Abstract

Vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have aroused great attention on account of the remarkable potential in the field of communication. It has the characteristics of higher spectrum efficiency, greater channel capacity and stronger anti-interference, which will revolutionize the wireless communications in the future. However, target tracking on a vortex generator in practical applications is becoming a challenge because the backscattering of electromagnetic (EM) waves under oblique incidence is too small for detection. Currently, the main way to solve this problem is to load an extra retroreflector such as Luneburg lens, which in turn leads to increased weights and bulky volumes. In this paper, we propose a vortex generator simultaneously with retroreflective characteristics utilizing an angle-selective metasurface. The meta-atom can achieve broadband polarization conversion under normal incidence and efficient retroreflection under oblique incidence. Without the need for an additional retroreflection phase arrangement, an OAM generator composed of such meta-atoms can be achieved in 15.0–21.0GHz under both x- and y-polarized normal incidence. Meanwhile, four retroreflection channels are opened under oblique illumination of both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves at 20.0GHz. Both the simulated and measured results show excellent performances. The integration of an OAM generator and retroreflector will greatly reduce the weight and volume and save in the cost of production, which will promote the development of miniaturized, multi-role, and even intelligent functional devices.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Since the discovery of light’s OAM in 1992 [1], OAM beams have aroused great attentions on account of the remarkable potential in the field of communication. Due to the infinite topological charge numbers, it is considered to possess the characteristics of higher spectrum efficiency, greater channel capacity and stronger anti-interference, which may will revolutionize the wireless communications in the future. In recent years, many OAM generators with tremendous successes have been proposed. Thidé et al. [2] utilized photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain which allows information-rich radio astronomy and paves the way for novel wireless communication concepts. Devlin et al. [3] presented a method for converting arbitrary spin angular momentum states into total angular momentum states characterized by a superposition of independent OAM. Nagali et al. [4] experimentally demonstrated two-photon quantum correlations such as those resulting from coalescence interference can be successfully transferred into the OAM degree of freedom.

Recently, metasurface, a two-dimensional (2D) form of metamaterial exhibiting intriguing properties which do not exist in nature, provides an alternative method to implement OAM via arranging the sub-wavelength meta-atoms in 2D planar, which can greatly simplify the design process [512]. Yu et al. [13] indicates that a two-dimensional array of optical resonators with discrete helicoidally varying phase response can create the helicoidal scattered wavefront. Luo et al. [14] fabricated the several vortex-beam generators realized in ultrathin PB metasurfaces using 100%-efficiency photonic spin Hall effect. Zhang et al. [15] proposed a strategy for a helicity-dependent multifunctional design by sandwiching dual-layer geometric phase metasurfaces to convert the circular polarized plane wave into a vortex beam that carries the OAM.

However, target tracking is a big challenge because the backscattering of EM wave under oblique incidence is too small to detect. Currently, the main way to solve this problem is to load an extra retroreflector [1618]. Traditional retroreflectors including metallic corner cubes, metallic sawtooth gratings and Luneburg lens will lead to the increased weights, bulky volumes and expensive fabrication costs. Therefore, light and convenient retroreflective metasurfaces are desired to be proposed [19,20]. Estakhri et al. [21] gave the phase-gradient metasurface achieving high-efficient retroreflection under the incident of 35.7° in the visible regime. Jia et al. [22] proposed a modified square loop structure to achieve the retroreflection with TE polarization under 20° oblique incidence at 9.8GHz. Wong et al. [23] indicated the retroreflective meta-atoms of rods (for TE) and slot (for TM) under 84.7° oblique incidence at 24.0 GHz.

In this paper, we propose a vortex generator simultaneously with retroreflection characteristics utilizing angle-selective metasurface. The meta-atom can achieve broadband polarization conversion under normal incidence and efficient retroreflection under oblique incidence. Without the need for additional retroreflection phase arrangement, an OAM generator composed of such meta-atoms can be achieved from 15GHz to 21GHz under both x- and y-polarized normal incidence. Meanwhile, four retroreflection channels are opened when transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) illumined obliquely at 20GHz. The schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 1, where the white beam of normal incidence represents the vortex generating channel. In this channel, both x- and y-polarized waves are emitted from the highlighted white focus to the metasurface and the scattered waves will be converted into vortex beams. The other four beams of oblique incidence represent the retroreflection channels. At a certain frequency, TE and TM waves along these channels will be retroreflected. Both the simulated and measured results show excellent performances. The integration of OAM generator and retroreflector will greatly reduce the weight and volume and save the costs of production, which will promote the development of miniaturized, multi-role, and even intelligent functional devices.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the proposed vortex generator with four retroreflection channels.

