Abstract

A highly localized eccentric fiber Bragg grating (EFBG) accelerometer was proposed, and its orientation-dependent measurement results were demonstrated experimentally. An EFBG was inscribed point-by-point (PbP) in a single-mode fiber (SMF) using a femtosecond laser, and the cladding mode was recoupled to excite the ghost mode through an abrupt taper. Owing to the asymmetry caused by the lateral offset of the EFBG, the ghost mode showed a significant directional response to acceleration. Furthermore, monitoring the fundamental core mode resonance can help calibrate accidental power perturbation or cross-sensitivity.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) accelerometers are widely used for high-sensitivity and high-precision vibration detection and measurement [14]. For instance, accelerometers are used in structural health monitoring using low-frequency vibrations, aerospace, seismic exploration, and other fields [57]. Accelerometers require simple operation, and they are compact, robust, and able to operate in harsh environments. Moreover, it is important that an accelerometer can accurately identify the direction of vibration [8,9].

The FBG could exhibit orientation-dependent response if the grating disrupts the circular symmetry of the fiber. This characteristic has been employed in multi-core FBGs [10], polarization-maintaining FBGs [11], tilted FBGs [12,13], highly birefringent FBGs [14], and off-axis FBGs [15,16]. However, multi-core and polarization-maintaining fibers are relatively expensive, and the preparation flexibility of TFBG is limited. In contrast, off-axis gratings have a simple structure and easy implementation. In previous reports, most off-axis gratings were prepared using the phase-mask method [15,16]. However, it is difficult to accurately control the off-axis size, and the repeatability is low. Moreover, owing to the photosensitive characteristics of the fiber core, the refractive index modulation area of the grating prepared by the phase mask method covers the entire fiber core, which reduces the asymmetry in the FBG [17,18].

In this study, the highly localized eccentric FBGs (EFBGs) were localized close to the core–cladding interface by the femtosecond laser point-by-point (PbP) technique [19,20]. A larger spot size (∼1 µm), due to a higher pulse energy used for the inscription, and a greater lateral shift resulted in strong cladding mode resonances (>40 dB) that appeared on the shorter wavelength side of the Bragg resonance. A taper is used to recouple the cladding mode into the core to excite the “ghost mode,” which exhibits a strong response to the vibration. The recoupling of the low cladding modes also can be realized by using other couplers such as offset splicing [18] and core mismatching [11,12,15]. The grating exhibits an orientation-dependent acceleration response because it was located on the side of the core. The core mode was virtually unaffected by the vibration and could be used as a power reference.

2. Accelerometer design and fabrication

The EFBG was inscribed using a Ti:sapphire laser system at 800 nm (Coherent Inc., Libra-USP-HE), emitting a 50 fs pulse at a repetition rate of 200 Hz. The average pulse energy of the laser output was controlled using an optical attenuator. A quarter-wave plate converted the polarization of the laser beam from linear to circular. A dichroic mirror reflected the laser beam through the microscope objective (ZEISS, 40×/0.75), which focused the light into the fiber. After focusing, the focal spot diameter was ∼1 µm. To eliminate cylindrical astigmatism of the fiber, it was immersed in an index matching gel (Cargille cat#24317) during laser processing. The fiber could be moved arbitrarily in the x and y directions through two linear electric stages (Newport, XMS100, Repeatability: 50 nm) stacked on top of each other. When aligning the fiber, the focus position of the laser deviated from the center to the edge of the fiber core. By adjusting the electric stage, the offset could be precisely controlled. After aligning the fiber and setting the laser energy pulse to 250 nJ, the fiber was translated along its main axis at a constant velocity of 325 µm/s for a total distance of 5 mm. Each laser pulse produced a grating plane, and the period of the grating was approximately 1.625 µm. The EFBG corresponds to the third-order grating for the lowest guided mode at a wavelength of approximately 1577 nm in a single-mode fiber (SMF, G652.D, YOFC). It has a 3 µm off axis, and the side-view and cross-sectional-view photomicrograph is shown in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b). The EFBG was monitored in real time by broadband light from superluminescent diodes (SLD, S5FC1005P, Thorlabs) through the fiber during laser exposure, and it recorded either transmission or reflection spectra with an optical spectrum analysis (OSA, AQ6370D, Yokogawa).

