Abstract

We propose a chiral metasurface (CMS) that exhibits asymmetric transmission (AT) of double circularly and linearly polarized waves at the same frequency band. In order to realize the manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the whole space, the unit cell of CMS consists of three layers of dielectric substrate and four layers of metal patches. The Z-shaped chiral micro-structure and a grating-like micro-structure are proposed and designed to achieve AT. The simulated results show that the x-polarized wave that is incident along one direction can be transmitted into the right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP) wave and the left-hand circularly polarized (LHCP) wave that is incident along the opposite direction can be reflected as the LHCP wave in the frequency band of 4.69GHz-5.84 GHz. The maximum chirality response can be reflected by AT and circular dichroism (CD) and they can reach up to 0.38 and 0.75, respectively. In addition, we also produced the sample of CMS, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated results.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Metasurface is the two-dimensional (2D) manifestation of metamaterials, in which the unit cell is arranged in 2D plane as periodic or aperiodic [13]. Because of the advantages of ultrathin profile and easy processing, it has been widely studied in recent decades [47]. Asymmetric transmission (AT) refers to the phenomenon that electromagnetic (EM) waves incident on metasurface in opposite directions to produce different functions [812]. This kind of device with AT effect has important application in satellite communication, radomes and optical system.

The metasurface with AT characteristics can improve the space utilization, thereby miniaturizing the devices. The chiral micro-structure of the metasurface [1316] is equivalent to breaking the symmetry so that the metasurface exhibits AT properties [1719]. The metasurfaces exhibit the asymmetric transmission in the frequency of microwave, THz and even optical [2024]. And in order to increase the working bandwidth, graphene is used to realize the tunable AT [2530]. Moreover, the spiral metasurface based on a hybrid structure of metal and VO2 is proposed to achieve AT function with tunable bandwidth and large angle of incidence at THz frequency [31]. The wavefronts of both linearly polarized [3237] and circularly polarized [2528] waves can be controlled by the metasurface with AT. For example, a chiral metasurface (CMS) is designed for AT in dual band. The concept of multiple models and the transmission matrix is introduced to explain the function of AT for linearly polarized waves in the terahertz range [32]. A three-layer CMS is proposed, which realizes the AT function of linearly polarized waves in three frequency bands. In addition, it is still stable when the incident angle reaches 40° [33]. The PIN diodes are installed on the split resonant ring to form a tunable CMS, which realizes the function of AT in multi-band. The physical mechanism is analyzed by the transmission matrix [34]. A transmission-reflection -integrated coding metasurface is illustrated to control the wavefront of linearly polarized waves with three different functions [35]. A bi-layered CMS exhibits high efficiency AT for mutually orthogonal linearly polarized waves in the certain frequency range, and can also keep a stable response with the large incident angle [36,37]. Recently, a CMS composed of L-shaped silver nanostructures simultaneously reflect and transmit mutually orthogonal circularly polarized waves for y-polarized incident wave from 200THz to 261THz. And the chirality is increased by engraving another smaller L-shaped silver nanostructure to achieve the more perfect polarization conversion [38]. A three-layered metasurface using the Fabry-Perot like resonance cavities is proposed to achieve broad dual-band AT of circularly polarized waves [39]. However, there are few reports on the simultaneous control of AT of linearly polarized waves and circularly polarized waves [40,41].

In this paper, we propose an AT device based on CMS, which can transmit the right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP) wave when the x-polarized wave is incident along the + z axis and reflect the left-hand circularly polarized (LHCP) wave when the LHCP wave is incident along -z axis from 4.69 GHz to 5.84 GHz. The AT is realized for incidences with the linear- and circular-polarizations simultaneously. The relative bandwidth is 21.8% with the axial ratio less than 3 dB and the total transmittance can reach up to 0.8 in the working frequency band. The CMS is able to find the potential applications in antenna systems due to the advantages of miniaturization and multi-functionalization.

2. Design and analysis

A multi-layer CMS is designed and given in Fig. 1. Figure 1(a) shows the schematic of the function and every layer of CMS that can achieve AT effect. The CMS can transmit the RHCP wave for the x-polarized incident wave along the + z (forward) and reflect the LHCP wave when the LHCP wave is incident along the -z axis (backward). As shown in Fig. 1(b), the proposed CMS consists of three layers of Rogers RT5880 dielectric substrate (ɛr=2.2 and tanδ=0.0009) and four cooper layers (σ=5.8×107S/m) that are I, II, III and IV. The unit length of the CMS is p=15 mm and the thickness of each dielectric substrate layer is 2 mm. Besides, the thickness of each copper layer is 0.035 mm. Figures 1(c) and (e) show the layers I and III of the cooper patches with chiral micro-structure. The layers II and IV of the unit cell are given in Figs. 1(d) and (f), respectively. By optimizing the structural parameters, the dimensions we get are as follows: l1=17 mm, l2=6.5 mm, l3=6.3 mm, l4=4 mm, l5=12 mm, w1=2 mm, w2=1 mm, s1=3.1 mm, s2=1.6 mm, s3=12 mm.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of CMS and the unit cell. (a) AT effect of CMS. (b) The unit cell for CMS. (c) I layer. (d) II layer. (e) III layer. (f) IV layer.

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The copper patch is in the x-y plane and the EM waves transfer along the z axis when the CMS is placed in a rectangular coordinate system. The CMS can realize the function of the transmissive polarization converter and the reflective PB (Pancharatnam-Berry) metasurface when transmitted along the -z and + z axis. Here, the CMS is equivalent to a two-port network, and the Jones matrices for transmission along the + z axis and reflection along the -z axis can be respectively given by [42]

