Abstract

The method of tomographic imaging using multi-simultaneous measurements (TIMes) for flame emission reconstructions is presented. Measurements of the peak natural CH* chemiluminescence in the flame and luminescence from different vaporised alkali metal salts that were seeded in a multi-annulus burner were used. An array of 29 CCD cameras around the Cambridge-Sandia burner was deployed, with 3 sets of cameras each measuring a different colour channel using bandpass optical filters. The three-dimensional instantaneous and time-averaged fields of the individual measured channels were reconstructed and superimposed for two new operating conditions, with differing cold flow Reynolds numbers. The contour of the reconstructed flame front followed the interface between the burnt side of the flame, where the alkali salt luminescence appears, and the cold gas region. The increased mixing between different reconstructed channels in the downstream direction that is promoted by the higher levels of turbulence in the larger Reynolds number case was clearly demonstrated. The TIMes method enabled combustion zones originating from different streams and the flame front to be distinguished and their overlap regions to be identified, in the entire volume.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Corrections

8 February 2021: Typographical corrections were made to Refs. 2, 6, 11, and 16.

1. Introduction

The inherent nature of practical flames calls for measurement techniques that can provide spatio-temporal information, to enable in-depth understanding of different processes. In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) tomography methods have seen a surge in development and application in the field of engineering and natural sciences. Computed tomography (CT) has been combined with a host of measurements such as X-ray, schlieren, shadowgraphy, emission, absorption and so on [110]. The combustion community has contributed a considerable portion to the recent literature for various investigations of different combusting flows. Tomographic techniques have shown to provide a leap in better understanding real flames, and performing this using multi-simultaneous measurements has been demonstrated by Kerl et al. [11] and later by Ebi and Clemens [12] through novel approaches for simultaneous measurements of the 3D flame front and velocity fields of premixed flames. Oil droplets were used for particle image velocimetry (PIV) data collection from which the volumetric velocity field could be inferred tomographically, and the preheat zone that is marked by vaporisation of the oil droplets was used to track the flame front at the same time. This rich pool of simultaneous 3D tomographic data can be used to analyse the turbulent flow-flame interactions. Wang et al. [13] presented simultaneous 3D particle temperature, particle concentration and H$_{2}$O concentration distributions using multi-spectral flame images to investigate axisymmetric sooting flames. Ren and Modest [14] recently utilised machine learning to reconstruct the 3D temperature and species concentration simultaneously in a laminar flame based on infrared emission spectral measurements.

Flame emission reconstructions have been published in numerous papers over the past decade [8,1526], presenting some excellent and novel ways in which chemiluminescence (CL) measurements via multiple cameras were used for studying flames. Focus has been on investigating the 3D flame structures either by measuring emissions from specific excited molecules such as OH*, CH* and C$_{2}$* [23] or by measuring the entire emission spectrum [27], and other phenomena such as the ignition process in complex supersonic flows [20], forced and unforced combustion [17,18] and thermoacoustic instabilities [21,26]. However, there is a lack in utilising multi-simultaneous measurements, and we would like to elaborate on this by demonstrating that application of the TIMes method to flame emission reconstructions can be relatively simple and straightforward, but can advance flame emission reconstructions to the next level by adding valuable information about the interaction of different effects within the volume of interest. To demonstrate this, we planned experiments that allow measurement of emission from separate streams of a dual-annulus burner individually. Based on literature, several methods can be used to illuminate the streams. For example using the concept of particle-seeding as introduced by Elsinga et al. [28] for PIV which requires volumetric illumination and has been implemented tomographically [29,30], or oil droplet-seeding as introduced by Boyer [31] and implemented by several researchers [11,12]. We chose to follow a less complex experimental approach by measuring the flame CL simultaneously with the luminescence from vaporised alkali metal tracers that were added to the two different burner streams, via a simple adaptation to our current low-cost multi-camera flame imaging setup. Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) has been deployed by many researchers for flame diagnostics such as thermometry and equivalence ratio determination, for both open laboratory flames and harsh engine conditions [3236]. Aspirating alkali metal salt solutions into a heated region, such as the burnt gases of a combusting flow, can cause the alkali metal atoms to achieve an excited energy state which has a limited lifetime and will hence spontaneously relax to a lower energy state by emitting a photon as one possible pathway. The wavelength of the emitted light will correspond to the energy difference between the two energy states, and this is different for each alkali metal. The spectroscopic properties of the alkali metal salts chosen for the current study are well-documented in the literature [37,38], and the principle of AES and how it applies to the current work are depicted in Fig. 1.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. The principle of atomic emission spectroscopy as applicable to this work.

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We have seeded the two separated combusting flow streams of the Cambridge-Sandia burner [39,40] with different vaporised salts that are known to emit light at distinctive wavelengths. The simultaneous salt luminescence and flame front measurements were used to reconstruct each measured channel separately. The flame emission spectra for each flame operating condition were measured and combined with knowledge of the different salt luminescence wavelength ranges to identify optically separated detection channels. The reconstructions presented here were performed using computed tomography of chemiluminescence (CTC) [16,41] that is based on the algebraic reconstruction technique to solve the inverse tomography problem.