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Side-view and (b) cross-sectional-view photomicrograph of the EFBG, (c) transmission and reflection spectra of the 3 µm offset EFBG.

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Figure 1(c) shows the transmission and reflection spectra of the 3 µm-offset FBG with a high pulse energy. It can be seen that the EFBGs exhibit sensing and spectral characteristics similar to those of the tilted FBG [20,21,22]. The refractive index modulation area of the EFBG was close to the core–cladding interface, and the light of the core was coupled into the cladding, forming a comb-shaped transmission spectrum. The cladding mode related loss at short wavelengths shown in the spectrum are generated by the highly localized fiber grating, which is prepared by the PbP technique with high pulse energy conditions [23,24]. The cylindrical fiber symmetry vanished when the grating moved laterally, resulting in more cladding modes and an increased loss. The asymmetry perturbed the lower-order cladding modes, which were closer to the core, more than the higher-order ones. The grating inscribed near the core–cladding interface shows a stronger ghost mode, and the Bragg resonance reflectivity is reduced [25,26]. This reduction is due to the small overlap integral of the field and refractive index perturbations (when the grating is moved away from the fiber axis, the grating overlaps with the wing of the field profile).

Similar to tilted FBGs, the corresponding resonant wavelengths can be determined by the phase-matching condition, which can be expressed as follows:

$$m{\lambda _B} = 2{n_{eff,core}}\cdot \Lambda $$
$$m{\lambda _{clad,i}} = ({n_{eff,core}} + {n_{eff,i}})\cdot \Lambda , $$
where ${\lambda _B}$ and ${\lambda _{clad,i}}$ are the resonant wavelengths resulting from coupling to core mode and cladding mode, i, respectively; $\Lambda $ is the grating period; and ${n_{eff}}$ is the effective refractive index.

Figure 2(a) presents the schematic diagram of the proposed accelerometer, which includes a section of tapered single-mode fiber (SMF) and an eccentric fiber Bragg grating (EFBG). The heating provided by the arc of the fusion splicer (Fujikura, FSM-100P+) was used to fabricate an abrupt taper to recouple partial cladding modes into the core. As shown in the photomicrograph of Fig. 2(b), the combined action of uniform heating and axial tension creates a symmetrical taper. When the diameter of the abrupt taper becomes thinner, the increased loss will increase, so that the reflected power of the ghost mode and the Bragg peak will decrease. And the thinner abrupt taper will reduce the mechanical strength of the structure. Considering the mechanical strength of the fiber structure for strain measurement, the diameter of the tapered waist and the tapered length are 80 µm and 497.5 µm, respectively. The tapered section was located about 5 mm upstream of the EFBG. During the experiment, the abrupt taper was protected by encapsulating it in a stainless tube to prevent it from being affected by the bending of the EFBG. Therefore, the optical power perturbation due to the tapered coupling structure can be eliminated.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Schematic diagram of abrupt-tapered EFBG accelerometer, (b) the abrupt-tapered structure, (c) reflection spectra for different diameters of the tapered waist.

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The use of a tapered structure allows the lower-order cladding modes reflected by the EFBG to be recoupled back into the upstream core to excite ghost modes. The reflection spectra for different tapered waist diameters are shown in Fig. 2(c). Finally, EFBG with a taper diameter of 80 µm was selected for the experimental test. The Bragg resonance was attenuated by approximately 1 dB owing to the loss in the taper. The reflectivity of the ghost mode was greater than 20%.

By micro-bending EFBG, the reflected power of the ghost mode changes significantly, while the core mode remains unchanged, as shown in Fig. 3. Changing the bend radius from straight to 10 m−1 resulted in a greater than 11 dB reduction in the ghost mode power. In contrast to tilted FBG, the reflected power of the fundamental mode was not largely coupled to the fiber cladding. Therefore, the reflected power of the ghost mode in the EFBG was much greater than that of the tilted FBG [13].

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) The schematic diagram of the bending fiber, (b) tapered EFBG reflection spectra versus bending.

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In addition to the strong directionality of the grating offset, there were two possible orientation sensitivity factors that should be considered, namely, the recoupling efficiency from the cladding to the core at the abrupt taper and the slight bending of the fiber caused by gravity. To achieve a controllable angle-dependence measurement, the aforementioned two factors should be minimized. We protected the abrupt taper to eliminate the coupling effect and then rotated the vibrostand in the horizontal direction to eliminate the effect of gravity.