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2. Design and analysis of the meta-atom

In our design, we firstly design a reflective angle-selective meta-atom. The meta-atom can achieve broadband polarization conversion under normal incidence. Meanwhile, efficient retroreflection can be implemented under a certain oblique incidence according to extraordinary optical diffraction (EOD) theory [24]. The EOD means metasurfaces can acquire the near-unitary diffraction efficiencies utilizing the decaying pathways [25,26]. Therefore, we can funnel the impinging EM into the desired diffraction channel such as the zeroth and -first diffraction orders and then retroreflect the near-unitary -first diffraction order by adjusting the period of the metal strips and suppress the zeroth order by changing the structure parameters. The condition of retroreflection can be described as follows [27]:

$$\sin {\theta _0} = \frac{\pi }{{{p_0}{k_0}}}.$$
where ${k_0}$, ${p_0}$ and ${\theta _0}$ are the overall wavevector, periodicity and incident angle, respectively. If we want to achieve a certain angle of retroreflection at a certain frequency, the periodicity ${p_0}$ of metasurface can be obtained accordng to Eq. (1). As a proof-of-principle example, if we want the retroreflective frequency is 20GHz under the incident angle ${\theta _0}$=48.6°, the ${p_0}$ will be 10mm according to Eq. (1).

Next, the optimized meta-atom is schematically illustrated in Fig. 2(a). The periodicity is 10mm. It can be divided into three layers. The thickness of the top copper pattern and background sheet is 0.018mm with a conductivity of 5.8×107 S/m. There is a 1.5mm PTFE dielectric layer (a dielectric constant 1.80 and a los tangent 0.001) between them. The other parameters are a=4.2mm, b=6.2mm. Then, full-wave simulations are performed using the frequency domain solver in CST Microwave Studio with periodic boundary conditions in x- and y-directions and open conditions along the z-direction. The properties of polarization conversion are studied by the reflection coefficients. $rxx$ ($ryy$) means the co-polarization reflection coefficient and $ryx$ ($rxy$) is the cross-polarization reflection coefficient under x- (y-) polarized EM waves. Figure 2(b) indicates that both the x-polarized and y-polarized waves can achieve high-efficient reflected cross-polarization conversion from 15.0–21.0 GHz. Then, we name the propose meta-atom as element 0 and a same meta-atom rotated 90° as element 1. In order to figure out the properties between the two resonators, the corresponding amplitudes and phases are simulated and shown in Fig. 2(c). The reflection amplitudes rxy for them are nearly unchanged and the phase difference is almost 180° in a wide band. Therefore, we can construct the 1-bit reflected element at high frequencies by rotating meta-atom.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. The detailed geometry (a) of the single meta-atom and corroding amplitude (b) under linear polarization. The amplitude and phase (c) for element 0 and element 1

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Subsequently, we simulate the retroreflected properties under incidence angle of 48.6° for element 0. The simulated metasurface is composed of 20×20 elements with a total size of 200mm×200mm. Due to the rotational symmetry of the two elements, we only present the incident cases of TM and TE incidence on the xoz plane as the blue lines shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). Meanwhile, in order to facilitate the observation of the retroreflection, a metallic plate with a same size of 200mm×200mm is used as a comparison under the same simulation conditions as the red lines shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). The insets are the correspoding 3D farfield patterns of metasurface. From Fig. 3(a) and (b), compared with flat metallic plate, the retroreflection of the metasurface is enhanced by more than about 23dBm2 around the incidence angle of 48.6° at 20.0GHz. Therefore, we can conclude that both TM and TE waves can achieve great retroreflection.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. The bistatic RCS scattering patterns cutting on the xoz plane under TM (a) and TE (b) polarization waves.

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3. Design and analysis of the metasurface

We employ the 1-bit reflected elements to design the OAM vortex beams generator. To generate the spiral phase profile, the phase of each point (x, y) should satisfy the relationship as follows:

$${\Phi _s}(x,y) = l\,{\tan ^{ - 1}}\left( {\frac{y}{x}} \right).$$
where l represents the topology charge of the OAM vortex beam. Considering the influence of the transmitting horn antenna location, we add a focusing phase to the spiral wavefront, which can be written as
$${\Phi _f}(x,y) = {k_0}\left( {\sqrt {{x^2} + {y^2} + {F^2}} - F} \right).$$
where ${k_0}$ and F indicate the wave number in free space and the focal length between the transmitting horn antenna and metasurface. And then, the phase profile of vortex beam can be expressed as below:
$${\Phi _\textrm{v}}(x,y) = l\,{\tan ^{ - 1}}\left( {\frac{y}{x}} \right) + {k_0}\left( {\sqrt {{x^2} + {y^2} + {F^2}} - F} \right).$$