The TIMes method for flame emission reconstructions can be of interest to a wide range of applications. For example, 3D reconstructions based on simultaneous measurements of CL from flame radicals and electronically excited material-specific molecules and atoms in flame pyrolysis techniques for nanoparticle synthesis will allow the limits and spatial correlation of different zones such as combustion, particle clouds and different fluid streams to be determined in the entire volume. This enables better understanding of the synthesis process which allows us to control it more effectively. Staged or sequential combustion technology which feature multiple combustion zones, such as those used in power generation gas turbines [42], coal boilers, glass melting furnaces and rich-quench-lean (RQL) concepts [43] for achieving pollution reduction or tailor-made operation can also benefit from the TIMes method application that is presented in this paper. Stratified combustion involves different premixed reactant streams with varied equivalence ratios. TIMes can provide a new perspective for better understanding the stratification process based on 3D experimental flame emission reconstructions which allow the interaction of different streams with each other and with the flame front to be studied.

2. TIMes procedure

2.1 Experimental method

The Cambridge-Sandia burner which constitutes an inner and outer annulus, providing two streams of premixed natural gas and air, a slow outer co-flow of air and a ceramic bluff body was used. Figure 2 shows the cross section of the burner exit and details of the gas mixtures for each flow stream. The equivalence ratio of the premixed gases in each annulus and the air co-flow were regulated using Bronkhorst mass flow controllers. More detailed descriptions of the burner are available from [39,40].

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Schematic of the Cambridge-Sandia burner exit geometry cross-section, showing the salt solutions that were seeded into each annulus.

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To visualise the streams separately, different vaporised metal salts (NaCl and Sr(NO$_{3}$)$_{2}$) were seeded into the inner and outer annuli, as depicted in Fig. 2, using a bubbler system for each stream. Both salts are water-soluble and were prepared in the same manner at room temperature, but with different final concentrations. The crystalline salts were first dissolved in a small volume of distilled water before further dilution with ethanol. The final concentrations for NaCl and Sr(NO$_{3}$)$_{2}$ used in the experiments were 5g/L and 30g/L respectively. The NaCl solution concentration was considerably lower, to avoid saturation of the measured signal due to the much brighter light emission compared to the Sr(NO$_{3})_{2}$ stream. An ultrasonic nebuliser was placed within the bubbler to vaporise part of the salt solution. An adequate amount of air flow was introduced into the free space above the liquid inside the bubbler to push the vapour out, as shown in Fig. 2. To prevent cross contamination between the bubbler flows, separate air in-flow streams were used for each. The amount of ethanol in the outgoing streams was below the saturation pressure in air since no mist was visible in the burner stream flows without ignition. With an estimate of the mass fraction being 580 ppm for Na and about six times this for Sr, the amount of salts in the streams is assumed to be too low to significantly alter the flame chemistry.

Two different flame conditions were considered, as detailed in Table 1, depending on the volume flow rate for air $\dot {V}_{\textrm{air}}$ and natural gas $\dot {V}_{\textrm{nat. gas}}$ resulting in a different equivalence ratio $\phi$, and cold flow Reynolds number $Re$ in each case. The co-flow constituted 366 slm of air and the average bulk velocity was approximately 0.2 m/s for both cases. In the case of Flame I, the outer gas mixture was slightly richer than the inner one. Flame II had the same equivalence ratio and Reynolds number in both flow streams, with the Reynolds number being higher than for Flame I.

Tables Icon

Table 1. The flame conditions used in the experiments. The subscripts i and o stand for the inner and outer streams respectively, and $t_{\textrm{exp}}$ is the camera exposure time.

Our generic multi-camera setup for CTC from previous work [22] was used here. In this case, 29 Basler acA-645-100gm monochrome CCD cameras, arranged equiangularly in one plane within a total fan angle of $168^{\circ }$ around the burner, were utilised. All cameras were positioned at a fixed distance of 400mm from the burner centre, and were equipped with Kowa C-Mount lenses (focal length 12mm) set at the maximum aperture opening f/1.4. The cameras have a $\frac {1}{2}^{\prime \prime }$ Sony ICX414 sensor with a resolution of 659 by 494 pixels, with each pixel being ${9.9}\;\mu \textrm{m}$ by ${9.9}\;\mu \textrm{m}$ in size. The spectral response of the cameras at $>$10% is in the visible range, 400–775 nm. The cameras were simultaneously triggered at 5 Hz from one source, and 200 instantaneous images were captured per camera, each camera using an exposure time of $t_{\textrm{exp}} = {400}\;\mu \textrm{s}$ and ${600}\;\mu \textrm{s}$ for Flame I and Flame II cases, respectively. The detected signals were maximised by using the largest aperture opening and binning while imaging. The limits of the settings and blurring effects due to exposure time for the cameras are discussed in [22], and were considered here to find the best compromise. The laboratory lights were switched off and a black background was placed behind the flame to improve the quality of the measurements. Images of the background scene, captured without the flame by each camera, were subtracted from the flame images for background correction. A picture of the setup, showing the flame operated with the vaporised salt-seeding is presented in Fig. 3.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Experimental setup used for the method of TIMes for flame emission tomography. The green, red and blue dots denote the cameras that detected the emitted light from the inner (NaCl) and outer Sr(NO$_3$)$_2$ streams and the flame front, respectively.

