with an amplitude of 33.40% at 12.18 μm. As the EFd increases, the transparency window gradually appears and the transparency dips blue shift. Especially, the transmission bands are not crossed. When EFd = 0.5 eV, an obvious transparency window exhibits an amplitude of 84.24% at 12.18 μm, demonstrating the transparency window can be independently modulated under the orthogonal polarization. The modulation depth defined as | (Ton - Toff) / Ton |×100%, can reach up to 57.98%, where Ton and Toff denote the transmission coefficient with the PIT window on and off state, respectively. The mapping diagrams in Figs. 4(c) shows the evolution of the PIT window along the y-direction as EFd from 0.4 eV to 0.6 eV, demonstrating the typical rabbi splitting phenomenon caused by the hybridization between the bright and dark modes.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) and (b) are transmission spectra of G-BP PIT metamaterial structure evolves as the EFd of horizontal nanostrips increases from 0.4 eV to 0.5 eV with a step of 0.025 eV along the x- and y-directions. (c) Numerical transmissions spectra mapping as EFd of horizontal nanostrips varies from 0.4 eV to 0.6 eV along the y-direction. (d) Analytical dispersion relations of dark mode, bright mode and hybrid mode.

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To quantitatively describe the switching modulation phenomenon along the y-direction, we investigate the dispersion relation of strong coupling in the coupled oscillator model, which can be express as [44]

$${\omega _ \pm }\textrm{ = }\frac{{{\omega _b} + {\omega _d}}}{2} \pm \frac{1}{2}\sqrt {( {\omega _b} - {\omega _d}){^2}\textrm{ + }{\Omega ^2}} ,$$
where ω± represent the resonant frequencies of the hybrid modes, ωb is the resonant frequencies of metasurface with the nanodisk, ωd is the resonant frequency of metasurface with the horizontal nanostrips. Ω is coupling frequency, used to evaluate the coupling strength between the bright and dark modes. We extracted the resonance wavelengths at the transmission dips and compared them with the theoretical curve calculated by Eq. (3), as shown in Fig. 4(d). The anti-crossing behavior with Ω = 3.18 THz due to the hybridization can be observed and the numerical results are well matched to the theoretical curves. It can be seen from Fig. 4(c) and 4(d), as EF increases from 0.4 eV to 0.6 eV, the dips of hybrid modes both have a blue-shift, but do not cross to each other and are separated by an energy gap 13.15 meV (2πℏΩ = 13.15 meV) [41]. Another important feature is that the transmission bandwidth of left band become narrower, while the right band become wider as EFd increasing, exhibiting an anti-crossing feature owing to the hybridization between the bright and dark modes. This result confirms that the switching modulation phenomenon is derived from the hybridization between the bright mode and the dark mode. Such dual-polarization independently tunable PIT effect of the G-BP PIT metamaterial structure offers a feasible way to modulate the PIT windows.

It is further found that the number of PIT windows can be modulated by changing the polarization direction of the excitation light without re-fabricating the metamaterials. Figures 5(a)‘5(e) show transmission spectra for different polarization angles θ. When θ = 0°, the transparency window with center wavelength located at 10.45 μm emerges in the transmission spectrum. As θ increases from 0° to 45°, another transparency window with center wavelength located at 12.33 μm gradually appears, resulting in the increased number of transparency window from 1 to 2. As θ further increases to 90°, the transparency window with center wavelength located at 10.45 μm gradually disappeared, leaving only one transparency window in the transmission spectrum.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) - (e) are the transmission spectra of G-BP PIT metamaterial structure at different polarization angles θ. Vertical red and green dashed lines mark the transparency window points along the x- and y-direction, respectively. Corresponding electric field distributions at (f) 10.45 μm and (g) 12.33 μm.

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In order to understand the physical mechanism of polarization-controllable PIT effect, we investigate the evolution of the electric field distributions with increasing polarization angles. The calculated electric field distributions of the metamaterial with center wavelength located at 10.45 μm are shown in Figs. 5(f), while that at 12.33 μm are shown in Figs. 5(g). At the polarization angle of θ = 0°, the near-field coupling between the bright mode in nanodisk and the dark mode in vertical nanostrips results in a transparency window emerges at 10.45 μm. While the corresponding electromagnetic energy of the metamaterial at 12.33 μm is mainly concentrated around nanodisk. When θ = 22.5°, the coupling between nanodisk and horizontal nanostrips causes a portion of the corresponding electromagnetic energy to be transferred from nanodisk to horizontal nanostrips at 12.33 μm, resulting in the appearance of the other transparency window. As θ gradually increases, the corresponding electromagnetic energy gradually transfers from nanodisk to horizontal nanostrips at 12.33 μm, while the corresponding electromagnetic energy gradually weakens in vertical nanostrips at 10.45 μm. When θ = 90°, the electromagnetic energy is finally concentrated at horizontal nanostrips, resulting in the reduced number of transparency window to 1 again at 12.33 μm. Such polarization-controllable PIT effect of the G-BP PIT metamaterial structure offers a feasible way to adjust the number of the PIT windows in practice.