3. Experimental setup and results

The basic principle of the EFBG-based accelerometer is to monitor the power change of the ghost mode when vibration occurs. The experimental setup of the accelerometer is shown in Fig. 4. A tunable laser (Santec, TSL-710, linewidth: 100 kHz, resolution: 0.1 pm) was employed as the light source. The laser wavelength was sequentially tuned to the wavelengths corresponding to the ghost and Bragg reflections. The real-time power output was monitored by a photodetector (Newport, 2117-FC), and the signal was recorded by an oscilloscope. The accelerometer was fixed on a rotator to tune the vibration direction from 0° to 360°. Prior to the test, the vibrostand should be turned in the horizontal direction to eliminate the influence of gravity on the sensing probe.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the acceleration sensing system.

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When real-time 20 Hz sine vibrations and an acceleration of 1 g were applied to the sensor, the power output of the ghost and core modes were observed. The blue curve in Fig. 5(a) depicts the bandpass-filtered reflected power of the ghost resonance in response to the 20 Hz harmonic oscillation, and the red curve depicts the corresponding response of the Bragg resonance. The ghost mode showed a strong response to acceleration, whereas the power reflected by the Bragg grating did not respond to acceleration. Figure 5(b) shows the vibration response frequency spectrum of the sensor, which is calculated by taking the Fourier transform of Fig. 5(a). The additional peaks, also visible in this spectrum, are high-order harmonics. These harmonic frequencies were excited by the performance of the vibrostand.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) Real-time power output of the two reflective resonances versus applied vibration and (b) frequency spectrum of the ghost mode response.

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A series of sine vibration waves are applied to the 50-mm-long sensor, the acceleration amplitude is varied from 0.1 g to 3.0 g, and the vibration frequency is maintained at 20 Hz, as shown in Fig. 6. Prior to the test, the accelerometer was rotated to an orientation of 90°. After linear fitting, the sensitivity of the accelerometer was 35.62 mV/g, establishing that the accelerometer had a good linear response to the acceleration.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. (a) Linear response output of the accelerometer with 5.0 cm free fiber length versus applied accelerations and (b) real-time power output of the ghost mode versus applied acceleration.

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To determine the effects of the sensing length (the total length from the fixed point to the end of the fiber) on the performance of the accelerometer, three different sensing lengths (L = 5.0 cm, 4.0 cm, and 3.2 cm) were used to describe the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the accelerometer. The length between the FBG and the fixed point was maintained at 2 mm to maintain consistency during all tests. The experimental result is shown in Fig. 7, which is the amplitude–frequency characteristic relationship of EFBG at θ = 90° for different values of L. The accelerometers having L values of 5.0 cm, 4.0 cm, and 3.2 cm had resonant frequencies of approximately 29 Hz, 41 Hz, and 52 Hz, respectively. As L decreased, the resonance frequency increased, and the sensitivity of the flat response decreased. There was a trade-off between the resonant frequency and sensitivity, which could be adjusted according to application requirements.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Amplitude–frequency responsivity of the accelerometer for different sensing lengths.

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The resonance frequency of a cantilever beam is given by [13]

$$f = \frac{1}{{2\pi }}\sqrt {\frac{{8EI}}{{\rho A{L^4}}}}, $$
where A is the cross-sectional area of the beam, I is its moment of inertia about the pivot, E is its Young’s modulus, ρ is its density, and L is its length. For a bare fiber clamped at one end, $A = \pi {r^2}$, $I = {\raise0.7ex\hbox{${\pi {r^4}}$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\pi {r^4}} 4}} \right.}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$4$}}$, $E = 73\textrm{ }GPa$, and $\rho = 2650\textrm{ kg/}{\textrm{m}^\textrm{3}}$. The resonant frequencies of the sensors with lengths of 5.0 cm, 4.0 cm, and 3.2 cm are calculated to be 29.5 Hz, 46.1 Hz, and 72 Hz, respectively. However, due to the presence of the coating layer, the stiffness (effective Young's modulus for the complete assembly) of the sensor is reduced and the cross-sectional area is increased, which will reduce the actual resonance frequency. Therefore, the resonance frequency obtained in the actual test is smaller than the calculated value.