We choose l=-2 and frequency f=20.0Hz. Then, according to $\lambda = c/f$ and ${k_0} = 2\pi /\lambda $, we can get the continuous phase profiles of vortex beam. In order to be implemented by 1-bit phases, it should be discretized according to the following formula:

$$\Phi (x,y) = \left\{ {\begin{array}{{r}} {{0^\circ },{0^\circ } \le \Phi (x,y) < {{180}^\circ }}\\ {{{180}^\circ },{{180}^\circ } \le \Phi (x,y) < {{360}^\circ }} \end{array}} \right.$$

We can achieve the discretized phase distribution of the OAM vortex beam. All the calculation process and phase distribution of each step are shown in Fig. 4. Finally, according to the above discretized phase distribution diagram in Fig. 4 and the corresponding relation between the phase and the meta-atom, we configure the final metasurface completely. The whole metasurface is designed to be composed by 20 × 20 meta-atoms and the overall dimension is 200 × 200 mm2.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. The calculation process and phase distribution of each step at 20 GHz.

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4. Simulation results

Numerical simulations are carried out using the time domain solver in CST Microwave Studio. The above mentioned metasurface (200mm×200mm) is simulated with open conditions along the x, y and z directions.

Firstly, the effects of vortex wave generation at the reference frequency 20.0GHz are simulated. A linear polarization horn antenna as the feeding source is placed in the focal position at a distance of 300mm away from the metasurface. The simulated 3D scattering patterns at 20.0GHz under the illumination of x- and y-polarized EM waves are shown in Fig. 5(a) and 5(b). Apparently, the main beam exhibites a ring-shaped intensity profile with a hollow center, which is consistent with the characteristic profile of vortex beams. Meanwhile, the corresponding 2D scattering amplitude patterns cutting on xoz plane at 20.0 GHz are shown in Fig. 5(c) and 5(d). The energy null located in the directions of 0° is much smaller than the energy distribution of main OAM beam. Besides, the corresponding phase profiles in Fig. 5(e) and 5(f) exhibit the superior spiral shape. The spiral shape indicates that the topology charge l of the OAM vortex beam is −2 which is consist with the preset value. In addition, to evaluate the operating bandwidth of OAM vortex beam, the simulated 3D scattering patterns and phase profiles at other frequencies are shown in Fig. 6(a)-(h), where Fig. 6(a)-(d) are x-polarized waves incidence and Fig. 6(e)-(h) are y-polarized waves incidence. As we can see, they all exhibt the characteristic profile of vortex beams with desired OAM modes across the band of 15.0 −21.0GHz.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Simulated 3D scattering patterns excited by x-polarized (a) and y-polarized (b) EM waves at 20.0 GHz. The corresponding simulated 2D scattering amplitude cutting on xoz plane under x-polarized (c) and y-polarized (d) EM waves. The corresponding phase profiles under x-polarized (e) and y-polarized (f) EM waves.

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 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Simulated 3D scattering patterns and corresponding phase profiles at 15.0 GHz (a), 17.0 GHz (b) 19.0 GHz (c) and 21.0 GHz (d) under x-polarized waves. Simulated 3D scattering patterns and corresponding phase profiles at 15.0 GHz (e), 17.0 GHz (f) 19.0 GHz (g) and 21.0 GHz (h) under y-polarized waves.

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Furthermore, we give the simulated RCS at 20.0 GHz in Fig. 7 when TM and TE waves is oblique incident at 48.6°. The legend in the upper right of each figure means the states of incident EM waves. For example, the legend in Fig. 7(a) represents that the TM waves is incident along xoz plane. Other legends are available in the same way. Besides, the inset of each figure is the corresponding 3D farfield pattern of metasurface. In order to facilitate the observation of retroreflection, a metallic plate of the same size is used as a comparison under the same simulation conditions.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Bistatic RCS under TM (a) and TE (b) waves along xoz incident plane. Bistatic RCS under TM (c) and TE (d) waves along yoz plane. Monostatic RCS under TM (e) and TE (f) waves along xoz plane. Monostatic RCS under TM (g) and TE (h) waves along yoz plane.