We then investigate the dynamically tunable wavelength of PIT windows by tuning the Fermi energy EF of the graphene disk and graphene strips. The numerical simulations of the G-BP PIT metamaterial structure in different EF are shown in Fig. 6. As the EF increases from 0.4 eV to 1.0 eV as shown in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), the center wavelength of the PIT window is blue-shift and the resonance intensity is significantly enhanced for both polarization directions. The mapping diagrams of Figs. 6(c) and 6(d) show the transmission spectra along the x- and y-directions, respectively, when EF increased from 0.2 eV to 1.0 eV. The center wavelength of transparency window blue shifts from 18.75 µm to 7.06 µm for x-polarization and from 21.81 µm to 7.87 µm for y-polarization, respectively. This behavior can be interpreted by the resonant wavelength λ related to the carrier density of the G-BP heterostructure n, which is related by $\lambda \propto \sqrt {1/n} $ [40,45]. By dynamically adjusting EF, the wavelength of the PIT window can be adjusted in a wide range, which is a feature not available in metallic materials. The flexibly adjustable G-BP PIT metamaterial structure may be used in dual-polarization channel electro-optic switches and optical filters.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Along (a) x- and (b) y-directions, transmission spectra of the FDTD calculations (lines) and the analytical fitting (circles) in G-BP PIT metamaterial structure when EF is 0.4 eV, 0.6 eV, 0.8 eV and 1.0 eV (the corresponding doping concentration of BP are 1.18×1013 cm-2, 2.64×1013 cm-2, 4.70×1013 cm-2, 7.35×1013 cm-2, respectively). Transmission Mapping along (c) x- and (d) y-directions as EF is increased from 0.2 eV to 1.0 eV. The change in the center wavelength of transparency window with EF is illustrated by the red ball. Extracted simulated coupling and damping parameters with different EF along (e) x- and (f) y-directions.

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To further elucidate the wavelength modulation of PIT effect, we analytical the transmission spectra fitted by the three-level plasmonic systems theory. The interference between the bright and dark modes can be described as a linearly Lorentz oscillator model [16,32]:

$$\left[ {\begin{array}{cc} {\omega - {\omega_1} + i{\gamma_1}}&\kappa \\ \kappa &{\omega - {\omega_2} + i{\gamma_2}} \end{array}} \right]\left[ {\begin{array}{c} {\mathop {{A_\textrm{1}}}\limits^\sim }\\ {\mathop {{A_2}}\limits^\sim } \end{array}} \right] = \left[ {\begin{array}{c} {g\mathop {{E_0}}\limits^\sim }\\ 0 \end{array}} \right],$$
where κ is the coupling between the radiative plasmonic state and the dark plasmonic state, and g is a geometric parameter representing the coupling strength of the radiative plasmonic state to the incident electromagnetic field. Therefore, the transmission can be given as follows,
$$T = 1 - {\left|{\frac{{\mathop {{A_1}}\limits^\sim }}{{\mathop {E{}_0}\limits^\sim }}} \right|^\textrm{2}} = 1 - {g^{_2}}/{\left|{\frac{{{\kappa^2}}}{{\omega - {\omega_2} + i{\gamma_2}}} - (\omega - {\omega_1} + i{\gamma_1})} \right|^2}.$$

Through the analytical fit of the Eq. (5), Figs. 6(e) and 6(f) illustrate the fitting parameters with different Fermi energy EF along the x- and y-direction, respectively. As can be seen from Figs. 6(e) and 6(f), the extracted simulated coupling and damping parameters have the same trend along the x- and y-direction. As the EF increases, the near-field interactions enhance the destructive interference of the excitation, resulting in an increase in the coupling strength κ, facilitating the energy exchange between the dark modes and the bright modes. Specifically, as the EF increases, the damping rates γ2 represent the loss in the dark modes increases, while the damping rates γ1 indicating the loss in the bright modes decreases. In addition, the κ of the PIT windows along the x-direction (26.80THz) is larger than that along the y-direction (18.55THz) when EF=1.0 eV, indicating that the near-field coupling strength of the bright and dark modes along the x-direction is stronger than that along the y-direction. This is because the energy (resonance frequency) along the x-direction (42.43 THz) is higher than that along the y-direction (38.27 THz), and the gap distance between GBPD and vertical GBPS is closer than horizontal GBPS. Moreover, the theoretical transmission curve is consistent with the numerical calculations as shown in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), confirming the effectiveness of our design of G-BP PIT metamaterials.

It’s well known that PIT effect can greatly slow the speed of light by obtaining strong phase dispersion [46]. Thus, the controllable slow-light metamaterial can trap photons inside the structure for a long time, which can enhance light-matter interactions and nonlinear effects. The performance of the slow light effect can be characterized by group index ng, calculated by [15,33]:

$${\textrm{n}_\textrm{g}} = \frac{c}{H}{\tau _g} = \frac{c}{H}\frac{{d\varphi (\omega )}}{{d\omega }},$$
where c represents the light velocity in vacuum, H = 120 nm denotes the thickness of downer substrate, τg indicates the optical delay time, φ(ω) is the phase response of the transmission spectrum, and ω represents the angular frequency.