We subsequently demonstrated that the orientation information and amplitude of the vibration could be obtained simultaneously. The different power changes depended on the distance of the EFBG from the neutral plane. Thus, the sensitivity of the accelerometer varied periodically with changes in the vibration direction. The sensor was rotated relative to the direction of vibration to measure the orientation-dependent acceleration responsivity of the sensor. The experimental results are plotted in the polar coordinate system, as shown in Fig. 8, for a full range of 0°–360° vibration–rotation test (with a rotation step of 10°). The responsivity presented a symmetrical “8” shaped curve, with the maximum sensitivity values being 35.62 mV/g and 35.92 mV/g at 90° and 270°, respectively. The minimum sensitivity values at 0° and 180° is 1.56 mV/g and 1.54 mV/g, respectively. Compare with the TFBG accelerometer [13], the EFBG accelerometer showed high resistance to lateral interference, which was only 4.3%. These results suggested that the orientation-dependent vibration responses of the ghost mode were mainly due to the asymmetry of the EFBG.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Orientation-dependent acceleration responsivity of the sensor, (b) schematic diagram of the azimuth angle of EFBG.

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4. Conclusions

In summary, we have proposed and demonstrated an accelerometer based on an EFBG inscribed in an SMF using the femtosecond laser PbP technique. The ghost mode was obtained by cladding mode recoupling of an abrupt taper, which was sensitive and orientation-dependent on acceleration. The acceleration was obtained by a simple power-referenced detection. In contrast to most currently developed fiber optic accelerometers, the proposed sensor had a higher sensitivity and strong orientation dependence. In addition, the core mode can be used for power and temperature calibration. Owing to its compact structure and excellent performance, this fiber-grating device shows promise for applications in the field of seismic detection and structural health monitoring.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61735014, 61927812, 62075181).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

References

1. O. P. Parida, J. Nayak, and S. Asokan, “Design and validation of a novel high sensitivity self-temperature compensated fiber Bragg grating accelerometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 19(15), 6197–6204 (2019). [CrossRef]  

2. Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021). [CrossRef]  

3. Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020). [CrossRef]  

4. H. Song, Q. Wang, M. Liu, and Q. Cai, “A novel fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor based on orthogonal flexure hinge structure,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(10), 5277–5285 (2020). [CrossRef]  

5. K. Yüksel, D. Kinet, V. Moeyaert, G. Kouroussis, and C. Caucheteur, “Railway monitoring system using optical fiber grating accelerometers,” Smart Mater. Struct. 27(10), 105033 (2018). [CrossRef]  

6. N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020). [CrossRef]  

7. X. Qiao, Z. Shao, W. Bao, and Q. Rong, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for the oil industry,” Sensors 17(3), 429 (2017). [CrossRef]  

8. T. Li, J. Guo, Y. Tan, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances and tendency in fiber Bragg grating-based vibration sensor: A review,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(20), 12074–12087 (2020). [CrossRef]  

9. L. Xie, B. Luo, M. Zhao, O. Deng, E. Liu, P. Liu, Y. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Orientation-dependent optic-fiber accelerometer based on excessively tilted fiber grating,” Opt. Lett. 45(1), 125–128 (2020). [CrossRef]  

10. J. Cui, Z. Liu, D. S. Gunawardena, Z. Zhao, and H.-Y. Tam, “Two-dimensional vector accelerometer based on Bragg gratings inscribed in a multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express 27(15), 20848–20856 (2019). [CrossRef]  

11. T. Guo, L. Shang, F. Liu, C. Wu, B.-O. Guan, H.-Y. Tam, and J. Albert, “Polarization-maintaining fiber-optic-grating vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 531–533 (2013). [CrossRef]  

12. T. Guo, L. Shang, Y. Ran, B.-O. Guan, and J. Albert, “Fiber-optic vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2703–2705 (2012). [CrossRef]  

13. T. Guo, L. Shao, H.-Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber grating accelerometer incorporating an abrupt biconical taper for cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20651–20660 (2009). [CrossRef]  

14. K. Chah, D. Kinet, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Femtosecond-laser-induced highly birefringent Bragg gratings in standard optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 594–596 (2013). [CrossRef]  

15. D. Feng, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Off-axis ultraviolet-written fiber Bragg gratings for directional bending measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1201–1204 (2016). [CrossRef]  

16. F. Chen, D. Su, X. Qiao, and Q. Rong, “Compact vector bend sensor using dual-off-axis innermost cladding-type FBGs,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(18), 7476–7480 (2018). [CrossRef]  