$$\left( {\begin{array}{{c}{c}} {E_x^t}\\ {E_y^t} \end{array}} \right) = {T_{linear}}\left( {\begin{array}{{c}{c}} {E_x^i}\\ {E_y^i} \end{array}} \right) = \left( {\begin{array}{{c}{c}} {{t_{xx}}}&{{t_{xy}}}\\ {{t_{yx}}}&{{t_{yy}}} \end{array}} \right)\left( {\begin{array}{{c}{c}} {E_x^i}\\ {E_y^i} \end{array}} \right). $$
$${R_{cp}} = \left( {\begin{array}{{c}{c}} {{r_{ +{+} }}}&{{r_{ +{-} }}}\\ {{r_{ -{+} }}}&{{r_{ -{-} }}} \end{array}} \right) = \frac{1}{2}\left( {\begin{array}{{c}{c}} {{r_{xx}} - {r_{yy}} - j({r_{xy}} + {r_{yx}})}&{{r_{xx}} + {r_{yy}} + j({r_{xy}} - {r_{yx}})}\\ {{r_{xx}} + {r_{yy}} - j({r_{xy}} - {r_{yx}})}&{{r_{xx}} - {r_{yy}} + j({r_{xy}} + {r_{yx}})} \end{array}} \right). $$
Where ${{E^i}_x}$, ${{E^i}_y}$, ${{E^t}_x}$ and ${{E^t}_y}$ represent the electric fields of the incident and transmissive waves with x- and y-polarization, respectively. Tlinear represents the Jones matrix transmitted by the linearly polarized waves along the + z axis, txx, tyy, txy and tyx are defined as the transmission of the co-polarization (x-x and y-y) and cross-polarization (y-x and x-y), respectively. Under circularly polarization, the transmission matrix of reflection is denoted as Rcp, and r represents reflection coefficient, + and - represent RHCP wave and LHCP wave propagating along + z axis, respectively. So r-+ represents the reflection coefficient of LHCP wave reflected as LHCP wave, the meaning of r++, r+- and r will not be elaborated too much. According to the Eq. (1), the transmitted circularly polarized wave can be obtained for the x-polarized incident wave along the + z axis when txx is equal to tyx and the phase difference is 90°. Moreover, the LHCP wave can be reflected for the incident LHCP wave along the -z axis as r-+ is close to 1 and r++, r+- and r are close to 0 according to the Eq. (2). The results are simulated by the CST STUDIO 2018 with the infinite periodic boundary and the Flouquet ports. Moreover, the electromagnetic numerical method is Finite Integration Theory (FIT) in CST Software. Figure 2(a) shows the S-parameter curves of the linearly polarized waves incident along the + z axis, where tyy and txy are very small, indicating that the y-polarized incident wave is hardly transmitted. But tyx and txx have the larger transmittance and the amplitude difference is smaller from 4.69 GHz to 5.84 GHz. φyx, φxx and Δφ in Fig. 2(b) represent the phase of the transmitted y-polarized wave, the phase of the transmitted x-polarized wave and phase difference between φyx and φxx, respectively. It can be seen that the phase of the x-polarized wave is about 90° ahead of the y-polarized wave from 4.69 GHz to 5.84 GHz. The x-polarized wave can be transmitted into the RHCP wave by the proposed CMS from 4.69 GHz to 5.84 GHz in Fig. 2(a) based on the right-hand spiral rule. Figure 2(c) shows the curves of total transmittance (T) and axial ratio (AR). The calculation formulas of T and AR are defined as follows:
$$T = {|{{t_{yx}}} |^2} + {|{{t_{xx}}} |^2}. $$
$$AR = \left|{20{{\log }_{10}}\tan \left[ {0.5\arcsin \left( {\frac{{2txxtyx}}{{tx{x^2} + ty{x^2}}}\sin \Delta \varphi } \right)} \right]} \right|,\Delta \varphi = {\varphi _{yx}} - {\varphi _{xx}}. $$

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Simulated results of CMS. (a) Transmission coefficient of linearly polarized waves. (b) Transmission phase and phase difference. (c) Axial ratio and total transmittance. (d) Reflection coefficient. (e) Transmission coefficient for the x-polarized wave and the circularly polarized waves. (f) AT of the x-polarized wave.

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It is obvious that T can reach up to 0.8 in the frequency band of achieving the polarization manipulation and the transmitted energy reaches 80% of the incident energy. Meanwhile, AR is below 3 dB, indicating that the transmitted EM wave is the circularly polarized wave. Figure 2(d) shows the reflection curves of the circularly polarized wave incident along the -z axis. The values of r+- and r are very small at operating frequency band means that the RHCP incident wave has almost no reflection. While values of r-+ and r++ are almost 1 and less than 0.2, respectively, indicating that the LHCP wave incident along the -z axis is reflected from 4.69 GHz to 5.84 GHz for LHCP incident waves. The simulated curves of the x-polarized incident wave along the + z axis are shown in Fig. 2(e). The energy of the transmitted RHCP wave is greater than 0.8 and that of the transmitted LHCP wave is less than 0.2 in the working frequency band, which further indicates that the incident x-polarized wave is transmitted into the RHCP wave. Since the CMS exhibits different functions for the EM waves incident along the + z and -z axis, we simulated the transmitted energy curve of the x-polarized wave incident along the + z and -z axis and plotted the curve of AT. The equation of AT is shown as follows [41]

$$AT = T_x^b - T_x^f. $$
Where Tb x and Tf x respectively represent the transmitted total energy when the x-polarized wave is incident in the back (+z) and the front (-z) directions. In Fig. 2(f), the value of AT in the working frequency band can reach up to 0.38 and can be maintained at a high level, indicating that the CMS realizes the excellent characteristic of AT.

Figure 3(a) shows the contour distributions of the current of the IV layer and side view of current distributions of the unit cell. The left and right parts are the current distributions after the incident of the x- and y-polarized waves along the + z axis, respectively. It can be seen that the current intensity with the x-polarized wave is much less than that with the y-polarized wave when the wave is incident on the grating-like micro-structure. It can also be seen from the side view that the current intensity of I, II and III layers after the incident y-polarized wave is much less than that after the incident x-polarized wave. So, the y-polarized wave is reflected and the x-polarized wave is transmitted. This is also consistent with the curves of Fig. 2(a). Figure 3(b) shows the surface current of chiral micro-structures as the x-polarized incident wave along the + z axis. It obvious that the presence of chirality breaks the consistency of the surface currents on the two layers, causing the surface currents of the two layers to flow perpendicular to each other. Figure 3(c) shows the surface current of II layer as the x-polarized incident wave along the + z axis. The current flows along the long side of the copper patch. From the previous current analysis, it is known that the two copper patches with chiral micro-structure can be equivalent to two mutually perpendicular polarizers, then the strip copper patch placed at an angle of 45° between the I and III layers acts as a 45° polarizer that increases the transmittance of linearly polarized waves and also introduces a phase delay. By optimizing the parameters of II layer so that the phase delay reaches 90°, the x-polarized wave incident along the + z axis can be transmitted into the circularly polarized wave. The schematic diagram of the LHCP wave being reflected as the LHCP wave is shown in Fig. 3(d). According to the reciprocity theorem, it can be concluded that the LHCP wave will be converted into the y-polarized wave after passing through the I, II and III layers in turn. The current in IV layer mainly flows along the y direction from the current distributions in Fig. 3(e) when the LHCP wave is incident along the -z axis. Therefore, IV layer plays an important role in reflecting the y-polarized wave. From the previous current analysis and simulated results, the x-polarized wave can be transmitted into the RHCP wave after passing through the I, II and III layers. Moreover, the reflected y-polarized wave by IV layer can be transmitted into the LHCP wave after passing through the III, II and I layers in turn because the copper patch structure of three layers has axial symmetry.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Surface current distributions on CMS at 5.1 GHz. (a) Surface current distributions after orthogonal linearly polarized waves are incident along the + z axis. (b) Surface current distributions of copper patches with chiral micro-structure under incident x-polarized wave. (c) Surface current distributions of the 45° polarizer under incident x-polarized wave. (d) Surface current distributions after the LHCP wave is incident along the -z axis. (e) Surface current distributions of IV layer under incident LHCP wave.