The relationship between group refractive index or phase shift and the wavelength when EF = 0.2 eV, 0.6 eV, 1.0 eV along the x- and y-directions are shown in Figs. 7(a)–7(f). The phase is calculated by θ=arg(t), where t represents the transmission coefficient. The surface plasmons yield intense interaction around the transparent window, resulting in strong phase dispersion. Hereafter, the sharp shift of the phase produces an extreme change in the group index. It can be seen that the phase shift and the group index vary a lot at two dips of the PIT window. As the EF increasing from 0.2 eV to 1.0 eV, the maximum group index calculated by Eq. (6) near the dip of the transparency window increase along both directions. In addition, the maximum group index along the y-direction is larger than the maximum group index along the x-direction at the same EF. When EF = 1.0 eV, this structure achieves a maximum group index of 348.5 along the y direction, which is strikingly larger than that of the PIT devices based on monolayer BP [3133]. With the help of such a large group index, the nonlinear effects can be highly enhanced, makes it have great potential for constructing versatile tunable all-optical logic devices and the large-scale optical circuit with signal processing.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Along the x- and y-directions, the corresponding group index and phase shift of G-BP PIT metamaterial structure when EF is (a, b) 0.2 eV, (c, d) 0.6 eV and (e, f) 1.0 eV.

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4. Conclusion

In conclusions, we numerically investigate a dual-polarized tunable PIT effect in a GND-GNS hybrid metamaterial structure. The numerical results verify that the anisotropic PIT resonance can be achieved by the strong destructive interference coupling between the bright and dark mode under the orthogonal polarization. Importantly, by dynamically manipulating the Fermi energy of the dark mode from 0.4 eV to 0.5 eV, the PIT windows can be modulated at on and off state. Moreover, by simply changing the polarization angle of the incident light from 0° to 90°, the number of PIT windows can be flexibly tuned between 1 and 2 with adjustable amplitude. By simultaneously manipulating the Fermi energy of the bright and dark mode from 0.2 eV to 1.0 eV, the wavelength of PIT windows can be adjusted in the wide range from 18.75 µm to 7.06 µm and from 21.81 µm to 7.87 µm along x- and y- polarization, respectively. The proposed dual-polarized tunable PIT device may open up a feasible way for complex electromagnetic wave modulation, accelerating the development of active high-performance all-optical switching and modulators in chip-integrated photonic circuits.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61875025); Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing (cstc2020jcyj-jqX0015); the Chongqing Talent Plan for Young TopNotch Talents (CQYC201905010); Chongqing Natural Science Foundation of Innovative Research Groups (cstc2020jcyj-cxttX0005); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2018CDQYGD0022, cqu2018CDHB1B03); Postgraduate education and teaching reform research project of Chongqing University (cquyjg20323); Education and teaching reform research project of Chongqing University (2019Y22).

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Ministry of Education of China for technical support.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

The data that supports the findings of this study are available within the article.

References

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2. S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: Interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1033–1036 (1989). [CrossRef]  

3. Z. D. C. Liu, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001). [CrossRef]  

4. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009). [CrossRef]  

5. T. Ma, Q. Huang, H. He, Y. Zhao, X. Lin, and Y. Lu, “All-dielectric metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency and its sensing application in terahertz range,” Opt. Express 27(12), 16624–16634 (2019). [CrossRef]  

6. M. Yang, L. Liang, Z. Zhang, Y. Xin, D. Wei, X. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, M. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Wang, and J. Yao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterials for detection of lung cancer cells,” Opt. Express 27(14), 19520–19529 (2019). [CrossRef]  

7. J. Nong, F. Feng, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Controllable hybridization between localized and delocalized anisotropic borophene plasmons in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 46(4), 725–728 (2021). [CrossRef]  

8. J. Nong, F. Feng, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Effective Transmission Modulation at Telecommunication Wavelengths through Continuous Metal Films Using Coupling between Borophene Plasmons and Magnetic Polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(7), 2001809 (2021). [CrossRef]  

9. J. Nong, X. Xiao, F. Feng, B. Zhao, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Active tuning of longitudinal strong coupling between anisotropic borophene plasmons and Bloch surface waves,” Opt. Express 29(17), 27750–27759 (2021). [CrossRef]  

10. T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018). [CrossRef]  

11. J. S. Hwang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, K. W. Kim, J. Y. Rhee, L. Y. Chen, S. R. Li, X. W. Guo, and Y. P. Lee, “Tunable quad-band transmission response, based on single-layer metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31607–31616 (2018). [CrossRef]  

12. Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017). [CrossRef]  

13. D. Li, Z. Ji, and C. Luo, “Optically tunable plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial system,” Opt. Materials 104, 109920 (2020). [CrossRef]  

14. Z. Zhao, H. Zhao, R. T. Ako, S. Nickl, and S. Sriram, “Polarization-insensitive terahertz spoof localized surface plasmon-induced transparency based on lattice rotational symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(1), 011105 (2020). [CrossRef]  

15. B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019). [CrossRef]  

16. A. Yu, X. Guo, Y. Zhu, A. V. Balakin, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Metal-graphene hybridized plasmon induced transparency in the terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 27(24), 34731–34741 (2019). [CrossRef]  

17. Q. Hong, F. Xiong, W. Xu, Z. Zhu, K. Liu, X. Yuan, J. Zhang, and S. Qin, “Towards high performance hybrid two-dimensional material plasmonic devices: strong and highly anisotropic plasmonic resonances in nanostructured graphene-black phosphorus bilayer,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22528–22535 (2018). [CrossRef]  

18. J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020). [CrossRef]  

19. J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021). [CrossRef]  

20. S. Xia, X. Zhai, L. Wang, and S. Wen, “Plasmonically induced transparency in in-plane isotropic and anisotropic 2D materials,” Opt. Express 28(6), 7980 (2020). [CrossRef]  