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The simulated bistatic RCS under TM and TE waves along different incident plane are shown in Fig. 7(a)-(d). When EM waves illuminate the metal plate at an angle of 48.6°, the reflected waves will be reflected at −48.6° (the red lines). However, when the EM waves illuminate the metasurface at the same incident angle, it will be retroreflected at 48.6° (the blue lines). Compared with flat metallic plate, the retroreflections of the metasurface under differernt states of EM waves are all enhanced by more than about 27dBm2 at 20.0GHz. Besides, in order to figure out whether can it achieve a retroreflection when EM waves illuminate the metasurface at an angle of −48.6°, we simulate the monostatic RCS as shown in Fig. 7(e)-(h). We can find that the high retroreflection peaks are always exist at ±48.6°, no matter when the TM and TE waves are along the xoz plane or along the yoz plane.

Therefore, we can get the conclusion that the proposed vortex wave generation metasurface also can achieve retroreflection under the incident angles of ±48.6° along xoz and yoz incident plane. In other words, we open four retroreflection channels in this vortex wave generation metasurface which can allow the oblique incident TE and TM waves are retroreflected to achieve great enhance for backscattering at 20GHz.

5. Experiment

To verify the properties of simulation, we fabricate an area of 200mm×200mm square prototype shown in Fig. 8(a) by printed circuit board (PCB) technology, where the inset is the zoom-in view of the meta-atoms. Experiment setup is shown in Fig. 8(b). Whole test system is carried out in a microwave darkroom with absorbing materials on the walls to avoid unnecessary reflections from the environment. In the process of experiment, the prototype is measured using two horn antennas and one Agilent E8363B network analyzer. One horn antenna as the transmitting antenna is fixed to the turntable holding the prototype. We can adjust the incident angle by adjusting the angle of the horn towards the prototype. The other horn antenna is placed at a far distance from the turntable to receive the EM waves reflected by the metasurface prototype. Therefore, the far-field radiation patterns can be measured when rotate the turntable. Finally, the test results can be obtained by the Agilent E8363B network analyzer.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. The fabricated prototype (a) and the setup of far-field experiment. The far-field radiation patterns when x-polarized (c) and y-polarized (d) waves are normal incidence at 20.0 GHz.

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From the results of the simulation, OAM beams can be achieved when x- and y-polarized EM waves are normal incidence. Here, we give the measured results at the design frequency to prove the authenticity of the simulation results. It is worth mentioning that the transmitting horn antenna should be placed in the focal position at a distance of 300mm away from the metasurface in order to match with the simulation conditions. The far-field radiation patterns at 20.0GHz under different polarized waves are shown in Fig. 8(c) and Fig. 8(d). We can find that the amplitude null can be clearly seen at about 0°. Both of the radiation patterns are consist with simulated results in Fig. 5(c) and Fig. 5(d), which indicates the great performance of vortex wave generation.

Furthermore, we adjust the angle of the horn towards the prototype to verify the effect of retroreflection. The far-field radiation patterns under oblique incidence are shown in Fig. 9(a)-(e). As a comparison, the metal radiation diagram at oblique incidence is given firstly in Fig. 8(a), which indicates that most EM waves are reflected in the direction of −49°. However, when EM wave is irradiated at about 48.6°on the proposed metasurface, most EM waves are reflected to about 49° as shown in Fig. 8(b)-(e). Meanwhile, each amplitude reflected back in the direction of 49° is far outweigh than that in metal sheet. It indicates that the metasurface can achieve great retroreflection in different EM waves states. Then, monostatic RCS are measured to demonstrate multi-channel performancein. The setup of monostatic RCS is shown in Fig. 9(f) and the measured monostatic RCS at 20GHz under two different EM waves states are shown in Fig. 9(g)-(h). We can find that two mainly peaks of retroreflection are in about ±49° respectively. The measured results are basically consistent with the simulatd. Therefore, the proposed metasurface has great ability of multi-channel retroreflection.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. The far-field radiation patterns of metal (a) and metasurface (b)-(e) when EM waves with different states are oblique incidence. The setup of monostatic RCS (f) and the measured monostatic RCS under different EM waves states at 20 GHz (g)-(h).

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In conclusion, the proposed metasurface can achieve great OAM generation when EM waves are normal incidence and great retroreflection when TE and TM waves illumine obliquely.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, we propose a vortex generator simultaneously with retroreflection characteristics, which can realize the backscattering enhancement under oblique incidence in practical applications. The meta-atom is proposed firstly to achieve broadband polarization conversion under normal incidence while efficient retroreflection under oblique incidence. Without the need for additional retroreflection phase arrangement, an OAM generator composed of such meta-atoms can be performed from 15GHz to 21GHz under both x- and y-polarized normal incidence. Meanwhile, four retroreflection channels are opened when transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) illumined obliquely at 20GHz. Our findings of integrating OAM generator and retroreflector will greatly reduce the weight and volume and save the costs of production. It combines the active communication under normal incident and the passive tracking under oblique incident, which will promote the development of miniaturized, multi-role, and even intelligent functional devices.