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Figures 4(a) and (b) are schematic diagrams of comparison between grating-like micro-structure and general grating structure. The grating-like micro-structure is different from the general grating structure in that the copper patch along the x axis is longer. As shown in Figs. 4(c) and (d), the bandwidth of AR for grating-like micro-structure with relative bandwidth of 21.8% (4.69-5.84 GHz) is broader than that for general grating structure with relative bandwidth of 16.1% (4.63-5.44 GHz). Consequently, the grating-like micro-structure can slightly improve the polarization conversion efficiency of y-polarized wave, so that the RHCP wave can be transmitted in a wider frequency band.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Comparison diagrams with grating-like micro-structure and general grating structure. (a) Grating-like micro-structure. (b) General grating structure. (c) Transmission coefficient of two contrasting structures. (d) Axial ratio of two contrasting structures.

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In addition, we discuss the influence of different incident angles on the CMS, where phi and theta represent the azimuth angle and the elevation angle of incidence, respectively. Figures 5(a) and (b) respectively show the spectra of the x-polarized wave transmitted into the RHCP wave with different phi and theta. It is obvious that the transmittance has a periodic change of 180° with the change of phi, and there is about 120° in a cycle without destroying its function. With the shift of theta, there is a 90° periodic change, and the working frequency band is divided into three sections outside the range of -15°∼+15° and is widened. Figures 5(c) and (d) respectively show the spectra of the LHCP wave transmitted into the LHCP wave with different phi and theta. It can be seen that there is insensitivity to phi, which is due to the characteristics of circularly polarized waves. As theta shifts from -90° to 90°, there is still a 90° periodic change, the working frequency band is divided into three sections and the high frequency part increases sharply with the increase of the angle. Figures 5(e) and (f) show the spectra of circular dichroism (CD) with different phi and theta, respectively. The formula for CD is given as follows [43]

$$CD = ({|{{r_{ +{-} }}} |^2} + {|{{r_{ -{-} }}} |^2}) - ({|{{r_{ -{+} }}} |^2} + {|{{r_{ +{+} }}} |^2}). $$
We use CD to represent the difference in reflectivity of two kinds of circularly polarized wave. It can be seen that CD can reach up to 0.75 at normal incidence, and the minimum is about 0.6 in the working frequency band. For the same reason, CD is not sensitive to phi. There is still a 90° periodic change with the change of theta, the working frequency band of CD is also divided into three sections. As the angle increases, the low frequency band moves to the lower frequency, the high frequency band moves to the higher frequency, the middle frequency band gradually shrinks, and the total absolute bandwidth is basically unchanged.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Spectrogram of transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient and CD varying with phi and theta. (a) Transmitted RHCP wave with different phi. (b) Transmitted RHCP wave with different theta. (c) Reflected LHCP wave with different phi. (d) Reflected LHCP wave with different theta. (e) CD with different phi. (f) CD with different theta.

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3. Fabrication and measured results

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Experimental environment and results. (a) Experimental environment and details of the processed sample. (b) Measured and simulated curves of transmission coefficient. (c) Measured and simulated curves of transmission phase and phase difference. (d) Measured and simulated curves of transmission coefficient for the x-polarized wave and the RHCP wave. (e) Measured and simulated curves of reflection coefficient for LHCP wave.

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To experimentally verify the AT performance of the proposed CMS, we fabricated a sample composed of 28 × 28 unit cells with a size of 420 × 420 × 6 mm3. The sample is laminated by three-layer dielectric substrate and four-layer copper patch. Figure 6(a) shows the experimental environment and the details of the top and bottom of the sample. In order to measure the transmission coefficient, we placed the fabricated sample between two linearly polarized horn antennas, firstly. Two horn antennas were connected to the vector network analyzer through the coaxial cable, so that one of the horn antennas launched the x-polarized wave, and the other horn antenna received the linearly polarized wave. The amplitude and phase results in measurement are shown in Figs. 6(b) and (c). After that, we changed the receiving antenna to a circularly polarized horn antenna and the launching antenna is placed in the state of positive and oblique incidence. The incident angle is set at 0° and 15° respectively, and the measured energy of the RHCP wave is shown in Fig. 6(d). Then the reflection coefficient is measured, we placed two circularly polarized horn antennas directly in front of the sample, and absorbing materials are placed between the two horn antennas to prevent mutual interference of signals. One of the horn antennas launches the LHCP wave, and the other horn antenna receives the LHCP wave. Similarly, the incident angle is set at 0° and 15° respectively, and the measurement curve is shown in Fig. 6(e). From the measured results, AT function is achieved that the x-polarized wave incident on the bottom of the CMS is transmitted into the RHCP wave and the LHCP wave incident on the top of the CMS is reflected as the LHCP wave from 4.69 GHz to 5.84 GHz. It can be seen from Figs. 6(b), (c), (d) and (e) that the experimentally results are in good agreement with the simulated results, and the small discrepancies between measurement and simulation come from the processing error and the measurement error of the sample.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison With Other Chiral Metasurface

In Table 1, a comparison between the proposed CMS in this paper and other chiral metasurface. It is obviously that the CMS in this paper can be thinner and achieve more functions. The electrical size of the designed CMS is not very large, which has the role of miniaturization to some extent.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we proposed a multi-layer chiral metasurface that can realize the AT effect. Through the design of grating-like and chiral micro-structure, the metasurface realizes the function of AT that the x-polarized incident wave along the + z axis can be transmitted into the RHCP wave and the incident LHCP wave along the -z axis can be reflected into the LHCP wave from 4.69 GHz to 5.84 GHz. AT and CD can reach up to 0.38 and 0.75, respectively. Furthermore, we verify the function of the proposed chiral metasurface by measurement samples. The chiral metasurface is simple to fabricate and improves the utilization of space, which can effectively reduce the volume of devices working in the microwave, THz and even optical frequency bands.