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Optical bandpass filters were mounted in front of the lenses in the specific repetitive sequence shown in Fig. 3, resulting in a total of 10 cameras for detecting the inner and outer streams each, and 9 cameras for the flame front. The narrowband TECHSPEC filter, detecting wavelengths in the range ${{\lambda }=589\pm5\;\textrm{nm}}$, was used to measure the bright atomic emission of sodium at ${{\lambda }= {588.99}\;\textrm{nm}}$ and ${{\lambda }= {589.59}\;\textrm{nm}}$ [44] in the inner stream. The larger bandwidth TECHSPEC filter, for wavelength detection in the range ${{\lambda }= 697\pm {37.5}\;\textrm{nm}}$, was used to cover the strontium monohydroxide emission expected from the Sr(NO$_{3})_{2}$ [37] in the outer stream. Schott BG40 filters were added to the cameras for the outer stream measurements, to suppress detection of the thermally excited H$_{2}$O emission [22]. The flame front was tracked using BrightLine filters for the wavelength range ${{\lambda }= 433\pm {12}\;\textrm{nm}}$. Figure 4 presents the transmission bands for all the filters used, superimposed onto the emission spectrum measured for both flames to illustrate our procedure for optically separating the detected channels. Both the transmission and emission data were normalised by the maximum value for each case. The emission measurements were made after a NaCl seeding test, and hence the presented spectra exhibit the large atomic sodium signal due to remnants within the burner.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. The transmission curve of the optical filters used in the experiment and the emission spectrum of both flames investigated.

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As shown in Fig. 4, the wavelength ranges detected for each salt-seeded stream do not coincide with each other or with the intense spectral lines of the CL emission from CH*. Additionally, the separate detection channels were tested by seeding the salts one at a time and checking that only the intended cameras measured a signal for the camera settings used in the experiments. It must be noted that all bandpass filtered signals contain the broadband CL emission from CO$_{\textrm{2}}^{\textrm{*}}$ which was not corrected for in this work. Since we do not aim to infer any quantified information about a particular flame property at this stage, we believe that the correction for CO$_{\textrm{2}}^{\textrm{*}}$ is not paramount here. When necessary for particular investigations, corrections can be applied and some methods have been proposed [45].

2.2 Reconstruction method

Details of the CTC algorithm used in this project, and previous applications of it for experimental reconstructions are documented in [16,22,27], and hence only a brief description of the fundamentals is provided here. The CTC technique involves measuring two-dimensional (2D) projections of the CL emitted by a combusting gas from unique perspectives. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) describes the propagation and interaction of light within the domain of interest, and is the basis of the measurement model that is used. In the CTC used here, subtracting the background signal (the scene, flame off) and neglecting scattering and re-absorption simplifies the RTE. These assumptions are reasonable for the flames that are used here, and unlike the CL signal from OH*, the bandpass-filtered CL emission that is measured in our experiments is due to CH* and CO2* on a large part and suffers from minimal reabsorption for atmospheric flames [46,47]. The intensity of the signal detected on each pixel of the camera sensor is considered to be the integral or sum of the emitted light (from CL or luminescence) that passes along a ray to that pixel. The simplified RTE is approximated by discretising the reconstruction domain into a finite number of cubic voxels, which are assumed to contain a uniform distribution of chemiluminescence. An inversion process is applied to the measurement model to estimate the 3D distribution of CL in the domain of interest, using information from all the 2D projections.

The direct 3D reconstructions were made with a domain containing 130 by 130 by 140 voxels in the $x$-, $y$-, $z$-directions (the coordinates are shown in Fig. 3). The spatial resolution in the reconstruction domain was 0.56 mm per voxel. All the instantaneous shots (about 200) for each flame case were reconstructed, and the results were used to calculate the averaged reconstruction. A spatial Gaussian filter of kernel size 3 by 3 by 3 voxels and standard deviation of $\sigma = 0.7$ was applied to the reconstructed fields for smoothing. The filter size is below the expected spatial resolution of the reconstructed field based on previous work using the same CTC method [16].

3. Results and discussion

The measurements and reconstructions confirm that the detectable vaporised salt luminescence occurred on the burnt side of the flame. For example, in Fig. 5 the salt illumination from the inner stream contains two distinct dark peaks that correspond to the shape illustrated by the flame front image. Additionally, the superimposed reconstructed fields shown in Fig. 7 (that are discussed later) illustrate that the salt illuminations appear from the downstream side of the flame front. The outer stream images for Flame II were the noisiest, which was due to the increased camera gain that had to be used. For a fixed amount of salt-seeding into the streams and camera settings, the measured luminescence signals are higher for the richer flames. This effect was visible even for the slightly higher global equivalence ratio of Flame I which exhibited higher signals. Since a portion of the signal from the outer stream was cut by the available filters that were used to avoid any contamination from thermally excited H$_{2}$O emission, the equivalence ratio in the outer stream was chosen to be slightly higher than in the inner stream for Flame I. Furthermore, the lower Reynolds number chosen for this flame favours less mixing between the streams and the flame due to lower turbulence levels, and hence higher signals would be maintained due to less dilution effect. As a consequence of the discussion given above, a lower camera exposure time could be used for Flame I, given in Table 1, resulting in less motion blur.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Exemplary instantaneous flame images obtained from one camera for each measured channel. The signals are normalised to a 0 - 1 range.