Funding

Scientific Research Foundation of the Graduate School of Southeast University; National Natural Science Foundation of China (61901508, 61971435); National Key Research and Development Program of China (SQ2017YFA0700201).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

The data that supports the findings of this study are available within the article

References

1. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef]  

2. B. Thidé and H. Then, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007). [CrossRef]  

3. R. C. De Vlin, A. Ambrosio, and N. A. Rubin, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017). [CrossRef]  

4. E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, and F. D. Martini, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009). [CrossRef]  

5. Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020). [CrossRef]  

6. B. Xu, C. Wu, Z. Wei, Y. Fan, and H. Li, “Generating an orbital-angular-momentum beam with a metasurface of gradient reflective phase,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3940–3945 (2016). [CrossRef]  

7. Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016). [CrossRef]  

8. K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021). [CrossRef]  

9. K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020). [CrossRef]  

10. Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016). [CrossRef]  

11. K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020). [CrossRef]  

12. Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019). [CrossRef]  

13. N. Yu, P. Genevet, and M. A. Kats, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011). [CrossRef]  

14. W. Luo, S. Sun, and H. Xu, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7(4), 044033 (2017). [CrossRef]  

15. C. Zhang, G. Wang, and H. Xu, “Helicity-Dependent Multifunctional Metasurfaces for Full-Space Wave Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8(8), 1901719 (2020). [CrossRef]  

16. T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011). [CrossRef]  

17. V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017). [CrossRef]  

18. A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017). [CrossRef]  

19. X. Su, Z. Wei, and C. Wu, “Negative reflection from metal/graphene plasmonic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 348–351 (2016). [CrossRef]  

20. X. Li, C. Tao, L. Jiang, and T. Itoh, “Blazed metasurface grating with handedness preservation for circularly polarized incident wave,” in 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). IEEE, 133–136. (2018).

21. N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017). [CrossRef]  

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23. A. Wong, P. Christian, and G. Eleftheriades, “Binary Huygens’ Metasurfaces: Experimental Demonstration of Simple and Efficient Near-Grazing Retroreflectors for TE and TM Polarizations,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(6), 2892–2903 (2018). [CrossRef]  

24. Z. L. Deng and J. H. Deng, “Facile metagrating holograms with broadband and extreme angle tolerance,” Light Sci Appl 7(1), 78 (2018). [CrossRef]  

25. Z. L. Deng, Y. Cao, and X. P. Li, “Multifunctional metasurface: from extraordinary optical transmission to extraordinary optical diffraction in a single structure: publisher's note,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 659–660 (2018). [CrossRef]  

26. Y. Shang and Z. Shen, “Polarization-Independent Backscattering Enhancement of Cylinders Based on Conformal Gradient Metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65(5), 2386–2396 (2017). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. Thidé and H. Then, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. C. De Vlin, A. Ambrosio, and N. A. Rubin, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, and F. D. Martini, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Xu, C. Wu, Z. Wei, Y. Fan, and H. Li, “Generating an orbital-angular-momentum beam with a metasurface of gradient reflective phase,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3940–3945 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Yu, P. Genevet, and M. A. Kats, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. Luo, S. Sun, and H. Xu, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7(4), 044033 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Zhang, G. Wang, and H. Xu, “Helicity-Dependent Multifunctional Metasurfaces for Full-Space Wave Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8(8), 1901719 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. X. Su, Z. Wei, and C. Wu, “Negative reflection from metal/graphene plasmonic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 348–351 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Li, C. Tao, L. Jiang, and T. Itoh, “Blazed metasurface grating with handedness preservation for circularly polarized incident wave,” in 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). IEEE, 133–136. (2018).
  21. N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Jia, J. Wang, and Y. Li, “Retro-reflective metasurfaces for backscattering enhancement under oblique incidence,” AIP Adv. 7(10), 105315 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Wong, P. Christian, and G. Eleftheriades, “Binary Huygens’ Metasurfaces: Experimental Demonstration of Simple and Efficient Near-Grazing Retroreflectors for TE and TM Polarizations,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(6), 2892–2903 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. Z. L. Deng and J. H. Deng, “Facile metagrating holograms with broadband and extreme angle tolerance,” Light Sci Appl 7(1), 78 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. Z. L. Deng, Y. Cao, and X. P. Li, “Multifunctional metasurface: from extraordinary optical transmission to extraordinary optical diffraction in a single structure: publisher's note,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 659–660 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Shang and Z. Shen, “Polarization-Independent Backscattering Enhancement of Cylinders Based on Conformal Gradient Metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65(5), 2386–2396 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. Z. Zhang, J. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Polarization-independent multi-channel retroreflective metasurfaces based on extraordinary optical diffraction,” Opt. Express 28(25), 37276–37283 (2020).
    [Crossref]