17. D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020). [CrossRef]  

18. T. Qiu, S. Yang, and A. Wang, “Experimental investigation of point-by-point off-axis Bragg gratings inscribed by a femtosecond laser in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 28(25), 37553–37565 (2020). [CrossRef]  

19. T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. Chen, and J. Albert, “Temperature independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1004–1006 (2008). [CrossRef]  

20. H. Chikh-Bled, K. Chah, Á González-Vila, B. Lasri, and C. Caucheteur, “Behavior of femtosecond laser-induced eccentric fiber Bragg gratings at very high temperatures,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 4048–4051 (2016). [CrossRef]  

21. K. Chah, D. Kinet, and C. Caucheteur, “Negative axial strain sensitivity in gold-coated eccentric fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38042 (2016). [CrossRef]  

22. H. Chikh-Bled, M. Debbal, M. Chikh-Bled, C. E. Ouadah, V. Calero-Vila, and M. Bouregaa, “Refractive index sensor in eccentric fiber Bragg gratings using a point-by-point IR femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 58(3), 528–534 (2019). [CrossRef]  

23. J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 325–341 (2011). [CrossRef]  

24. J. U. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Krämer, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings II: complete vectorial analysis,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21434–21449 (2012). [CrossRef]  

25. C. Koutsides, K. Kalli, D. Webb, and L. Zhang, “Characterizing femtosecond laser inscribed Bragg grating spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 342–352 (2011). [CrossRef]  

26. A. Ioannou, A. Theodosiou, C. Caucheteur, and K. Kalli, “Direct writing of plane-by-plane tilted fiber Bragg gratings using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5198–5201 (2017). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. O. P. Parida, J. Nayak, and S. Asokan, “Design and validation of a novel high sensitivity self-temperature compensated fiber Bragg grating accelerometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 19(15), 6197–6204 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Song, Q. Wang, M. Liu, and Q. Cai, “A novel fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor based on orthogonal flexure hinge structure,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(10), 5277–5285 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Yüksel, D. Kinet, V. Moeyaert, G. Kouroussis, and C. Caucheteur, “Railway monitoring system using optical fiber grating accelerometers,” Smart Mater. Struct. 27(10), 105033 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Qiao, Z. Shao, W. Bao, and Q. Rong, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for the oil industry,” Sensors 17(3), 429 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Li, J. Guo, Y. Tan, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances and tendency in fiber Bragg grating-based vibration sensor: A review,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(20), 12074–12087 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Xie, B. Luo, M. Zhao, O. Deng, E. Liu, P. Liu, Y. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Orientation-dependent optic-fiber accelerometer based on excessively tilted fiber grating,” Opt. Lett. 45(1), 125–128 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Cui, Z. Liu, D. S. Gunawardena, Z. Zhao, and H.-Y. Tam, “Two-dimensional vector accelerometer based on Bragg gratings inscribed in a multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express 27(15), 20848–20856 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Guo, L. Shang, F. Liu, C. Wu, B.-O. Guan, H.-Y. Tam, and J. Albert, “Polarization-maintaining fiber-optic-grating vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 531–533 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Guo, L. Shang, Y. Ran, B.-O. Guan, and J. Albert, “Fiber-optic vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2703–2705 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Guo, L. Shao, H.-Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber grating accelerometer incorporating an abrupt biconical taper for cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20651–20660 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Chah, D. Kinet, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Femtosecond-laser-induced highly birefringent Bragg gratings in standard optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 594–596 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Feng, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Off-axis ultraviolet-written fiber Bragg gratings for directional bending measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1201–1204 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. Chen, D. Su, X. Qiao, and Q. Rong, “Compact vector bend sensor using dual-off-axis innermost cladding-type FBGs,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(18), 7476–7480 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Qiu, S. Yang, and A. Wang, “Experimental investigation of point-by-point off-axis Bragg gratings inscribed by a femtosecond laser in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 28(25), 37553–37565 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. Chen, and J. Albert, “Temperature independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1004–1006 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Chikh-Bled, K. Chah, Á González-Vila, B. Lasri, and C. Caucheteur, “Behavior of femtosecond laser-induced eccentric fiber Bragg gratings at very high temperatures,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 4048–4051 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Chah, D. Kinet, and C. Caucheteur, “Negative axial strain sensitivity in gold-coated eccentric fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38042 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Chikh-Bled, M. Debbal, M. Chikh-Bled, C. E. Ouadah, V. Calero-Vila, and M. Bouregaa, “Refractive index sensor in eccentric fiber Bragg gratings using a point-by-point IR femtosecond laser,” Appl. Opt. 58(3), 528–534 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 325–341 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. U. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Krämer, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings II: complete vectorial analysis,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21434–21449 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Koutsides, K. Kalli, D. Webb, and L. Zhang, “Characterizing femtosecond laser inscribed Bragg grating spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 342–352 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Ioannou, A. Theodosiou, C. Caucheteur, and K. Kalli, “Direct writing of plane-by-plane tilted fiber Bragg gratings using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5198–5201 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2021 (1)

Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (7)

Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Song, Q. Wang, M. Liu, and Q. Cai, “A novel fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor based on orthogonal flexure hinge structure,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(10), 5277–5285 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Guo, Y. Tan, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances and tendency in fiber Bragg grating-based vibration sensor: A review,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(20), 12074–12087 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. Xie, B. Luo, M. Zhao, O. Deng, E. Liu, P. Liu, Y. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Orientation-dependent optic-fiber accelerometer based on excessively tilted fiber grating,” Opt. Lett. 45(1), 125–128 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Qiu, S. Yang, and A. Wang, “Experimental investigation of point-by-point off-axis Bragg gratings inscribed by a femtosecond laser in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 28(25), 37553–37565 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (3)

2018 (2)

K. Yüksel, D. Kinet, V. Moeyaert, G. Kouroussis, and C. Caucheteur, “Railway monitoring system using optical fiber grating accelerometers,” Smart Mater. Struct. 27(10), 105033 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, D. Su, X. Qiao, and Q. Rong, “Compact vector bend sensor using dual-off-axis innermost cladding-type FBGs,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(18), 7476–7480 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (3)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Albert, J.

Amorim, V. A.

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

Asokan, S.

O. P. Parida, J. Nayak, and S. Asokan, “Design and validation of a novel high sensitivity self-temperature compensated fiber Bragg grating accelerometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 19(15), 6197–6204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bandyopadhyay, S.

N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bao, W.

X. Qiao, Z. Shao, W. Bao, and Q. Rong, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for the oil industry,” Sensors 17(3), 429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Basumallick, N.

N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020).
[Crossref]

Becker, R. G.

Bhattacharya, S.

N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020).
[Crossref]

Biswas, P.

N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bouregaa, M.

Cai, Q.

H. Song, Q. Wang, M. Liu, and Q. Cai, “A novel fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor based on orthogonal flexure hinge structure,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(10), 5277–5285 (2020).
[Crossref]

Calero-Vila, V.

Caucheteur, C.

Chah, K.

Chen, C.

Chen, F.

F. Chen, D. Su, X. Qiao, and Q. Rong, “Compact vector bend sensor using dual-off-axis innermost cladding-type FBGs,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(18), 7476–7480 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chikh-Bled, H.

Chikh-Bled, M.

Cui, J.

Debbal, M.

Deng, O.

Dey, T. K.

N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Fernandes, L. A.

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

Frazão, O.

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

González-Vila, Á

Guan, B.-O.

Gunawardena, D. S.

Guo, J.

T. Li, J. Guo, Y. Tan, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances and tendency in fiber Bragg grating-based vibration sensor: A review,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(20), 12074–12087 (2020).
[Crossref]

Guo, T.

Huang, B.

Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
[Crossref]

Ioannou, A.

Ivanov, A.

Jiang, D.

Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jorge, P. A.

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jovanovic, N.

Kalli, K.

Kinet, D.

K. Yüksel, D. Kinet, V. Moeyaert, G. Kouroussis, and C. Caucheteur, “Railway monitoring system using optical fiber grating accelerometers,” Smart Mater. Struct. 27(10), 105033 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, D. Kinet, and C. Caucheteur, “Negative axial strain sensitivity in gold-coated eccentric fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38042 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, D. Kinet, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Femtosecond-laser-induced highly birefringent Bragg gratings in standard optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 594–596 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kouroussis, G.