Funding

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019M650098); National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents (BX20180375); Youth Innovation Team of Shaanxi Universities (202022); National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents (2019K219); Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (2017JM6025, 2020JM-350); Young Talent fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi Province (20170108); National Natural Science Foundation of China (61603412, 61701523, 61801508).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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31. X. X. Dong, X. Q. Luo, Y. X. Zhou, Y. F. Lu, F. R. Hu, X. L. Xu, and G. G. Li, “Switchable broadband and wide-angular terahertz asymmetric transmission based on a hybrid metal-VO2 metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(21), 30675–30685 (2020). [CrossRef]  

32. T. T. Lv, X. Y. Chen, G. H. Dong, M. Liu, D. M. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, Z. Zhu, Y. X. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, and J. H. Shi, “Dual-band dichroic asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves in terahertz chiral metamaterial,” Nanophotonics 9(10), 3235–3242 (2020). [CrossRef]  

33. M. I. Khan, B. Hu, Y. X. Chen, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Multiband efficient asymmetric transmission with polarization conversion using chiral metasurface,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 19(7), 1137–1141 (2020). [CrossRef]  

34. C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020). [CrossRef]  

35. L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission-reflection-integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full-space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018). [CrossRef]  

36. S. Aisha, M. I. Khan, Y. X. Chen, B. Hu, and I. Khan, “An efficient chiral polarization rotator with asymmetric transmission for large incidence angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 128(21), 213102 (2020). [CrossRef]  

37. M. I. Khan, B Hu, A. Amanat, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Efficient asymmetric transmission for wide incidence angles using bi-layered chiral metasurface,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(30), 305004 (2020). [CrossRef]  

38. M. Amin, O. Siddiqui, and M. Farhat, “Metasurface supporting broadband circular dichroism for reflected and transmitted fields simultaneously,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(43), 435106 (2020). [CrossRef]  

39. D. F. Tang, C. Wang, W. K. Pan, M. H. Li, and J. F. Dong, “Broad dual-band asymmetric transmission of circular polarized waves in near-infrared communication band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11329–11339 (2017). [CrossRef]  

40. D. Y. Liu, X. M. Zhai, L. F. Yao, and J. F. Dong, “Asymmetric transmission with double bands based on chiral twisted double-split-ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 323, 19–22 (2014). [CrossRef]  

41. C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light at optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253902 (2010). [CrossRef]  

42. B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018). [CrossRef]  

43. R. H. Pan, Z. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Du, C. Gu, and J. Li, “Asymmetrical chirality in 3D bended metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 2100689 (2021). [CrossRef]  

References

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  3. N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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  4. S. J. Li, Y. B. Li, H. Li, Z. X. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. X. Guo, R. Q. Li, X. Y. Cao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “A thin self-feeding Janus metasurface for manipulating incident waves and emitting radiation waves simultaneously,” ANNALEN DER PHYSIK 532(5), 2000020 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. K. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. M. Lin, P. Y. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. Q. Fang, L. P. Wu, W. K. Pan, M. H. Li, and J. F. Dong, “Trifunctional metasurface for manipulating linearly and circularly polarized waves in transmission and reflection modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(7), 074102 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission of linear polarization via polarization conversion through chiral metamaterial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. A. Mangi, S. Q. Xiao, Q. A. Arain, I. Memon, and G. F. Kakepoto, “Asymmetric fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarization converter using bi-layer split ring structure,” Wireless Pers Commun 99(2), 985–997 (2018).
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  10. K.-H. Kim, “Asymmetric second-harmonic generation with high efficiency from a non-chiral hybrid bilayer complementary metasurface,” Plasmonics 16(1), 77–82 (2021).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. K. Chen, G. W. Ding, G. W. Hu, Z. W. Jin, J. M. Zhao, Y. J. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. L. Wu, Z. Y. Yang, Y. Z. Cheng, M. Zhao, R. Z. Gong, Y. Zheng, J. A. Duan, and X. H. Yuan, “Giant asymmetric transmission of circular polarization in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021903 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. H. Shi, H. F. Ma, C. Y. Guan, Z. P. Wang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband chirality and asymmetric transmission in ultrathin 90°-twisted Babinet-inverted metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165128 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic Metasurfaces for Optimal Polarization Control: Analysis and Synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044011 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. F. Zhang, M. B. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, X. L. Ma, J. Luo, H. L. Yu, and X. G. Luo, “All-dielectric metasurfaces for simultaneous giant circular asymmetric transmission and wavefront shaping based on asymmetric photonic spin-orbit interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1704295 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Asgari and M. Rahmanzadeh, “Tunable circular conversion dichroism and asymmetric transmission of terahertz graphene metasurface composed of split rings,” Opt. Commun. 456, 124623 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Zhou, T. K. Wang, T. Sang, and M. J. Lu, “Tunable circular dichroism in a graphene extrinsically chiral L-shaped metasurface,” Laser Phys. Lett. 17(12), 126201 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable circular polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission of planar chiral graphene-metamaterial in terahertz region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Tunable dual-band asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized waves with graphene planar chiral metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3142–3145 (2016).
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  29. J. X. Zhao, J. L. Song, T. Y. Xu, T. X. Yang, and J. H. Zhou, “Controllable linear asymmetric transmission and perfect polarization conversion in a terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9773–9781 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  30. Z. Y. Li, S. J. Li, B. W. Han, G. S. Huang, Z. X. Guo, and X. Y. Cao, “Quad-band transmissive metasurface with linear to dual-circular polarization conversion simultaneously,” Adv. Theory Simul. 4(6), 2100117 (2021).
  31. X. X. Dong, X. Q. Luo, Y. X. Zhou, Y. F. Lu, F. R. Hu, X. L. Xu, and G. G. Li, “Switchable broadband and wide-angular terahertz asymmetric transmission based on a hybrid metal-VO2 metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(21), 30675–30685 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  32. T. T. Lv, X. Y. Chen, G. H. Dong, M. Liu, D. M. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, Z. Zhu, Y. X. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, and J. H. Shi, “Dual-band dichroic asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves in terahertz chiral metamaterial,” Nanophotonics 9(10), 3235–3242 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. I. Khan, B. Hu, Y. X. Chen, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Multiband efficient asymmetric transmission with polarization conversion using chiral metasurface,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 19(7), 1137–1141 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  35. L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission-reflection-integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full-space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. Aisha, M. I. Khan, Y. X. Chen, B. Hu, and I. Khan, “An efficient chiral polarization rotator with asymmetric transmission for large incidence angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 128(21), 213102 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. I. Khan, B Hu, A. Amanat, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Efficient asymmetric transmission for wide incidence angles using bi-layered chiral metasurface,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(30), 305004 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. Amin, O. Siddiqui, and M. Farhat, “Metasurface supporting broadband circular dichroism for reflected and transmitted fields simultaneously,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(43), 435106 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  39. D. F. Tang, C. Wang, W. K. Pan, M. H. Li, and J. F. Dong, “Broad dual-band asymmetric transmission of circular polarized waves in near-infrared communication band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11329–11339 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  40. D. Y. Liu, X. M. Zhai, L. F. Yao, and J. F. Dong, “Asymmetric transmission with double bands based on chiral twisted double-split-ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 323, 19–22 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  41. C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light at optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253902 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  42. B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  43. R. H. Pan, Z. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Du, C. Gu, and J. Li, “Asymmetrical chirality in 3D bended metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 2100689 (2021).
    [Crossref]

2021 (4)

S. J. Li, Y. B. Li, L. Zhang, Z. J. Luo, B. W. Han, R. Q. Li, X. Y. Cao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Programmable controls to scattering properties of a radiation array,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 15(2), 2000449 (2021).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Kim, “Asymmetric second-harmonic generation with high efficiency from a non-chiral hybrid bilayer complementary metasurface,” Plasmonics 16(1), 77–82 (2021).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Li, S. J. Li, B. W. Han, G. S. Huang, Z. X. Guo, and X. Y. Cao, “Quad-band transmissive metasurface with linear to dual-circular polarization conversion simultaneously,” Adv. Theory Simul. 4(6), 2100117 (2021).