2021 (1)

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (5)

K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, G. Wang, and H. Xu, “Helicity-Dependent Multifunctional Metasurfaces for Full-Space Wave Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8(8), 1901719 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, J. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Polarization-independent multi-channel retroreflective metasurfaces based on extraordinary optical diffraction,” Opt. Express 28(25), 37276–37283 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (1)

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

A. Wong, P. Christian, and G. Eleftheriades, “Binary Huygens’ Metasurfaces: Experimental Demonstration of Simple and Efficient Near-Grazing Retroreflectors for TE and TM Polarizations,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(6), 2892–2903 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Deng and J. H. Deng, “Facile metagrating holograms with broadband and extreme angle tolerance,” Light Sci Appl 7(1), 78 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Deng, Y. Cao, and X. P. Li, “Multifunctional metasurface: from extraordinary optical transmission to extraordinary optical diffraction in a single structure: publisher's note,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 659–660 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

Y. Shang and Z. Shen, “Polarization-Independent Backscattering Enhancement of Cylinders Based on Conformal Gradient Metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65(5), 2386–2396 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Sun, and H. Xu, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7(4), 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, J. Wang, and Y. Li, “Retro-reflective metasurfaces for backscattering enhancement under oblique incidence,” AIP Adv. 7(10), 105315 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. C. De Vlin, A. Ambrosio, and N. A. Rubin, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

B. Xu, C. Wu, Z. Wei, Y. Fan, and H. Li, “Generating an orbital-angular-momentum beam with a metasurface of gradient reflective phase,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3940–3945 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Su, Z. Wei, and C. Wu, “Negative reflection from metal/graphene plasmonic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 348–351 (2016).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, and M. A. Kats, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, and F. D. Martini, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. Thidé and H. Then, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Albooyeh, M.

V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ambrosio, A.

R. C. De Vlin, A. Ambrosio, and N. A. Rubin, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V.

V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Burokur, S.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Z. L. Deng, Y. Cao, and X. P. Li, “Multifunctional metasurface: from extraordinary optical transmission to extraordinary optical diffraction in a single structure: publisher's note,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 659–660 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
[Crossref]

Christian, P.

A. Wong, P. Christian, and G. Eleftheriades, “Binary Huygens’ Metasurfaces: Experimental Demonstration of Simple and Efficient Near-Grazing Retroreflectors for TE and TM Polarizations,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(6), 2892–2903 (2018).
[Crossref]

De Vlin, R. C.

R. C. De Vlin, A. Ambrosio, and N. A. Rubin, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Deng, J. H.

Z. L. Deng and J. H. Deng, “Facile metagrating holograms with broadband and extreme angle tolerance,” Light Sci Appl 7(1), 78 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deng, Z. L.

Z. L. Deng, Y. Cao, and X. P. Li, “Multifunctional metasurface: from extraordinary optical transmission to extraordinary optical diffraction in a single structure: publisher's note,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 659–660 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Deng and J. H. Deng, “Facile metagrating holograms with broadband and extreme angle tolerance,” Light Sci Appl 7(1), 78 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ding, G.

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ding, G. W.

K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Eleftheriades, G.

A. Wong, P. Christian, and G. Eleftheriades, “Binary Huygens’ Metasurfaces: Experimental Demonstration of Simple and Efficient Near-Grazing Retroreflectors for TE and TM Polarizations,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(6), 2892–2903 (2018).
[Crossref]

Elsakka, A.

V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017).
[Crossref]

Estakhri, N.

N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Xu, C. Wu, Z. Wei, Y. Fan, and H. Li, “Generating an orbital-angular-momentum beam with a metasurface of gradient reflective phase,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3940–3945 (2016).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y. J.

K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
[Crossref]

Fu, Q.

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, and M. A. Kats, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y. H.

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

Horie, Y.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, G.

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

Itoh, T.

X. Li, C. Tao, L. Jiang, and T. Itoh, “Blazed metasurface grating with handedness preservation for circularly polarized incident wave,” in 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). IEEE, 133–136. (2018).

Jia, Y.

Z. Zhang, J. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Polarization-independent multi-channel retroreflective metasurfaces based on extraordinary optical diffraction,” Opt. Express 28(25), 37276–37283 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, J. Wang, and Y. Li, “Retro-reflective metasurfaces for backscattering enhancement under oblique incidence,” AIP Adv. 7(10), 105315 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

X. Li, C. Tao, L. Jiang, and T. Itoh, “Blazed metasurface grating with handedness preservation for circularly polarized incident wave,” in 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). IEEE, 133–136. (2018).