21. J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021). [CrossRef]  

22. J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020). [CrossRef]  

23. Z. Dong, C. Sun, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Tunable polarization-independent plasmonically induced transparency based on metal-graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12251–12259 (2017). [CrossRef]  

24. T. Zhang, Q. Liu, Y. Dan, S. Yu, X. Han, J. Dai, and K. Xu, “Machine learning and evolutionary algorithm studies of graphene metamaterials for optimized plasmon-induced transparency,” Opt. Express 28(13), 18899–18916 (2020). [CrossRef]  

25. F. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Luo, Z. Zhang, and E. Gao, “Dynamically adjustable plasmon-induced transparency and switching application based on bilayer graphene metamaterials,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54(5), 054002 (2021). [CrossRef]  

26. B. Xiao, S. Tong, A. Fyffe, and Z. Shi, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(3), 4048–4057 (2020). [CrossRef]  

27. E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020). [CrossRef]  

28. W. Luo, W. Cai, Y. Xiang, L. Wang, M. Ren, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Flexible modulation of plasmon-induced transparency in a strongly coupled graphene grating-sheet system,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5784–5793 (2016). [CrossRef]  

29. L. Wang, W. Cai, W. Luo, Z. Ma, C. Du, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Mid-infrared plasmon induced transparency in heterogeneous graphene ribbon pairs,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32450–32456 (2014). [CrossRef]  

30. L. Han, L. Wang, H. Xing, and X. Chen, “Anisotropic plasmon induced transparency in black phosphorus nanostrip trimer,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(2), 352–361 (2019). [CrossRef]  

31. Z. Jia, L. Huang, J. Su, and B. Tang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on monolayer black phosphorus by bright-dark mode coupling,” Appl. Phys. Express 13(7), 072006 (2020). [CrossRef]  

32. K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021). [CrossRef]  

33. C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019). [CrossRef]  

34. A. M. Sukosin Thongrattanasiri and F. Javier García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1766–1775 (2012). [CrossRef]  

35. V. Tran and L. Yang, “Scaling laws for the band gap and optical response of phosphorene nanoribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245407 (2014). [CrossRef]  

36. X. He, Y. Huang, X. Yang, L. Zhu, F. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on terahertz graphene metamaterial,” RSC Adv. 7(64), 40321–40326 (2017). [CrossRef]  

37. M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009). [CrossRef]  

38. S. X. Xia, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, B. Sun, J. Q. Liu, and S. C. Wen, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in sinusoidally curved and planar graphene layers,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17886–17899 (2016). [CrossRef]  

39. Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016). [CrossRef]  

40. T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014). [CrossRef]  

41. Y. M. Qing, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Strong coupling between magnetic plasmons and surface plasmons in a black phosphorus-spacer-metallic grating hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 4985–4988 (2018). [CrossRef]  

42. J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020). [CrossRef]  

43. Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017). [CrossRef]  

44. J. Nong, W. Wei, W. Wang, G. Lan, Z. Shang, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Strong coherent coupling between graphene surface plasmons and anisotropic black phosphorus localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1633–1644 (2018). [CrossRef]  

45. Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114(4), 1017–1021 (2014). [CrossRef]  