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Figure 6 presents horizontal slices at different heights above the burner, from an exemplary instantaneous reconstruction for each flame. For Flame II, the outer stream was only visible from around $z/\textrm{d}=2.4$ (based on analysing the averaged distribution), as indicated in Fig. 5. Therefore, the outer stream for Flame II was only reconstructed for the streamwise distance of $z/\textrm{d} \ge 2.4$. The horizontal slices demonstrate the distinct regions that are occupied by the two streams, which are encapsulated by each other and by the flame front. The line artefacts exhibited in the horizontal slices are not unexpected considering the number of cameras dedicated to each measurement channel, and are in agreement with the trend seen in our previous CTC reconstructions of a turbulent swirl-stabilised flame [22], where the effect of number of cameras on the reconstruction was systematically studied. In one experiment for Flame I, all the 29 cameras were used to measure the flame front using a camera exposure time of $t_{\textrm{exp}} = {200}\;\mu \textrm{s}$, and the resulting reconstructions are shown in Fig. 6. The horizontal and vertical slices for the 29-camera reconstruction show the expected improved quality in terms of reduced line artefacts compared to those shown for the same horizontal slice from the 9-camera reconstruction, and confirm the multiple flame fronts for Flame I. Also, since the 29-camera reconstruction used images that were captured using half the exposure time, finer structures are more clearly visible due to less motion blur.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Horizontal slices from the instantaneous reconstructions of Flame I and Flame II, at different heights $z$ above the burner ($\textrm{d}$ is the bluff body diameter). Also shown are slices (horizontal and vertical) from the instantaneous flame front reconstruction of Flame I, based on bandpass filtered CH* measurements using all the cameras with exposure time $t_{\textrm{exp}} = {200}\;\mu \textrm{s}$.

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Exemplary horizontal and vertical slices for all three reconstructed channels are superimposed and presented in Fig. 7. For illustration purposes, the data for the inner and outer streams and the flame front are colour coded in green, red and blue, respectively. The resulting superimposed representation shows the global spatial distribution of each measured channel, and provides a subtle illustration of the overlap regions between different channels. For better illustration of the individual regions and where the different colour channels co-exist, i.e. mixing regions, slices from the reconstructions are presented as contour plots in Fig. 8. The plots were made by normalising the intensities of the individual channels by their maximum. The same green, red and blue colour coding for the inner, outer and flame front channels is used in this figure. Regions where mixing between the different colour channels exists are defined by the resulting colour that appears from the combination of the primary colours used for the individual channels, as illustrated by the key on the top of Fig. 8. For example, all areas where both the inner (green) and outer (red) streams co-exist will have a yellow colour, and white areas indicate the presence of signal from both the streams and the flame front. A distinctly lower level of overall mixing between the flame front and both streams is exhibited for Flame I than for Flame II in the slices presented in this figure. This is expected since for Flame II the flow Reynolds number is higher (in both inner and outer streams). This leads to additional turbulence in the shear layer between the slow co-flow and the outer stream. As the gradients between the co-flow and outer stream flow are convected downstream, further fluctuations will be produced and this engulfs some of the inner stream flow which also affects the region where the flame front exists. Hence, mixing between all three channels at further downstream locations is promoted, and this is clearly indicated by the large white segment in the averaged horizontal slice at $z/\textrm{d}=2.8$ for Flame II. In contrast, most of the mixing for Flame I is restricted to between neighbouring channels, indicated by the cyan, magenta and yellow regions in Fig. 8.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Horizontal slices at different heights above the burner $z/\textrm{d}$ and vertical slices at the flame centreline $x/\textrm{d}=0$ from the instantaneous and averaged reconstructions. The approximate burner exit geometry is also shown. The flame front, inner and outer streams are colour coded in blue, green and red, respectively, for illustration purposes.

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 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Plot of segmented regions from the instantaneous and averaged reconstructions of Flame I and Flame II. Horizontal slices at different heights above the burner $z/\textrm{d}$, vertical slices at the flame centreline $x/\textrm{d}=0$, and the approximate burner exit geometry are shown. The same colour coding for the inner and outer streams and flame front (green, red and blue, respectively) is used.

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The data shown in Fig. 8 provides a visualisation of the spatial distribution of the separate reconstructed channels and their combinations in the same region at distinct horizontal and vertical planes. To track the same information quantitatively in the streamwise direction, the fraction of each segmented region, represented by the same seven colours used in Fig. 8, relative to the total area of all segments for each slice was calculated and plotted as a function of height above the burner in Fig. 9, for the averaged reconstructions. The fluctuations in the curves are most likely due to noise, from imaging and the inversion process. Since the detected signals for Flame I are the strongest closer to the burner exit, the reconstructions are less noisy in this region and become increasingly noisy with height above the burner. Hence the curves for Flame I are relatively smooth up to about $z/\textrm{d} \approx 2.7$. With overall noisier images that were captured for Flame II (due to lower signals), the reconstructions are also generally more noisy compared to Flame I, and this in turn is reflected by the fluctuations in the curves of Fig. 9.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Curves showing the fraction of the area for each segment relative to the total area of all segments at each height above the burner $z/\textrm{d}$, corresponding to the averaged data presented for Flame I and Flame II in Fig. 8.