Jiang, T.

K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

Kamali, S. M.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, and M. A. Kats, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Knight, M.

N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koschny, T.

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

B. Xu, C. Wu, Z. Wei, Y. Fan, and H. Li, “Generating an orbital-angular-momentum beam with a metasurface of gradient reflective phase,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3940–3945 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, C. Tao, L. Jiang, and T. Itoh, “Blazed metasurface grating with handedness preservation for circularly polarized incident wave,” in 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). IEEE, 133–136. (2018).

Li, X. P.

Z. L. Deng, Y. Cao, and X. P. Li, “Multifunctional metasurface: from extraordinary optical transmission to extraordinary optical diffraction in a single structure: publisher's note,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 659–660 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Jia, J. Wang, and Y. Li, “Retro-reflective metasurfaces for backscattering enhancement under oblique incidence,” AIP Adv. 7(10), 105315 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, W.

W. Luo, S. Sun, and H. Xu, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7(4), 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, X. G.

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martini, F. D.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, and F. D. Martini, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, M. H.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nagali, E.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, and F. D. Martini, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Neder, V.

N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pu, M. B.

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ratni, B.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rubin, N. A.

R. C. De Vlin, A. Ambrosio, and N. A. Rubin, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sciarrino, F.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, and F. D. Martini, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shang, Y.

Y. Shang and Z. Shen, “Polarization-Independent Backscattering Enhancement of Cylinders Based on Conformal Gradient Metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65(5), 2386–2396 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shen, N.

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.

Y. Shang and Z. Shen, “Polarization-Independent Backscattering Enhancement of Cylinders Based on Conformal Gradient Metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65(5), 2386–2396 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C.

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Sun, S.

W. Luo, S. Sun, and H. Xu, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7(4), 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, J.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

Tao, C.

X. Li, C. Tao, L. Jiang, and T. Itoh, “Blazed metasurface grating with handedness preservation for circularly polarized incident wave,” in 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). IEEE, 133–136. (2018).

Tcvetkova, S.

V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017).
[Crossref]

Then, H.

B. Thidé and H. Then, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thidé, B.

B. Thidé and H. Then, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S.

V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017).
[Crossref]

Valentine, J.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

C. Zhang, G. Wang, and H. Xu, “Helicity-Dependent Multifunctional Metasurfaces for Full-Space Wave Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8(8), 1901719 (2020).
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Wang, J.

Z. Zhang, J. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Polarization-independent multi-channel retroreflective metasurfaces based on extraordinary optical diffraction,” Opt. Express 28(25), 37276–37283 (2020).
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Y. Jia, J. Wang, and Y. Li, “Retro-reflective metasurfaces for backscattering enhancement under oblique incidence,” AIP Adv. 7(10), 105315 (2017).
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Wang, Y. Q.

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
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Wei, Z.

B. Xu, C. Wu, Z. Wei, Y. Fan, and H. Li, “Generating an orbital-angular-momentum beam with a metasurface of gradient reflective phase,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3940–3945 (2016).
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Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
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X. Su, Z. Wei, and C. Wu, “Negative reflection from metal/graphene plasmonic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 348–351 (2016).
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L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wong, A.

A. Wong, P. Christian, and G. Eleftheriades, “Binary Huygens’ Metasurfaces: Experimental Demonstration of Simple and Efficient Near-Grazing Retroreflectors for TE and TM Polarizations,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(6), 2892–2903 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

Wu, Q.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

C. Zhang, G. Wang, and H. Xu, “Helicity-Dependent Multifunctional Metasurfaces for Full-Space Wave Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8(8), 1901719 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Sun, and H. Xu, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7(4), 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, and M. A. Kats, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, G. Wang, and H. Xu, “Helicity-Dependent Multifunctional Metasurfaces for Full-Space Wave Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8(8), 1901719 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, N.

K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, J. M.

K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z. Y.