46. X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, E. Gao, X. Luo, F. Zhou, H. Li, and Z. Yi, “Polarization-sensitive triple plasmon-induced transparency with synchronous and asynchronous switching based on monolayer graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(24), 36771–36783 (2020). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. K. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: Interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1033–1036 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. D. C. Liu, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Ma, Q. Huang, H. He, Y. Zhao, X. Lin, and Y. Lu, “All-dielectric metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency and its sensing application in terahertz range,” Opt. Express 27(12), 16624–16634 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Yang, L. Liang, Z. Zhang, Y. Xin, D. Wei, X. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, M. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Wang, and J. Yao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterials for detection of lung cancer cells,” Opt. Express 27(14), 19520–19529 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Nong, F. Feng, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Controllable hybridization between localized and delocalized anisotropic borophene plasmons in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 46(4), 725–728 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Nong, F. Feng, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Effective Transmission Modulation at Telecommunication Wavelengths through Continuous Metal Films Using Coupling between Borophene Plasmons and Magnetic Polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(7), 2001809 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Nong, X. Xiao, F. Feng, B. Zhao, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Active tuning of longitudinal strong coupling between anisotropic borophene plasmons and Bloch surface waves,” Opt. Express 29(17), 27750–27759 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  10. T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. S. Hwang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, K. W. Kim, J. Y. Rhee, L. Y. Chen, S. R. Li, X. W. Guo, and Y. P. Lee, “Tunable quad-band transmission response, based on single-layer metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31607–31616 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Li, Z. Ji, and C. Luo, “Optically tunable plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial system,” Opt. Materials 104, 109920 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Zhao, H. Zhao, R. T. Ako, S. Nickl, and S. Sriram, “Polarization-insensitive terahertz spoof localized surface plasmon-induced transparency based on lattice rotational symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(1), 011105 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Yu, X. Guo, Y. Zhu, A. V. Balakin, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Metal-graphene hybridized plasmon induced transparency in the terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 27(24), 34731–34741 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. Q. Hong, F. Xiong, W. Xu, Z. Zhu, K. Liu, X. Yuan, J. Zhang, and S. Qin, “Towards high performance hybrid two-dimensional material plasmonic devices: strong and highly anisotropic plasmonic resonances in nanostructured graphene-black phosphorus bilayer,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22528–22535 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Xia, X. Zhai, L. Wang, and S. Wen, “Plasmonically induced transparency in in-plane isotropic and anisotropic 2D materials,” Opt. Express 28(6), 7980 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  23. Z. Dong, C. Sun, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Tunable polarization-independent plasmonically induced transparency based on metal-graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12251–12259 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Zhang, Q. Liu, Y. Dan, S. Yu, X. Han, J. Dai, and K. Xu, “Machine learning and evolutionary algorithm studies of graphene metamaterials for optimized plasmon-induced transparency,” Opt. Express 28(13), 18899–18916 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  25. F. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Luo, Z. Zhang, and E. Gao, “Dynamically adjustable plasmon-induced transparency and switching application based on bilayer graphene metamaterials,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54(5), 054002 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. Xiao, S. Tong, A. Fyffe, and Z. Shi, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(3), 4048–4057 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  28. W. Luo, W. Cai, Y. Xiang, L. Wang, M. Ren, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Flexible modulation of plasmon-induced transparency in a strongly coupled graphene grating-sheet system,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5784–5793 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Wang, W. Cai, W. Luo, Z. Ma, C. Du, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Mid-infrared plasmon induced transparency in heterogeneous graphene ribbon pairs,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32450–32456 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. Han, L. Wang, H. Xing, and X. Chen, “Anisotropic plasmon induced transparency in black phosphorus nanostrip trimer,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(2), 352–361 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. Z. Jia, L. Huang, J. Su, and B. Tang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on monolayer black phosphorus by bright-dark mode coupling,” Appl. Phys. Express 13(7), 072006 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  32. K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  33. C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. M. Sukosin Thongrattanasiri and F. Javier García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1766–1775 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. V. Tran and L. Yang, “Scaling laws for the band gap and optical response of phosphorene nanoribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245407 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. X. He, Y. Huang, X. Yang, L. Zhu, F. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on terahertz graphene metamaterial,” RSC Adv. 7(64), 40321–40326 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. X. Xia, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, B. Sun, J. Q. Liu, and S. C. Wen, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in sinusoidally curved and planar graphene layers,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17886–17899 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  40. T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  41. Y. M. Qing, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Strong coupling between magnetic plasmons and surface plasmons in a black phosphorus-spacer-metallic grating hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 4985–4988 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  42. J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  43. Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  44. J. Nong, W. Wei, W. Wang, G. Lan, Z. Shang, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Strong coherent coupling between graphene surface plasmons and anisotropic black phosphorus localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1633–1644 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  45. Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114(4), 1017–1021 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  46. X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, E. Gao, X. Luo, F. Zhou, H. Li, and Z. Yi, “Polarization-sensitive triple plasmon-induced transparency with synchronous and asynchronous switching based on monolayer graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(24), 36771–36783 (2020).
    [Crossref]

2021 (7)

J. Nong, F. Feng, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Controllable hybridization between localized and delocalized anisotropic borophene plasmons in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 46(4), 725–728 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, F. Feng, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Effective Transmission Modulation at Telecommunication Wavelengths through Continuous Metal Films Using Coupling between Borophene Plasmons and Magnetic Polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(7), 2001809 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, X. Xiao, F. Feng, B. Zhao, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Active tuning of longitudinal strong coupling between anisotropic borophene plasmons and Bloch surface waves,” Opt. Express 29(17), 27750–27759 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
[Crossref]

F. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Luo, Z. Zhang, and E. Gao, “Dynamically adjustable plasmon-induced transparency and switching application based on bilayer graphene metamaterials,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54(5), 054002 (2021).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (11)

Z. Jia, L. Huang, J. Su, and B. Tang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on monolayer black phosphorus by bright-dark mode coupling,” Appl. Phys. Express 13(7), 072006 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. Xiao, S. Tong, A. Fyffe, and Z. Shi, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(3), 4048–4057 (2020).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Zhang, Q. Liu, Y. Dan, S. Yu, X. Han, J. Dai, and K. Xu, “Machine learning and evolutionary algorithm studies of graphene metamaterials for optimized plasmon-induced transparency,” Opt. Express 28(13), 18899–18916 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Xia, X. Zhai, L. Wang, and S. Wen, “Plasmonically induced transparency in in-plane isotropic and anisotropic 2D materials,” Opt. Express 28(6), 7980 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Li, Z. Ji, and C. Luo, “Optically tunable plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial system,” Opt. Materials 104, 109920 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, H. Zhao, R. T. Ako, S. Nickl, and S. Sriram, “Polarization-insensitive terahertz spoof localized surface plasmon-induced transparency based on lattice rotational symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(1), 011105 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, E. Gao, X. Luo, F. Zhou, H. Li, and Z. Yi, “Polarization-sensitive triple plasmon-induced transparency with synchronous and asynchronous switching based on monolayer graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(24), 36771–36783 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (6)

2018 (5)

2017 (4)

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. He, Y. Huang, X. Yang, L. Zhu, F. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on terahertz graphene metamaterial,” RSC Adv. 7(64), 40321–40326 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Dong, C. Sun, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Tunable polarization-independent plasmonically induced transparency based on metal-graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12251–12259 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2014 (4)

T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, W. Cai, W. Luo, Z. Ma, C. Du, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Mid-infrared plasmon induced transparency in heterogeneous graphene ribbon pairs,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32450–32456 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Tran and L. Yang, “Scaling laws for the band gap and optical response of phosphorene nanoribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114(4), 1017–1021 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. M. Sukosin Thongrattanasiri and F. Javier García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1766–1775 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Z. D. C. Liu, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: Interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1033–1036 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ako, R. T.