R. H. Pan, Z. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Du, C. Gu, and J. Li, “Asymmetrical chirality in 3D bended metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 2100689 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (15)

X. X. Dong, X. Q. Luo, Y. X. Zhou, Y. F. Lu, F. R. Hu, X. L. Xu, and G. G. Li, “Switchable broadband and wide-angular terahertz asymmetric transmission based on a hybrid metal-VO2 metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(21), 30675–30685 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. T. Lv, X. Y. Chen, G. H. Dong, M. Liu, D. M. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, Z. Zhu, Y. X. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, and J. H. Shi, “Dual-band dichroic asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves in terahertz chiral metamaterial,” Nanophotonics 9(10), 3235–3242 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. I. Khan, B. Hu, Y. X. Chen, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Multiband efficient asymmetric transmission with polarization conversion using chiral metasurface,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 19(7), 1137–1141 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Aisha, M. I. Khan, Y. X. Chen, B. Hu, and I. Khan, “An efficient chiral polarization rotator with asymmetric transmission for large incidence angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 128(21), 213102 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. I. Khan, B Hu, A. Amanat, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Efficient asymmetric transmission for wide incidence angles using bi-layered chiral metasurface,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(30), 305004 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. Amin, O. Siddiqui, and M. Farhat, “Metasurface supporting broadband circular dichroism for reflected and transmitted fields simultaneously,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(43), 435106 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Sung, G. Y. Lee, C. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Polarization-dependent asymmetric transmission using a bifacial metasurface,” Nanoscale Horiz. 5(11), 1487–1495 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Asgari and M. Rahmanzadeh, “Tunable circular conversion dichroism and asymmetric transmission of terahertz graphene metasurface composed of split rings,” Opt. Commun. 456, 124623 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Rao, L. Pan, C. M. Ouyang, Q. Xu, L. Y. Liu, Y. F. Li, J. Q. Gu, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves based on Mie resonance in all-dielectric terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(20), 29855–29864 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Asgari and T. Fabritius, “Equivalent circuit model of graphene chiral multi-band metadevice absorber composed of U-shaped resonator array,” Opt. Express 28(26), 39850–39867 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Asgari, N. Granpayeh, and T. Fabritius, “Controllable terahertz cross-shaped three-dimensional graphene intrinsically chiral metastructure and its biosensing application,” Opt. Commun. 474, 126080 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, G. W. Ding, G. W. Hu, Z. W. Jin, J. M. Zhao, Y. J. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. J. Li, Y. B. Li, H. Li, Z. X. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. X. Guo, R. Q. Li, X. Y. Cao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “A thin self-feeding Janus metasurface for manipulating incident waves and emitting radiation waves simultaneously,” ANNALEN DER PHYSIK 532(5), 2000020 (2020).
[Crossref]

Q. Fang, L. P. Wu, W. K. Pan, M. H. Li, and J. F. Dong, “Trifunctional metasurface for manipulating linearly and circularly polarized waves in transmission and reflection modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(7), 074102 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

J. Zhou, T. K. Wang, T. Sang, and M. J. Lu, “Tunable circular dichroism in a graphene extrinsically chiral L-shaped metasurface,” Laser Phys. Lett. 17(12), 126201 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. X. Zhao, J. L. Song, T. Y. Xu, T. X. Yang, and J. H. Zhou, “Controllable linear asymmetric transmission and perfect polarization conversion in a terahertz hybrid metal-graphene metasurface,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9773–9781 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission-reflection-integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full-space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. A. Mangi, S. Q. Xiao, Q. A. Arain, I. Memon, and G. F. Kakepoto, “Asymmetric fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarization converter using bi-layer split ring structure,” Wireless Pers Commun 99(2), 985–997 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

K. Chen, Y. J. Feng, L. Cui, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. F. Tang, C. Wang, W. K. Pan, M. H. Li, and J. F. Dong, “Broad dual-band asymmetric transmission of circular polarized waves in near-infrared communication band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11329–11339 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable circular polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission of planar chiral graphene-metamaterial in terahertz region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, M. B. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, X. L. Ma, J. Luo, H. L. Yu, and X. G. Luo, “All-dielectric metasurfaces for simultaneous giant circular asymmetric transmission and wavefront shaping based on asymmetric photonic spin-orbit interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1704295 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. K. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

D. M. Lin, P. Y. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Shi, H. F. Ma, C. Y. Guan, Z. P. Wang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband chirality and asymmetric transmission in ultrathin 90°-twisted Babinet-inverted metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165128 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic Metasurfaces for Optimal Polarization Control: Analysis and Synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044011 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Liu, X. M. Zhai, L. F. Yao, and J. F. Dong, “Asymmetric transmission with double bands based on chiral twisted double-split-ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 323, 19–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

L. Wu, Z. Y. Yang, Y. Z. Cheng, M. Zhao, R. Z. Gong, Y. Zheng, J. A. Duan, and X. H. Yuan, “Giant asymmetric transmission of circular polarization in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021903 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission of linear polarization via polarization conversion through chiral metamaterial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Fang, J. Chen, H. X. Cui, Y. N. Li, and H. T. Wang, “Asymmetric transmission for linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8347–8356 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light at optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253902 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aisha, S.

S. Aisha, M. I. Khan, Y. X. Chen, B. Hu, and I. Khan, “An efficient chiral polarization rotator with asymmetric transmission for large incidence angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 128(21), 213102 (2020).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

K. Chen, G. W. Ding, G. W. Hu, Z. W. Jin, J. M. Zhao, Y. J. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

Amanat, A.

M. I. Khan, B Hu, A. Amanat, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Efficient asymmetric transmission for wide incidence angles using bi-layered chiral metasurface,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(30), 305004 (2020).
[Crossref]

Amin, M.

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J. Sung, G. Y. Lee, C. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Polarization-dependent asymmetric transmission using a bifacial metasurface,” Nanoscale Horiz. 5(11), 1487–1495 (2020).
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B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
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C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission of linear polarization via polarization conversion through chiral metamaterial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
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C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
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Z. Y. Li, S. J. Li, B. W. Han, G. S. Huang, Z. X. Guo, and X. Y. Cao, “Quad-band transmissive metasurface with linear to dual-circular polarization conversion simultaneously,” Adv. Theory Simul. 4(6), 2100117 (2021).