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For both flames, nearest to the burner exit, the blue line representing the relative contribution of the flame front signal has the largest peak as expected, and decreases thereafter as the contribution from the luminescence in the inner and outer streams on the burnt side of the flame and combinations of different mixed regions appear further downstream. Near the burner exit, at ${z/\textrm{d}\; < \;2.8}$, Flame I exhibits a large contribution from the outer stream signal (red) with a peak at $z/\textrm{d} \approx 1.6$ whilst the inner stream (green) is slimmer and hence shows a lower contribution but it is already moderately mixed with its neighbours, these being the flame front and outer stream signals as indicated by the cyan and yellow curves, respectively. The outer stream signal which covers the largest segment in this height above the burner region for Flame I also shows mixing with the flame front signal from the branch of the flame front that is directly neighbouring it, as indicated by the magenta curve. In contrast, Flame II in the same upstream region, for ${z/\textrm{d}\; <\; 2.8}$, exhibits contributions only from the inner stream and the flame front signals, and a relatively large mixed region between them (cyan) which is almost double in size compared to Flame I.

Further downstream, for $z/\textrm{d} \;> \;2.8$, for Flame I the inner stream signal (green) gradually and continually increases due to its increasing thickness, whilst the outer stream signal (red) decreases as the hot gas zone from the outer steam tapers off in the streamwise direction. Mixing of the inner and outer stream signals (yellow) is maintained with height above the burner. The outer stream signal for Flame II only begins in this downstream region and is immediately mixed with the flame front signal, sharing a significant mixed region (magenta) for a distance of up to $z/\textrm{d} \approx 5$ which coincides with the distance that the flame front signal extends in the downstream direction. At further heights above the burner the outer stream signal continues increasing and shares a mixed region (yellow) with the inner stream signal of a similar proportion. The inner stream signal contribution for Flame II continuously decreases with downstream distance as most of it is either mixed with the flame front or outer stream signals. The white curve, which tracks the segments where signal from the flame front and both streams co-exist, shows that the relative contribution of the regions where all channels are mixed is generally higher for Flame II than for Flame I, as discussed earlier.

4. Conclusions

Tomographic imaging using multi-simultaneous measurements (TIMes) for flame emission reconstructions has been proposed and tested with the Cambridge-Sandia burner using two new flame conditions that were chosen particularly for this project, to demonstrate the technique. The diagnostic method allows for identification of the flame and the surrounding burnt gas streams, based on seeding vaporised alkali metal salts into the streams of interest. Simultaneous measurements of the resulting luminescence from the salts in the streams and the flame front were used to reconstruct the individual 3D fields, which were also superimposed to unveil regions of mixing and interaction.

The results allowed us to interpret the two flame cases studied in terms of the spatial extent of each measured channel separately and together, within the entire 3D volume. Knowledge of the emission properties for the chosen salts, combined with the correct choice of optical filters and measurements of the flame emission was key to the successful implementation of this technique. The implementation was not complicated and required relatively straightforward modifications to our existing multi-camera setup for flame emission measurements. This novel application of TIMes for flame emission reconstructions will allow for a better understanding of many phenomena in complex multi-stream combustion processes, as it can distinguish the hot gas regions originating from different streams. The excited species chemiluminescence measurements can reveal the location of the flame front whilst the luminescence from the salt-seeded streams identifies the burnt side of the flame from the unburnt side. Furthermore, the data can also serve as a useful validation source for numerical simulations of complex flows and flames.

Funding

Ministerium für Kultur und Wissenschaft des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministerium für Innovation, Wissenschaft und Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen. We thank Andreas Kempf and Christof Schulz at the IVG for sparking the first ideas that lead to this project and useful discussions. We are also grateful to Simone Hochgreb for lending the Cambridge-Sandia burner to us. We acknowledge support by the Open Access Publication Fund of the University of Duisburg-Essen.

Disclosures

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this article.

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23. Y. Jin, Y. Song, X. Qu, Z. Li, Y. Ji, and A. He, “Three-dimensional dynamic measurements of ch* and c2* concentrations in flame using simultaneous chemiluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4640–4654 (2017). [CrossRef]  

24. S. M. Wiseman, M. J. Brear, R. L. Gordon, and I. Marusic, “Measurements from flame chemiluminescence tomography of forced laminar premixed propane flames,” Combust. Flame 183, 1–14 (2017). [CrossRef]  

25. J. Menser, A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3d imaging of turbulent stratified methane/air flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” in 5th International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Munich, Germany, (2018), pp. 766–770.

26. C. Ruan, T. Yu, F. Chen, S. Wang, W. Cai, and X. Lu, “Experimental characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of a turbulent flame in a gas turbine model combustor using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Energy 170, 744–751 (2019). [CrossRef]  

27. A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018). [CrossRef]  

28. G. E. Elsinga, F. Scarano, B. Wieneke, and B. W. van Oudheusden, “Tomographic particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 41(6), 933–947 (2006). [CrossRef]  

29. F. Scarano, “Tomographic PIV: principles and practice,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012001 (2013). [CrossRef]  

30. J. Weinkauff, D. Michaelis, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic piv measurements in a turbulent lifted jet flame,” Exp. Fluids 54(12), 1624 (2013). [CrossRef]  

31. L. Boyer, “Laser tomographic method for flame front movement studies,” Combust. Flame 39(3), 321–323 (1980). [CrossRef]  

32. L. Withrow and G. M. Rassweiler, “Studying engine combustion by physical methods a review,” J. Appl. Phys. 9(6), 362–372 (1938). [CrossRef]  

33. J. Reissing, J. M. Kech, K. Mayer, J. Gindele, H. Kubach, and U. Spicher, “Optical investigations of a gasoline direct injection engine,” in SAE Technical Paper, (SAE International, 1999).