K. Yüksel, D. Kinet, V. Moeyaert, G. Kouroussis, and C. Caucheteur, “Railway monitoring system using optical fiber grating accelerometers,” Smart Mater. Struct. 27(10), 105033 (2018).
[Crossref]

Koutsides, C.

Krämer, R. G.

Krug, P. A.

Lasri, B.

Li, T.

T. Li, J. Guo, Y. Tan, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances and tendency in fiber Bragg grating-based vibration sensor: A review,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(20), 12074–12087 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liu, E.

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

H. Song, Q. Wang, M. Liu, and Q. Cai, “A novel fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor based on orthogonal flexure hinge structure,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(10), 5277–5285 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liu, P.

Liu, Z.

Lu, Q.

Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
[Crossref]

Luo, B.

Maia, J. M.

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

Marques, P. V.

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

Mégret, P.

Moeyaert, V.

K. Yüksel, D. Kinet, V. Moeyaert, G. Kouroussis, and C. Caucheteur, “Railway monitoring system using optical fiber grating accelerometers,” Smart Mater. Struct. 27(10), 105033 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nayak, J.

O. P. Parida, J. Nayak, and S. Asokan, “Design and validation of a novel high sensitivity self-temperature compensated fiber Bragg grating accelerometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 19(15), 6197–6204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

Ouadah, C. E.

Parida, O. P.

O. P. Parida, J. Nayak, and S. Asokan, “Design and validation of a novel high sensitivity self-temperature compensated fiber Bragg grating accelerometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 19(15), 6197–6204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.

F. Chen, D. Su, X. Qiao, and Q. Rong, “Compact vector bend sensor using dual-off-axis innermost cladding-type FBGs,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(18), 7476–7480 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Qiao, Z. Shao, W. Bao, and Q. Rong, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for the oil industry,” Sensors 17(3), 429 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Feng, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Off-axis ultraviolet-written fiber Bragg gratings for directional bending measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, T.

Ran, Y.

Rong, Q.

F. Chen, D. Su, X. Qiao, and Q. Rong, “Compact vector bend sensor using dual-off-axis innermost cladding-type FBGs,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(18), 7476–7480 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Qiao, Z. Shao, W. Bao, and Q. Rong, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for the oil industry,” Sensors 17(3), 429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shang, L.

Shao, L.

Shao, Z.

X. Qiao, Z. Shao, W. Bao, and Q. Rong, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for the oil industry,” Sensors 17(3), 429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Silva, S.

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

Song, H.

H. Song, Q. Wang, M. Liu, and Q. Cai, “A novel fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor based on orthogonal flexure hinge structure,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(10), 5277–5285 (2020).
[Crossref]

Steel, M.

Steel, M. J.

Su, D.

F. Chen, D. Su, X. Qiao, and Q. Rong, “Compact vector bend sensor using dual-off-axis innermost cladding-type FBGs,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(18), 7476–7480 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tam, H.-Y.

Tan, Y.

Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Guo, Y. Tan, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances and tendency in fiber Bragg grating-based vibration sensor: A review,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(20), 12074–12087 (2020).
[Crossref]

Theodosiou, A.

Thomas, J.

Thomas, J. U.

Tünnermann, A.

Viveiros, D.

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

Wang, Q.

H. Song, Q. Wang, M. Liu, and Q. Cai, “A novel fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor based on orthogonal flexure hinge structure,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(10), 5277–5285 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
[Crossref]

Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
[Crossref]

L. Xie, B. Luo, M. Zhao, O. Deng, E. Liu, P. Liu, Y. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Orientation-dependent optic-fiber accelerometer based on excessively tilted fiber grating,” Opt. Lett. 45(1), 125–128 (2020).
[Crossref]

Webb, D.

Withford, M. J.

Wu, C.

Wuilpart, M.

Xie, L.

Xie, Z.

Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Yao, Y.

Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
[Crossref]

Yüksel, K.

K. Yüksel, D. Kinet, V. Moeyaert, G. Kouroussis, and C. Caucheteur, “Railway monitoring system using optical fiber grating accelerometers,” Smart Mater. Struct. 27(10), 105033 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhao, M.

Zhao, Z.

Zhou, Z.