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable circular polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission of planar chiral graphene-metamaterial in terahertz region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
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C. Zhang, C. Pfeiffer, T. Jang, V. Ray, M. Junda, P. Uprety, N. Podraza, A. Grbic, and L. J. Guo, “Breaking Malus’ law: Highly efficient, broadband, and angular robust asymmetric light transmitting metasurface,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 10(5), 791–798 (2016).
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K. Chen, G. W. Ding, G. W. Hu, Z. W. Jin, J. M. Zhao, Y. J. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
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K. Chen, Y. J. Feng, L. Cui, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
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C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission of linear polarization via polarization conversion through chiral metamaterial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
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Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable circular polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission of planar chiral graphene-metamaterial in terahertz region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
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K. Chen, G. W. Ding, G. W. Hu, Z. W. Jin, J. M. Zhao, Y. J. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
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C. Zhang, C. Pfeiffer, T. Jang, V. Ray, M. Junda, P. Uprety, N. Podraza, A. Grbic, and L. J. Guo, “Breaking Malus’ law: Highly efficient, broadband, and angular robust asymmetric light transmitting metasurface,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 10(5), 791–798 (2016).
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R. H. Pan, Z. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Du, C. Gu, and J. Li, “Asymmetrical chirality in 3D bended metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 2100689 (2021).
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F. Zhang, M. B. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, X. L. Ma, J. Luo, H. L. Yu, and X. G. Luo, “All-dielectric metasurfaces for simultaneous giant circular asymmetric transmission and wavefront shaping based on asymmetric photonic spin-orbit interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1704295 (2017).
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Pan, R. H.

R. H. Pan, Z. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Du, C. Gu, and J. Li, “Asymmetrical chirality in 3D bended metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 2100689 (2021).
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Q. Fang, L. P. Wu, W. K. Pan, M. H. Li, and J. F. Dong, “Trifunctional metasurface for manipulating linearly and circularly polarized waves in transmission and reflection modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(7), 074102 (2020).
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A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. K. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
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D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
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A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. K. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
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C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light at optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253902 (2010).
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C. Zhang, C. Pfeiffer, T. Jang, V. Ray, M. Junda, P. Uprety, N. Podraza, A. Grbic, and L. J. Guo, “Breaking Malus’ law: Highly efficient, broadband, and angular robust asymmetric light transmitting metasurface,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 10(5), 791–798 (2016).
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A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. K. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
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V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref]

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F. Zhang, M. B. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, X. L. Ma, J. Luo, H. L. Yu, and X. G. Luo, “All-dielectric metasurfaces for simultaneous giant circular asymmetric transmission and wavefront shaping based on asymmetric photonic spin-orbit interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1704295 (2017).
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Ray, V.

C. Zhang, C. Pfeiffer, T. Jang, V. Ray, M. Junda, P. Uprety, N. Podraza, A. Grbic, and L. J. Guo, “Breaking Malus’ law: Highly efficient, broadband, and angular robust asymmetric light transmitting metasurface,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 10(5), 791–798 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “Polarization rotation with ultra-thin bianisotropic metasurfaces,” Optica 3(4), 427–432 (2016).
[Crossref]

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C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light at optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253902 (2010).
[Crossref]

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V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref]

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J. Zhou, T. K. Wang, T. Sang, and M. J. Lu, “Tunable circular dichroism in a graphene extrinsically chiral L-shaped metasurface,” Laser Phys. Lett. 17(12), 126201 (2019).
[Crossref]

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T. T. Lv, X. Y. Chen, G. H. Dong, M. Liu, D. M. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, Z. Zhu, Y. X. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, and J. H. Shi, “Dual-band dichroic asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves in terahertz chiral metamaterial,” Nanophotonics 9(10), 3235–3242 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. H. Shi, H. F. Ma, C. Y. Guan, Z. P. Wang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband chirality and asymmetric transmission in ultrathin 90°-twisted Babinet-inverted metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165128 (2014).
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D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
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Sung, J.

J. Sung, G. Y. Lee, C. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Polarization-dependent asymmetric transmission using a bifacial metasurface,” Nanoscale Horiz. 5(11), 1487–1495 (2020).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. F.

Tetienne, J. P.

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Tian, J. G.

Tian, Z.

Tünnermann, A.

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light at optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253902 (2010).
[Crossref]

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M. I. Khan, B Hu, A. Amanat, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Efficient asymmetric transmission for wide incidence angles using bi-layered chiral metasurface,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(30), 305004 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. I. Khan, B. Hu, Y. X. Chen, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Multiband efficient asymmetric transmission with polarization conversion using chiral metasurface,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 19(7), 1137–1141 (2020).
[Crossref]

Uprety, P.

C. Zhang, C. Pfeiffer, T. Jang, V. Ray, M. Junda, P. Uprety, N. Podraza, A. Grbic, and L. J. Guo, “Breaking Malus’ law: Highly efficient, broadband, and angular robust asymmetric light transmitting metasurface,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 10(5), 791–798 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, H. T.

Wang, T. K.

J. Zhou, T. K. Wang, T. Sang, and M. J. Lu, “Tunable circular dichroism in a graphene extrinsically chiral L-shaped metasurface,” Laser Phys. Lett. 17(12), 126201 (2019).
[Crossref]

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C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission of linear polarization via polarization conversion through chiral metamaterial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
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J. H. Shi, H. F. Ma, C. Y. Guan, Z. P. Wang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband chirality and asymmetric transmission in ultrathin 90°-twisted Babinet-inverted metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165128 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. X.

S. J. Li, Y. B. Li, H. Li, Z. X. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. X. Guo, R. Q. Li, X. Y. Cao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “A thin self-feeding Janus metasurface for manipulating incident waves and emitting radiation waves simultaneously,” ANNALEN DER PHYSIK 532(5), 2000020 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wild, D. S.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. K. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wiltshire, M. C.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. T.

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission-reflection-integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full-space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.

C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Y. Yang, Y. Z. Cheng, M. Zhao, R. Z. Gong, Y. Zheng, J. A. Duan, and X. H. Yuan, “Giant asymmetric transmission of circular polarization in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, L. P.

Q. Fang, L. P. Wu, W. K. Pan, M. H. Li, and J. F. Dong, “Trifunctional metasurface for manipulating linearly and circularly polarized waves in transmission and reflection modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(7), 074102 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wu, R. Y.

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission-reflection-integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full-space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S. Q.