34. K. W. Beck, T. Heidenreich, S. Busch, U. Spicher, T. Gegg, and A. Kölmel, “Spectroscopic measurements in small two-stroke si engines,” Tech. rep., SAE Technical Paper (2009).

35. P. R. Medwell, A. R. Masri, P. X. Pham, B. B. Dally, and G. J. Nathan, “Temperature imaging of turbulent dilute spray flames using two-line atomic fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 55(11), 1840 (2014). [CrossRef]  

36. M. Mosburger, V. Sick, and M. C. Drake, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of burned gas temperature and equivalence ratio in internal combustion engines using alkali metal fluorescence,” Int. J. Engine Res. 15(3), 282–297 (2014). [CrossRef]  

37. A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flames (Chapman and Hall Ltd, 1974).

38. A. Kramida, Yu. Ralchenko, J. Reader, and NIST ASD Team, NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1), [Online]. Available: https://physics.nist.gov/asd [2017, April 9]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. (2019).

39. M. S. Sweeney, S. Hochgreb, M. J. Dunn, and R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent stratified and premixed methane/air flames I: Non-swirling flows,” Combust. Flame 159(9), 2896–2911 (2012). [CrossRef]  

40. R. Zhou, S. Balusamy, M. S. Sweeney, R. S. Barlow, and S. Hochgreb, “Flow field measurements of a series of turbulent premixed and stratified methane/air flames,” Combust. Flame 160(10), 2017–2028 (2013). [CrossRef]  

41. J. Floyd and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): High resolution and instantaneous 3D measurements of a matrix burner,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 751–758 (2011). [CrossRef]  

42. ULN System for the New SGT5-8000H Gas Turbine: Design and High Pressure Rig Test Results, vol. Volume 3: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions, Parts A and B of ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air.

43. C. Peterson, W. Sowa, and G. S. Samuelsen, “Performance of a model rich burn-quick mix-lean burn combustor at elevated temperature and pressure,” Tech. rep., NASA Technical Reports Server: NTRS (2002).

44. P. A. Tipler, Physics for scientists and engineers, fourth edition (W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 1999).

45. M. Lauer and T. Sattelmayer, “On the adequacy of chemiluminescence as a measure for heat release in turbulent flames with mixture gradients,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(6), 061502 (2010). [CrossRef]  

46. R. R. John and M. Summerfield, “Effect of turbulence on radiation intensity from propane-air flames,” J. Jet Propuls. 27(2), 169–175 (1957). [CrossRef]  

47. M. R. W. Lauer, “Determination of the heat release distribution in turbulent flames by chemiluminescence imaging,” Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Munich (2011).