Z. Zhao, H. Zhao, R. T. Ako, S. Nickl, and S. Sriram, “Polarization-insensitive terahertz spoof localized surface plasmon-induced transparency based on lattice rotational symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(1), 011105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref]

Balakin, A. V.

Bao, Q.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Behroozi, C. H.

Z. D. C. Liu, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boller, K.

K. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref]

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

Chen, L. Y.

Chen, X.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chung, D. S.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

Dai, J.

Dan, Y.

Deng, X.

J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z. Dong, C. Sun, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Tunable polarization-independent plasmonically induced transparency based on metal-graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12251–12259 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

Du, C.

Feng, F.

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fyffe, A.

Gao, E.

F. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Luo, Z. Zhang, and E. Gao, “Dynamically adjustable plasmon-induced transparency and switching application based on bilayer graphene metamaterials,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54(5), 054002 (2021).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, E. Gao, X. Luo, F. Zhou, H. Li, and Z. Yi, “Polarization-sensitive triple plasmon-induced transparency with synchronous and asynchronous switching based on monolayer graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(24), 36771–36783 (2020).
[Crossref]

García de Abajo, F. Javier

A. M. Sukosin Thongrattanasiri and F. Javier García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1766–1775 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guinea, F.

T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
[Crossref]

Guo, C. C.

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114(4), 1017–1021 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Guo, X. W.

Ha, T.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, L.

Han, X.

Harris, S. E.

K. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: Interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1033–1036 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hau, L. V.

Z. D. C. Liu, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref]

He, H.

He, X.

X. He, Y. Huang, X. Yang, L. Zhu, F. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on terahertz graphene metamaterial,” RSC Adv. 7(64), 40321–40326 (2017).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hong, Q.

Huang, D.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Z. Jia, L. Huang, J. Su, and B. Tang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on monolayer black phosphorus by bright-dark mode coupling,” Appl. Phys. Express 13(7), 072006 (2020).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

Huang, Y.

X. He, Y. Huang, X. Yang, L. Zhu, F. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on terahertz graphene metamaterial,” RSC Adv. 7(64), 40321–40326 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. S.

Imamolu, A.

K. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jablan, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ji, Z.

D. Li, Z. Ji, and C. Luo, “Optically tunable plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial system,” Opt. Materials 104, 109920 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z.

Z. Jia, L. Huang, J. Su, and B. Tang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on monolayer black phosphorus by bright-dark mode coupling,” Appl. Phys. Express 13(7), 072006 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

X. He, Y. Huang, X. Yang, L. Zhu, F. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on terahertz graphene metamaterial,” RSC Adv. 7(64), 40321–40326 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kastel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-D.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. W.

Kim, T.-T.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. J.

Lan, G.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, W. Wang, G. Lan, Z. Shang, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Strong coherent coupling between graphene surface plasmons and anisotropic black phosphorus localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1633–1644 (2018).
[Crossref]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. P.

Lei, J.

J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

D. Li, Z. Ji, and C. Luo, “Optically tunable plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial system,” Opt. Materials 104, 109920 (2020).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, E. Gao, X. Luo, F. Zhou, H. Li, and Z. Yi, “Polarization-sensitive triple plasmon-induced transparency with synchronous and asynchronous switching based on monolayer graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(24), 36771–36783 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, S. R.

Li, Z.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liang, L.

Lin, S.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

Liu, C.

K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. Q.

Liu, K.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

F. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Luo, Z. Zhang, and E. Gao, “Dynamically adjustable plasmon-induced transparency and switching application based on bilayer graphene metamaterials,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54(5), 054002 (2021).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, E. Gao, X. Luo, F. Zhou, H. Li, and Z. Yi, “Polarization-sensitive triple plasmon-induced transparency with synchronous and asynchronous switching based on monolayer graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(24), 36771–36783 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. D. C.

Z. D. C. Liu, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref]

Low, T.

T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Luo, C.

D. Li, Z. Ji, and C. Luo, “Optically tunable plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial system,” Opt. Materials 104, 109920 (2020).
[Crossref]

Luo, P.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
[Crossref]

Luo, W.

Luo, X.

F. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Luo, Z. Zhang, and E. Gao, “Dynamically adjustable plasmon-induced transparency and switching application based on bilayer graphene metamaterials,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54(5), 054002 (2021).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhang, E. Gao, X. Luo, F. Zhou, H. Li, and Z. Yi, “Polarization-sensitive triple plasmon-induced transparency with synchronous and asynchronous switching based on monolayer graphene metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(24), 36771–36783 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ma, H. F.

Ma, T.

Ma, W.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

Min, B.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Min, C.

Moreno, L. M.

T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mu, H.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nickl, S.