F. A. Mangi, S. Q. Xiao, Q. A. Arain, I. Memon, and G. F. Kakepoto, “Asymmetric fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarization converter using bi-layer split ring structure,” Wireless Pers Commun 99(2), 985–997 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xing, Z.

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Xu, T. Y.

Xu, X. L.

X. X. Dong, X. Q. Luo, Y. X. Zhou, Y. F. Lu, F. R. Hu, X. L. Xu, and G. G. Li, “Switchable broadband and wide-angular terahertz asymmetric transmission based on a hybrid metal-VO2 metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(21), 30675–30685 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable circular polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission of planar chiral graphene-metamaterial in terahertz region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
[Crossref]

Yang, L. X.

C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. X.

Yang, Z. Y.

L. Wu, Z. Y. Yang, Y. Z. Cheng, M. Zhao, R. Z. Gong, Y. Zheng, J. A. Duan, and X. H. Yuan, “Giant asymmetric transmission of circular polarization in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, L. F.

D. Y. Liu, X. M. Zhai, L. F. Yao, and J. F. Dong, “Asymmetric transmission with double bands based on chiral twisted double-split-ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 323, 19–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, Z. H.

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable circular polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission of planar chiral graphene-metamaterial in terahertz region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. L.

F. Zhang, M. B. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, X. L. Ma, J. Luo, H. L. Yu, and X. G. Luo, “All-dielectric metasurfaces for simultaneous giant circular asymmetric transmission and wavefront shaping based on asymmetric photonic spin-orbit interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1704295 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, L. L.

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable circular polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission of planar chiral graphene-metamaterial in terahertz region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, N. F.

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. H.

L. Wu, Z. Y. Yang, Y. Z. Cheng, M. Zhao, R. Z. Gong, Y. Zheng, J. A. Duan, and X. H. Yuan, “Giant asymmetric transmission of circular polarization in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhai, X. M.

D. Y. Liu, X. M. Zhai, L. F. Yao, and J. F. Dong, “Asymmetric transmission with double bands based on chiral twisted double-split-ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 323, 19–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. J. Li, Y. B. Li, H. Li, Z. X. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. X. Guo, R. Q. Li, X. Y. Cao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “A thin self-feeding Janus metasurface for manipulating incident waves and emitting radiation waves simultaneously,” ANNALEN DER PHYSIK 532(5), 2000020 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, C. Pfeiffer, T. Jang, V. Ray, M. Junda, P. Uprety, N. Podraza, A. Grbic, and L. J. Guo, “Breaking Malus’ law: Highly efficient, broadband, and angular robust asymmetric light transmitting metasurface,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 10(5), 791–798 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “Polarization rotation with ultra-thin bianisotropic metasurfaces,” Optica 3(4), 427–432 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, M. B. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, X. L. Ma, J. Luo, H. L. Yu, and X. G. Luo, “All-dielectric metasurfaces for simultaneous giant circular asymmetric transmission and wavefront shaping based on asymmetric photonic spin-orbit interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1704295 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. J.

C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

S. J. Li, Y. B. Li, L. Zhang, Z. J. Luo, B. W. Han, R. Q. Li, X. Y. Cao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Programmable controls to scattering properties of a radiation array,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 15(2), 2000449 (2021).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission-reflection-integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full-space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

T. T. Lv, X. Y. Chen, G. H. Dong, M. Liu, D. M. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, Z. Zhu, Y. X. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, and J. H. Shi, “Dual-band dichroic asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves in terahertz chiral metamaterial,” Nanophotonics 9(10), 3235–3242 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. L.

T. T. Lv, X. Y. Chen, G. H. Dong, M. Liu, D. M. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, Z. Zhu, Y. X. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, and J. H. Shi, “Dual-band dichroic asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves in terahertz chiral metamaterial,” Nanophotonics 9(10), 3235–3242 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Rao, L. Pan, C. M. Ouyang, Q. Xu, L. Y. Liu, Y. F. Li, J. Q. Gu, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves based on Mie resonance in all-dielectric terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 28(20), 29855–29864 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J. M.

K. Chen, G. W. Ding, G. W. Hu, Z. W. Jin, J. M. Zhao, Y. J. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, Y. J. Feng, L. Cui, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission of linear polarization via polarization conversion through chiral metamaterial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J. X.

Zhao, M.

L. Wu, Z. Y. Yang, Y. Z. Cheng, M. Zhao, R. Z. Gong, Y. Zheng, J. A. Duan, and X. H. Yuan, “Giant asymmetric transmission of circular polarization in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

L. Wu, Z. Y. Yang, Y. Z. Cheng, M. Zhao, R. Z. Gong, Y. Zheng, J. A. Duan, and X. H. Yuan, “Giant asymmetric transmission of circular polarization in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. K. Wang, T. Sang, and M. J. Lu, “Tunable circular dichroism in a graphene extrinsically chiral L-shaped metasurface,” Laser Phys. Lett. 17(12), 126201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J. H.

Zhou, Y. X.

Zhu, B.

K. Chen, Y. J. Feng, L. Cui, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

R. H. Pan, Z. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Du, C. Gu, and J. Li, “Asymmetrical chirality in 3D bended metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 2100689 (2021).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

T. T. Lv, X. Y. Chen, G. H. Dong, M. Liu, D. M. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, Z. Zhu, Y. X. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, and J. H. Shi, “Dual-band dichroic asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves in terahertz chiral metamaterial,” Nanophotonics 9(10), 3235–3242 (2020).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

F. Zhang, M. B. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, X. L. Ma, J. Luo, H. L. Yu, and X. G. Luo, “All-dielectric metasurfaces for simultaneous giant circular asymmetric transmission and wavefront shaping based on asymmetric photonic spin-orbit interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1704295 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission-reflection-integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full-space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. H. Pan, Z. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Du, C. Gu, and J. Li, “Asymmetrical chirality in 3D bended metasurface,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 2100689 (2021).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Chen, G. W. Ding, G. W. Hu, Z. W. Jin, J. M. Zhao, Y. J. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

Adv. Theory Simul. (2)

Z. Y. Li, S. J. Li, B. W. Han, G. S. Huang, Z. X. Guo, and X. Y. Cao, “Quad-band transmissive metasurface with linear to dual-circular polarization conversion simultaneously,” Adv. Theory Simul. 4(6), 2100117 (2021).