References

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  1. F. Stritzke, S. van der Kley, A. Feiling, A. Dreizler, and S. Wagner, “Ammonia concentration distribution measurements in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel engine based on limited data absorption tomography,” Opt. Express 25(7), 8180–8191 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Klinner and C. Willert, “Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions,” Exp. Fluids 53(2), 531–543 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Bauer, H. Chaves, and C. Arcoumanis, “Measurements of void fraction distribution in cavitating pipe flow using x-ray CT,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055302 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Wu, W. Xu, Q. Lei, and L. Ma, “Single-shot volumetric laser induced fluorescence (vlif) measurements in turbulent flows seeded with iodine,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33408–33418 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. Q. Wang, T. Yu, H. Liu, J. Huang, and W. Cai, “Optimization of camera arrangement for volumetric tomography with constrained optical access,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 37(4), 1231–1239 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Ma, Q. Lei, J. Ikeda, W. Xu, Y. Wu, and C. Carter, “Single-shot 3D flame diagnostic based on volumetric laser induced fluorescence (VLIF),” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4575–4583 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D evolutionary reconstruction of scalar fields in the gas-phase,” Energies 12(11), 2075 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. J. Grauer, A. Unterberger, A. Rittler, K. J. Daun, A. M. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3D flame imaging by background-orientated schlieren tomography,” Combust. Flame 196, 284–299 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Boigné, N. R. Bennett, A. Wang, K. Mohri, and M. Ihme, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements of gas temperature and pyrolysis of biomass smoldering via X-ray computed tomography,” Proc. Combust. Inst. (2020).
  11. J. Kerl, C. Lawn, and F. Beyrau, “Three-dimensional flame displacement speed and flame front curvature measurements using quad-plane PIV,” Combust. Flame 160(12), 2757–2769 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Ebi and N. T. Clemens, “Simultaneous high-speed 3D flame front detection and tomographic PIV,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035303 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Wang, Z. Xie, J. Yan, and K. Cen, “Simultaneous measurement of three-dimensional particle temperature, particle concentration, and H2O concentration distributions using multispectral flame images,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 189(11), 1891–1906 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Ren and M. F. Modest, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional temperature and concentration fields of a laminar flame by machine learning,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Radiative Transfer, RAD-19, (SAE International, 2019).
  15. N. Anikin, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, “Tomographic reconstruction of the OH*-chemiluminescence distribution in premixed and diffusion flames,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 675–694 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Samarasinghe, S. Peluso, M. Szedlmayer, A. De Rosa, B. Quay, and D. Santavicca, “Three-dimensional chemiluminescence imaging of unforced and forced swirl-stabilized flames in a lean premixed multi-nozzle can combustor,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101503 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. A. Worth and J. R. Dawson, “Tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in two interacting turbulent flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(2), 024013 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Weinkauff, J. Koeser, D. Michaelis, B. Peterson, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Volumetric flame measurements in a lifted turbulent jet flame using tomographic reconstruction of chemiluminescence,” in 17th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, (2014), p. 11.
  20. L. Ma, Q. Lei, Y. Wu, W. Xu, T. M. Ombrello, and C. D. Carter, “From ignition to stable combustion in a cavity flameholder studied via 3D tomographic chemiluminescence at 20 kHz,” Combust. Flame 165, 1–10 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. D. Geraedts, C. M. Arndt, and A. M. Steinberg, “Rayleigh index fields in helically perturbed swirl-stabilized flames using doubly phase conditioned OH* chemiluminescence tomography,” Flow, Turbul. Combust. 96(4), 1023–1038 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. Mohri, S. Görs, J. Schöler, A. Rittler, T. Dreier, C. Schulz, and A. Kempf, “Instantaneous 3D imaging of highly turbulent flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Appl. Opt. 56(26), 7385–7395 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Jin, Y. Song, X. Qu, Z. Li, Y. Ji, and A. He, “Three-dimensional dynamic measurements of ch* and c2* concentrations in flame using simultaneous chemiluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4640–4654 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. M. Wiseman, M. J. Brear, R. L. Gordon, and I. Marusic, “Measurements from flame chemiluminescence tomography of forced laminar premixed propane flames,” Combust. Flame 183, 1–14 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Menser, A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3d imaging of turbulent stratified methane/air flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” in 5th International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Munich, Germany, (2018), pp. 766–770.
  26. C. Ruan, T. Yu, F. Chen, S. Wang, W. Cai, and X. Lu, “Experimental characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of a turbulent flame in a gas turbine model combustor using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Energy 170, 744–751 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. E. Elsinga, F. Scarano, B. Wieneke, and B. W. van Oudheusden, “Tomographic particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 41(6), 933–947 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. F. Scarano, “Tomographic PIV: principles and practice,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012001 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Weinkauff, D. Michaelis, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic piv measurements in a turbulent lifted jet flame,” Exp. Fluids 54(12), 1624 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. L. Boyer, “Laser tomographic method for flame front movement studies,” Combust. Flame 39(3), 321–323 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  32. L. Withrow and G. M. Rassweiler, “Studying engine combustion by physical methods a review,” J. Appl. Phys. 9(6), 362–372 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Reissing, J. M. Kech, K. Mayer, J. Gindele, H. Kubach, and U. Spicher, “Optical investigations of a gasoline direct injection engine,” in SAE Technical Paper, (SAE International, 1999).
  34. K. W. Beck, T. Heidenreich, S. Busch, U. Spicher, T. Gegg, and A. Kölmel, “Spectroscopic measurements in small two-stroke si engines,” Tech. rep., SAE Technical Paper (2009).
  35. P. R. Medwell, A. R. Masri, P. X. Pham, B. B. Dally, and G. J. Nathan, “Temperature imaging of turbulent dilute spray flames using two-line atomic fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 55(11), 1840 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Mosburger, V. Sick, and M. C. Drake, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of burned gas temperature and equivalence ratio in internal combustion engines using alkali metal fluorescence,” Int. J. Engine Res. 15(3), 282–297 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  37. A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flames (Chapman and Hall Ltd, 1974).
  38. A. Kramida, Yu. Ralchenko, and J. ReaderNIST ASD Team, NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1), [Online]. Available: https://physics.nist.gov/asd [2017, April 9]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. (2019).
  39. M. S. Sweeney, S. Hochgreb, M. J. Dunn, and R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent stratified and premixed methane/air flames I: Non-swirling flows,” Combust. Flame 159(9), 2896–2911 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  40. R. Zhou, S. Balusamy, M. S. Sweeney, R. S. Barlow, and S. Hochgreb, “Flow field measurements of a series of turbulent premixed and stratified methane/air flames,” Combust. Flame 160(10), 2017–2028 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  41. J. Floyd and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): High resolution and instantaneous 3D measurements of a matrix burner,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 751–758 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  42. ULN System for the New SGT5-8000H Gas Turbine: Design and High Pressure Rig Test Results, vol. Volume 3: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions, Parts A and B of ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air.
  43. C. Peterson, W. Sowa, and G. S. Samuelsen, “Performance of a model rich burn-quick mix-lean burn combustor at elevated temperature and pressure,” Tech. rep., NASA Technical Reports Server: NTRS (2002).
  44. P. A. Tipler, Physics for scientists and engineers, fourth edition (W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 1999).
  45. M. Lauer and T. Sattelmayer, “On the adequacy of chemiluminescence as a measure for heat release in turbulent flames with mixture gradients,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(6), 061502 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  46. R. R. John and M. Summerfield, “Effect of turbulence on radiation intensity from propane-air flames,” J. Jet Propuls. 27(2), 169–175 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  47. M. R. W. Lauer, “Determination of the heat release distribution in turbulent flames by chemiluminescence imaging,” Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Munich (2011).