Z. Zhao, H. Zhao, R. T. Ako, S. Nickl, and S. Sriram, “Polarization-insensitive terahertz spoof localized surface plasmon-induced transparency based on lattice rotational symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(1), 011105 (2020).
[Crossref]

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J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
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J. Nong, F. Feng, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Controllable hybridization between localized and delocalized anisotropic borophene plasmons in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 46(4), 725–728 (2021).
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J. Nong, F. Feng, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Effective Transmission Modulation at Telecommunication Wavelengths through Continuous Metal Films Using Coupling between Borophene Plasmons and Magnetic Polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(7), 2001809 (2021).
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J. Nong, X. Xiao, F. Feng, B. Zhao, C. Min, X. Yuan, and M. Somekh, “Active tuning of longitudinal strong coupling between anisotropic borophene plasmons and Bloch surface waves,” Opt. Express 29(17), 27750–27759 (2021).
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J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, W. Wang, G. Lan, Z. Shang, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Strong coherent coupling between graphene surface plasmons and anisotropic black phosphorus localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1633–1644 (2018).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. S.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qin, S.

Qin, S. Q.

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114(4), 1017–1021 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qing, Y. M.

Qiu, C. W.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Rhee, J. Y.

Roldan, R.

T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

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K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

Shang, Z.

Shen, J.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
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J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020).
[Crossref]

Shi, H.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z.

Shivananju, B. N.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
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Song, X.

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Z. Zhao, H. Zhao, R. T. Ako, S. Nickl, and S. Sriram, “Polarization-insensitive terahertz spoof localized surface plasmon-induced transparency based on lattice rotational symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(1), 011105 (2020).
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Z. Jia, L. Huang, J. Su, and B. Tang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on monolayer black phosphorus by bright-dark mode coupling,” Appl. Phys. Express 13(7), 072006 (2020).
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Sun, C.

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Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Z. Jia, L. Huang, J. Su, and B. Tang, “Tunable plasmon-induced transparency based on monolayer black phosphorus by bright-dark mode coupling,” Appl. Phys. Express 13(7), 072006 (2020).
[Crossref]

Tang, L.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, W. Wang, G. Lan, Z. Shang, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Strong coherent coupling between graphene surface plasmons and anisotropic black phosphorus localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1633–1644 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Tran, V.

V. Tran and L. Yang, “Scaling laws for the band gap and optical response of phosphorene nanoribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245407 (2014).
[Crossref]

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T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

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F. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Luo, Z. Zhang, and E. Gao, “Dynamically adjustable plasmon-induced transparency and switching application based on bilayer graphene metamaterials,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54(5), 054002 (2021).
[Crossref]

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Wang, L. L.

Wang, M.

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F. Zhou, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Luo, Z. Zhang, and E. Gao, “Dynamically adjustable plasmon-induced transparency and switching application based on bilayer graphene metamaterials,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54(5), 054002 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, J. Lei, Y. Wang, Y. Ding, Y. Shen, and X. Deng, “High performance terahertz anisotropic absorption in graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure,” Chin. Phys. B 29(8), 087805 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, D.

Wei, W.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Shen, and W. Wei, “Combined visible plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and infrared plasmons of graphene nanoribbons for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopies,” Small 17(1), 2004640 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, W. Wang, G. Lan, Z. Shang, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Strong coherent coupling between graphene surface plasmons and anisotropic black phosphorus localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1633–1644 (2018).
[Crossref]

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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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Wen, S. C.

Wu, F.

X. He, Y. Huang, X. Yang, L. Zhu, F. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on terahertz graphene metamaterial,” RSC Adv. 7(64), 40321–40326 (2017).
[Crossref]

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K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019).
[Crossref]

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T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, S.

Xia, S. X.

Xiang, Y.

Xiao, B.

Xiao, S.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Xin, Y.

Xing, H.

Xiong, C.

K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xiong, F.

Xu, H.

B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, K.

Xu, W.

Yang, L.

V. Tran and L. Yang, “Scaling laws for the band gap and optical response of phosphorene nanoribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, M.

Yang, X.

X. He, Y. Huang, X. Yang, L. Zhu, F. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency based on terahertz graphene metamaterial,” RSC Adv. 7(64), 40321–40326 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Ye, W. M.

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114(4), 1017–1021 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yi, J.

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, Z. Li, D. Huang, J. Yi, H. Shi, and W. Wei, “Enhanced graphene plasmonic mode energy for highly sensitive molecular fingerprint retrieval,” Laser Photonics Rev. 15(1), 2000300 (2021).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Aqueous Molecules Employing Tunable Graphene Plasmons in an Otto Prism,” Anal. Chem. 92(23), 15370–15378 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, L. Tang, G. Lan, P. Luo, C. Guo, J. Yi, and W. Wei, “Wideband tunable perfect absorption of graphene plasmons via attenuated total reflection in Otto prism configuration,” Nanophotonics 9(3), 645–655 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, W. Wang, G. Lan, Z. Shang, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Strong coherent coupling between graphene surface plasmons and anisotropic black phosphorus localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1633–1644 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yi, Z.

Yoo, Y. J.

Yu, A.

Yu, S.

Yu, W.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

Yuan, X. D.

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114(4), 1017–1021 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhai, X.

Zhang, B.

K. Wu, H. Li, C. Liu, C. Xiong, B. Ruan, M. Li, E. Gao, and B. Zhang, “Slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned black phosphorus metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image. Sci. Vis. 38(3), 412–418 (2021).
[Crossref]

E. Gao, H. Li, Z. Liu, C. Xiong, C. Liu, B. Ruan, M. Li, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz multifunction switch and optical storage based on triple plasmon-induced transparency on a single-layer patterned graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(26), 40013–40023 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

M. Yang, L. Liang, Z. Zhang, Y. Xin, D. Wei, X. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, M. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Wang, and J. Yao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterials for detection of lung cancer cells,” Opt. Express 27(14), 19520–19529 (2019).
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Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, J. F.