C. X. Huang, J. J. Zhang, L. Wu, C. Zhang, J. Yang, L. X. Yang, J. C. Ke, L. Bai, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-band tunable chiral metamaterial for asymmetric transmission and absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Theory Simul. 3(12), 2000179 (2020).
[Crossref]

ANNALEN DER PHYSIK (1)

S. J. Li, Y. B. Li, H. Li, Z. X. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. X. Guo, R. Q. Li, X. Y. Cao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “A thin self-feeding Janus metasurface for manipulating incident waves and emitting radiation waves simultaneously,” ANNALEN DER PHYSIK 532(5), 2000020 (2020).
[Crossref]

Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

M. I. Khan, B. Hu, Y. X. Chen, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Multiband efficient asymmetric transmission with polarization conversion using chiral metasurface,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 19(7), 1137–1141 (2020).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Fang, L. P. Wu, W. K. Pan, M. H. Li, and J. F. Dong, “Trifunctional metasurface for manipulating linearly and circularly polarized waves in transmission and reflection modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 117(7), 074102 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. Wu, Z. Y. Yang, Y. Z. Cheng, M. Zhao, R. Z. Gong, Y. Zheng, J. A. Duan, and X. H. Yuan, “Giant asymmetric transmission of circular polarization in layer-by-layer chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable circular polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission of planar chiral graphene-metamaterial in terahertz region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Aisha, M. I. Khan, Y. X. Chen, B. Hu, and I. Khan, “An efficient chiral polarization rotator with asymmetric transmission for large incidence angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 128(21), 213102 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

M. I. Khan, B Hu, A. Amanat, N. Ullah, M. J. I. Khan, and A. R. Khalid, “Efficient asymmetric transmission for wide incidence angles using bi-layered chiral metasurface,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(30), 305004 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. Amin, O. Siddiqui, and M. Farhat, “Metasurface supporting broadband circular dichroism for reflected and transmitted fields simultaneously,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53(43), 435106 (2020).
[Crossref]

Laser & Photonics Reviews (2)

C. Zhang, C. Pfeiffer, T. Jang, V. Ray, M. Junda, P. Uprety, N. Podraza, A. Grbic, and L. J. Guo, “Breaking Malus’ law: Highly efficient, broadband, and angular robust asymmetric light transmitting metasurface,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 10(5), 791–798 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Li, Y. B. Li, L. Zhang, Z. J. Luo, B. W. Han, R. Q. Li, X. Y. Cao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Programmable controls to scattering properties of a radiation array,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 15(2), 2000449 (2021).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Zhou, T. K. Wang, T. Sang, and M. J. Lu, “Tunable circular dichroism in a graphene extrinsically chiral L-shaped metasurface,” Laser Phys. Lett. 17(12), 126201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

T. T. Lv, X. Y. Chen, G. H. Dong, M. Liu, D. M. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, Z. Zhu, Y. X. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, and J. H. Shi, “Dual-band dichroic asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves in terahertz chiral metamaterial,” Nanophotonics 9(10), 3235–3242 (2020).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Horiz. (1)

J. Sung, G. Y. Lee, C. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Polarization-dependent asymmetric transmission using a bifacial metasurface,” Nanoscale Horiz. 5(11), 1487–1495 (2020).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. K. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Asgari, N. Granpayeh, and T. Fabritius, “Controllable terahertz cross-shaped three-dimensional graphene intrinsically chiral metastructure and its biosensing application,” Opt. Commun. 474, 126080 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Asgari and M. Rahmanzadeh, “Tunable circular conversion dichroism and asymmetric transmission of terahertz graphene metasurface composed of split rings,” Opt. Commun. 456, 124623 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Liu, X. M. Zhai, L. F. Yao, and J. F. Dong, “Asymmetric transmission with double bands based on chiral twisted double-split-ring resonators,” Opt. Commun. 323, 19–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (2)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic Metasurfaces for Optimal Polarization Control: Analysis and Synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044011 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. H. Shi, H. F. Ma, C. Y. Guan, Z. P. Wang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband chirality and asymmetric transmission in ultrathin 90°-twisted Babinet-inverted metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165128 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission of linear polarization via polarization conversion through chiral metamaterial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light at optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Plasmonics (1)

K.-H. Kim, “Asymmetric second-harmonic generation with high efficiency from a non-chiral hybrid bilayer complementary metasurface,” Plasmonics 16(1), 77–82 (2021).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Chen, Y. J. Feng, L. Cui, J. M. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. M. Lin, P. Y. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wireless Pers Commun (1)

F. A. Mangi, S. Q. Xiao, Q. A. Arain, I. Memon, and G. F. Kakepoto, “Asymmetric fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarization converter using bi-layer split ring structure,” Wireless Pers Commun 99(2), 985–997 (2018).
[Crossref]

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of CMS and the unit cell. (a) AT effect of CMS. (b) The unit cell for CMS. (c) I layer. (d) II layer. (e) III layer. (f) IV layer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated results of CMS. (a) Transmission coefficient of linearly polarized waves. (b) Transmission phase and phase difference. (c) Axial ratio and total transmittance. (d) Reflection coefficient. (e) Transmission coefficient for the x-polarized wave and the circularly polarized waves. (f) AT of the x-polarized wave.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Surface current distributions on CMS at 5.1 GHz. (a) Surface current distributions after orthogonal linearly polarized waves are incident along the + z axis. (b) Surface current distributions of copper patches with chiral micro-structure under incident x-polarized wave. (c) Surface current distributions of the 45° polarizer under incident x-polarized wave. (d) Surface current distributions after the LHCP wave is incident along the -z axis. (e) Surface current distributions of IV layer under incident LHCP wave.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Comparison diagrams with grating-like micro-structure and general grating structure. (a) Grating-like micro-structure. (b) General grating structure. (c) Transmission coefficient of two contrasting structures. (d) Axial ratio of two contrasting structures.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Spectrogram of transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient and CD varying with phi and theta. (a) Transmitted RHCP wave with different phi. (b) Transmitted RHCP wave with different theta. (c) Reflected LHCP wave with different phi. (d) Reflected LHCP wave with different theta. (e) CD with different phi. (f) CD with different theta.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental environment and results. (a) Experimental environment and details of the processed sample. (b) Measured and simulated curves of transmission coefficient. (c) Measured and simulated curves of transmission phase and phase difference. (d) Measured and simulated curves of transmission coefficient for the x-polarized wave and the RHCP wave. (e) Measured and simulated curves of reflection coefficient for LHCP wave.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison With Other Chiral Metasurface

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( E x t E y t ) = T l i n e a r ( E x i E y i ) = ( t x x t x y t y x t y y ) ( E x i E y i ) .
R c p = ( r + + r + r + r ) = 1 2 ( r x x r y y j ( r x y + r y x ) r x x + r y y + j ( r x y r y x ) r x x + r y y j ( r x y r y x ) r x x r y y + j ( r x y + r y x ) ) .
T = | t y x | 2 + | t x x | 2 .
A R = | 20 log 10 tan [ 0.5 arcsin ( 2 t x x t y x t x x 2 + t y x 2 sin Δ φ ) ] | , Δ φ = φ y x φ x x .
A T = T x b T x f .
C D = ( | r + | 2 + | r | 2 ) ( | r + | 2 + | r + + | 2 ) .

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