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Merging Geometric Phase and Plasmon Retardation Phase in Continuously Shaped Metasurfaces for Arbitrary Orbital Angular Momentum Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Estakhri, V. Neder, M. Knight, A. Polman, and A. Alù, “Wide-angle graded metasurface for back reflection,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 228–235 (2017).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, and C. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. Technol. (1)

K. Chen, N. Zhang, G. W. Ding, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. J. Feng, “Active Anisotropic Coding Metasurface with Independent Real-Time Reconfigurability for Dual Polarized Waves,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(2), 1900930 (2020).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Z. Wei, H. Li, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, P. Zhang, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Effect with Graphene in the Terahertz Regime,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1824–1828 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, G. Wang, and H. Xu, “Helicity-Dependent Multifunctional Metasurfaces for Full-Space Wave Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 8(8), 1901719 (2020).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

Y. Jia, J. Wang, and Y. Li, “Retro-reflective metasurfaces for backscattering enhancement under oblique incidence,” AIP Adv. 7(10), 105315 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

A. Wong, P. Christian, and G. Eleftheriades, “Binary Huygens’ Metasurfaces: Experimental Demonstration of Simple and Efficient Near-Grazing Retroreflectors for TE and TM Polarizations,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(6), 2892–2903 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Shang and Z. Shen, “Polarization-Independent Backscattering Enhancement of Cylinders Based on Conformal Gradient Metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 65(5), 2386–2396 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laser & Photonics Reviews. (1)

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, H. Li, B. Ratni, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and J. Tan, “Polarization-Engineered Noninterleaved Metasurface for Integer and Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing,” Laser & Photonics Reviews. 15(1), 2000351 (2021).
[Crossref]

Light Sci Appl (1)

Z. L. Deng and J. H. Deng, “Facile metagrating holograms with broadband and extreme angle tolerance,” Light Sci Appl 7(1), 78 (2018).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, Q. Song, X. Ding, Q. Wu, S. Burokur, and P. Genevet, “Independent phase modulation for quadruplex polarization channels enabled by chirality-assisted geometric-phase metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 4186 (2020).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton Lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photonics Res. (2)

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Deng, Y. Cao, and X. P. Li, “Multifunctional metasurface: from extraordinary optical transmission to extraordinary optical diffraction in a single structure: publisher's note,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 659–660 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Applied (1)

W. Luo, S. Sun, and H. Xu, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7(4), 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, and F. D. Martini, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Thidé and H. Then, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

V. Asadchy, S. Tcvetkova, A. Elsakka, M. Albooyeh, and S. Tretyakov, “Flat engineered multichannel reflectors,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031046 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, and M. A. Kats, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. C. De Vlin, A. Ambrosio, and N. A. Rubin, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

X. Li, C. Tao, L. Jiang, and T. Itoh, “Blazed metasurface grating with handedness preservation for circularly polarized incident wave,” in 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC). IEEE, 133–136. (2018).

Data availability

The data that supports the findings of this study are available within the article

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the proposed vortex generator with four retroreflection channels.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The detailed geometry (a) of the single meta-atom and corroding amplitude (b) under linear polarization. The amplitude and phase (c) for element 0 and element 1
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The bistatic RCS scattering patterns cutting on the xoz plane under TM (a) and TE (b) polarization waves.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The calculation process and phase distribution of each step at 20 GHz.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulated 3D scattering patterns excited by x-polarized (a) and y-polarized (b) EM waves at 20.0 GHz. The corresponding simulated 2D scattering amplitude cutting on xoz plane under x-polarized (c) and y-polarized (d) EM waves. The corresponding phase profiles under x-polarized (e) and y-polarized (f) EM waves.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Simulated 3D scattering patterns and corresponding phase profiles at 15.0 GHz (a), 17.0 GHz (b) 19.0 GHz (c) and 21.0 GHz (d) under x-polarized waves. Simulated 3D scattering patterns and corresponding phase profiles at 15.0 GHz (e), 17.0 GHz (f) 19.0 GHz (g) and 21.0 GHz (h) under y-polarized waves.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Bistatic RCS under TM (a) and TE (b) waves along xoz incident plane. Bistatic RCS under TM (c) and TE (d) waves along yoz plane. Monostatic RCS under TM (e) and TE (f) waves along xoz plane. Monostatic RCS under TM (g) and TE (h) waves along yoz plane.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The fabricated prototype (a) and the setup of far-field experiment. The far-field radiation patterns when x-polarized (c) and y-polarized (d) waves are normal incidence at 20.0 GHz.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The far-field radiation patterns of metal (a) and metasurface (b)-(e) when EM waves with different states are oblique incidence. The setup of monostatic RCS (f) and the measured monostatic RCS under different EM waves states at 20 GHz (g)-(h).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin θ 0 = π p 0 k 0 .
Φ s ( x , y ) = l tan 1 ( y x ) .
Φ f ( x , y ) = k 0 ( x 2 + y 2 + F 2 F ) .
Φ v ( x , y ) = l tan 1 ( y x ) + k 0 ( x 2 + y 2 + F 2 F ) .
Φ ( x , y ) = { 0 , 0 Φ ( x , y ) < 180 180 , 180 Φ ( x , y ) < 360