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114(4), 1017–1021 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, S.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Liu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, S. Xiao, T. Sun, W. Ma, H. Mu, S. Lin, H. Zhang, Y. Lu, C. W. Qiu, S. Li, and Q. Bao, “Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Infrared Photodetector Based on 2D Layered Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36137–36145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, B.

Zhao, H.

Z. Zhao, H. Zhao, R. T. Ako, S. Nickl, and S. Sriram, “Polarization-insensitive terahertz spoof localized surface plasmon-induced transparency based on lattice rotational symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(1), 011105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

B. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, C. Liu, and K. Wu, “Absorption and slow-light analysis based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency in patterned graphene metamaterial,” Opt. Express 27(3), 3598–3608 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, H. Li, H. Xu, M. Zhao, C. Xiong, B. Zhang, and K. Wu, “Slow light effect based on tunable plasmon-induced transparency of monolayer black phosphorus,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(40), 405203 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R.

T.-T. Kim, H.-D. Kim, R. Zhao, S. S. Oh, T. Ha, D. S. Chung, Y. H. Lee, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrically tunable slow light using graphene metamaterials,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1800–1807 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao, H. Zhao, R. T. Ako, S. Nickl, and S. Sriram, “Polarization-insensitive terahertz spoof localized surface plasmon-induced transparency based on lattice rotational symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(1), 011105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zheng, M.

Z. Chen, H. Li, Z. He, H. Xu, M. Zheng, and M. Zhao, “Multiple plasmon-induced transparency effects in a multimode-cavity-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, F.

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Data availability

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of the proposed G-BP PIT metamaterial structure. The G-BP pattern structures integrate with the CaF2/Si layers. (b) The cross-section and top view of the unit cell, Px= Py = 350 nm, R = 100 nm, Lh = 320 nm, Wh = 30 nm, Lv = 170 nm and Wv = 25 nm. The transmission spectra of PIT metamaterial structure based on (c) monolayer graphene, (d) monolayer BP and (e) G-BP heterostructure along the x- and y-directions with the same electron doping n = 1.9×1013 cm-2. The inset shows the schematic diagram of the corresponding metamaterial structure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Transmission spectra of the dark mode (GBPS) and bright mode (GBPD) along the (a) x- and (c) y-directions. The corresponding electric field distributions at transmission dips along the (b) x- and (d) y-directions. Transmission spectra of the G-BP PIT metamaterial structure along the (e) x- and (g) y-directions. The corresponding electric field distributions along the (f) x- and (h) y-directions.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Evolution of transmission spectra as the diameter dh increases from 5 to 20 nm with a step of 5 nm along the y-direction. (b) Coupled energy-level model of the PIT system and the destructive interfering pathways. The field distribution of the Ez component calculated at 11.71 μm (anti-bonding mode), 13.47 μm (bonding mode), 12.33 μm (bright mode, dark mode, and PIT) when dh= 15 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) and (b) are transmission spectra of G-BP PIT metamaterial structure evolves as the EFd of horizontal nanostrips increases from 0.4 eV to 0.5 eV with a step of 0.025 eV along the x- and y-directions. (c) Numerical transmissions spectra mapping as EFd of horizontal nanostrips varies from 0.4 eV to 0.6 eV along the y-direction. (d) Analytical dispersion relations of dark mode, bright mode and hybrid mode.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) - (e) are the transmission spectra of G-BP PIT metamaterial structure at different polarization angles θ. Vertical red and green dashed lines mark the transparency window points along the x- and y-direction, respectively. Corresponding electric field distributions at (f) 10.45 μm and (g) 12.33 μm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Along (a) x- and (b) y-directions, transmission spectra of the FDTD calculations (lines) and the analytical fitting (circles) in G-BP PIT metamaterial structure when EF is 0.4 eV, 0.6 eV, 0.8 eV and 1.0 eV (the corresponding doping concentration of BP are 1.18×1013 cm-2, 2.64×1013 cm-2, 4.70×1013 cm-2, 7.35×1013 cm-2, respectively). Transmission Mapping along (c) x- and (d) y-directions as EF is increased from 0.2 eV to 1.0 eV. The change in the center wavelength of transparency window with EF is illustrated by the red ball. Extracted simulated coupling and damping parameters with different EF along (e) x- and (f) y-directions.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Along the x- and y-directions, the corresponding group index and phase shift of G-BP PIT metamaterial structure when EF is (a, b) 0.2 eV, (c, d) 0.6 eV and (e, f) 1.0 eV.

Equations (6)

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σ ( ω ) = e 2 E F π i ω + i τ 1 ,
σ j j ( ω ) = i D j π ( ω + i η / ) , D j = π e 2 n m j ,
ω ±  =  ω b + ω d 2 ± 1 2 ( ω b ω d ) 2  +  Ω 2 ,
[ ω ω 1 + i γ 1 κ κ ω ω 2 + i γ 2 ] [ A 1 A 2 ] = [ g E 0 0 ] ,
T = 1 | A 1 E 0 | 2 = 1 g 2 / | κ 2 ω ω 2 + i γ 2 ( ω ω 1 + i γ 1 ) | 2 .
n g = c H τ g = c H d φ ( ω ) d ω ,

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