T. Li, J. Guo, Y. Tan, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances and tendency in fiber Bragg grating-based vibration sensor: A review,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(20), 12074–12087 (2020).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Sens. J. (6)

O. P. Parida, J. Nayak, and S. Asokan, “Design and validation of a novel high sensitivity self-temperature compensated fiber Bragg grating accelerometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 19(15), 6197–6204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, Y. Tan, B. Huang, D. Jiang, and H. Liu, “High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor based on rigid hinge,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(15), 8223–8231 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Song, Q. Wang, M. Liu, and Q. Cai, “A novel fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor based on orthogonal flexure hinge structure,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(10), 5277–5285 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Basumallick, S. Bhattacharya, T. K. Dey, P. Biswas, and S. Bandyopadhyay, “Wideband fiber Bragg grating accelerometer suitable for health monitoring of electrical machines,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(24), 14865–14872 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Guo, Y. Tan, and Z. Zhou, “Recent advances and tendency in fiber Bragg grating-based vibration sensor: A review,” IEEE Sens. J. 20(20), 12074–12087 (2020).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, D. Su, X. Qiao, and Q. Rong, “Compact vector bend sensor using dual-off-axis innermost cladding-type FBGs,” IEEE Sens. J. 18(18), 7476–7480 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. & Laser Technol. (1)

D. Viveiros, V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, S. Silva, O. Frazão, P. A. Jorge, L. A. Fernandes, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser direct written off-axis fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Opt. & Laser Technol. 128, 106227 (2020).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (8)

A. Ioannou, A. Theodosiou, C. Caucheteur, and K. Kalli, “Direct writing of plane-by-plane tilted fiber Bragg gratings using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5198–5201 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, D. Kinet, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Femtosecond-laser-induced highly birefringent Bragg gratings in standard optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 594–596 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Feng, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Off-axis ultraviolet-written fiber Bragg gratings for directional bending measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Guo, L. Shang, F. Liu, C. Wu, B.-O. Guan, H.-Y. Tam, and J. Albert, “Polarization-maintaining fiber-optic-grating vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 531–533 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Guo, L. Shang, Y. Ran, B.-O. Guan, and J. Albert, “Fiber-optic vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2703–2705 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. Chen, and J. Albert, “Temperature independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1004–1006 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Chikh-Bled, K. Chah, Á González-Vila, B. Lasri, and C. Caucheteur, “Behavior of femtosecond laser-induced eccentric fiber Bragg gratings at very high temperatures,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 4048–4051 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Xie, B. Luo, M. Zhao, O. Deng, E. Liu, P. Liu, Y. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Orientation-dependent optic-fiber accelerometer based on excessively tilted fiber grating,” Opt. Lett. 45(1), 125–128 (2020).
[Crossref]

Opto-Elect. Adv. (1)

Q. Lu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Yao, X. Wang, and W. Huang, “Review of micromachined optical accelerometers: from mg to sub-µg,” Opto-Elect. Adv. 4(3), 200045 (2021).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Chah, D. Kinet, and C. Caucheteur, “Negative axial strain sensitivity in gold-coated eccentric fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

X. Qiao, Z. Shao, W. Bao, and Q. Rong, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors for the oil industry,” Sensors 17(3), 429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

K. Yüksel, D. Kinet, V. Moeyaert, G. Kouroussis, and C. Caucheteur, “Railway monitoring system using optical fiber grating accelerometers,” Smart Mater. Struct. 27(10), 105033 (2018).
[Crossref]

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Side-view and (b) cross-sectional-view photomicrograph of the EFBG, (c) transmission and reflection spectra of the 3 µm offset EFBG.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic diagram of abrupt-tapered EFBG accelerometer, (b) the abrupt-tapered structure, (c) reflection spectra for different diameters of the tapered waist.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The schematic diagram of the bending fiber, (b) tapered EFBG reflection spectra versus bending.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the acceleration sensing system.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Real-time power output of the two reflective resonances versus applied vibration and (b) frequency spectrum of the ghost mode response.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Linear response output of the accelerometer with 5.0 cm free fiber length versus applied accelerations and (b) real-time power output of the ghost mode versus applied acceleration.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Amplitude–frequency responsivity of the accelerometer for different sensing lengths.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Orientation-dependent acceleration responsivity of the sensor, (b) schematic diagram of the azimuth angle of EFBG.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m λ B = 2 n e f f , c o r e Λ
m λ c l a d , i = ( n e f f , c o r e + n e f f , i ) Λ ,
f = 1 2 π 8 E I ρ A L 4 ,

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