2020 (1)

2019 (2)

A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D evolutionary reconstruction of scalar fields in the gas-phase,” Energies 12(11), 2075 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ruan, T. Yu, F. Chen, S. Wang, W. Cai, and X. Lu, “Experimental characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of a turbulent flame in a gas turbine model combustor using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Energy 170, 744–751 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. J. Grauer, A. Unterberger, A. Rittler, K. J. Daun, A. M. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3D flame imaging by background-orientated schlieren tomography,” Combust. Flame 196, 284–299 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

L. Ma, Q. Lei, J. Ikeda, W. Xu, Y. Wu, and C. Carter, “Single-shot 3D flame diagnostic based on volumetric laser induced fluorescence (VLIF),” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4575–4583 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Stritzke, S. van der Kley, A. Feiling, A. Dreizler, and S. Wagner, “Ammonia concentration distribution measurements in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel engine based on limited data absorption tomography,” Opt. Express 25(7), 8180–8191 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Z. Xie, J. Yan, and K. Cen, “Simultaneous measurement of three-dimensional particle temperature, particle concentration, and H2O concentration distributions using multispectral flame images,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 189(11), 1891–1906 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Mohri, S. Görs, J. Schöler, A. Rittler, T. Dreier, C. Schulz, and A. Kempf, “Instantaneous 3D imaging of highly turbulent flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Appl. Opt. 56(26), 7385–7395 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Jin, Y. Song, X. Qu, Z. Li, Y. Ji, and A. He, “Three-dimensional dynamic measurements of ch* and c2* concentrations in flame using simultaneous chemiluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4640–4654 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. M. Wiseman, M. J. Brear, R. L. Gordon, and I. Marusic, “Measurements from flame chemiluminescence tomography of forced laminar premixed propane flames,” Combust. Flame 183, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

L. Ma, Q. Lei, Y. Wu, W. Xu, T. M. Ombrello, and C. D. Carter, “From ignition to stable combustion in a cavity flameholder studied via 3D tomographic chemiluminescence at 20 kHz,” Combust. Flame 165, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. D. Geraedts, C. M. Arndt, and A. M. Steinberg, “Rayleigh index fields in helically perturbed swirl-stabilized flames using doubly phase conditioned OH* chemiluminescence tomography,” Flow, Turbul. Combust. 96(4), 1023–1038 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Ebi and N. T. Clemens, “Simultaneous high-speed 3D flame front detection and tomographic PIV,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035303 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

P. R. Medwell, A. R. Masri, P. X. Pham, B. B. Dally, and G. J. Nathan, “Temperature imaging of turbulent dilute spray flames using two-line atomic fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 55(11), 1840 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mosburger, V. Sick, and M. C. Drake, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of burned gas temperature and equivalence ratio in internal combustion engines using alkali metal fluorescence,” Int. J. Engine Res. 15(3), 282–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

F. Scarano, “Tomographic PIV: principles and practice,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012001 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Weinkauff, D. Michaelis, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic piv measurements in a turbulent lifted jet flame,” Exp. Fluids 54(12), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Zhou, S. Balusamy, M. S. Sweeney, R. S. Barlow, and S. Hochgreb, “Flow field measurements of a series of turbulent premixed and stratified methane/air flames,” Combust. Flame 160(10), 2017–2028 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kerl, C. Lawn, and F. Beyrau, “Three-dimensional flame displacement speed and flame front curvature measurements using quad-plane PIV,” Combust. Flame 160(12), 2757–2769 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Samarasinghe, S. Peluso, M. Szedlmayer, A. De Rosa, B. Quay, and D. Santavicca, “Three-dimensional chemiluminescence imaging of unforced and forced swirl-stabilized flames in a lean premixed multi-nozzle can combustor,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101503 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. A. Worth and J. R. Dawson, “Tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in two interacting turbulent flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(2), 024013 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Klinner and C. Willert, “Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions,” Exp. Fluids 53(2), 531–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Bauer, H. Chaves, and C. Arcoumanis, “Measurements of void fraction distribution in cavitating pipe flow using x-ray CT,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055302 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. Sweeney, S. Hochgreb, M. J. Dunn, and R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent stratified and premixed methane/air flames I: Non-swirling flows,” Combust. Flame 159(9), 2896–2911 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Floyd and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): High resolution and instantaneous 3D measurements of a matrix burner,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 751–758 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Lauer and T. Sattelmayer, “On the adequacy of chemiluminescence as a measure for heat release in turbulent flames with mixture gradients,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(6), 061502 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Anikin, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, “Tomographic reconstruction of the OH*-chemiluminescence distribution in premixed and diffusion flames,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 675–694 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. E. Elsinga, F. Scarano, B. Wieneke, and B. W. van Oudheusden, “Tomographic particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 41(6), 933–947 (2006).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

L. Boyer, “Laser tomographic method for flame front movement studies,” Combust. Flame 39(3), 321–323 (1980).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

R. R. John and M. Summerfield, “Effect of turbulence on radiation intensity from propane-air flames,” J. Jet Propuls. 27(2), 169–175 (1957).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

L. Withrow and G. M. Rassweiler, “Studying engine combustion by physical methods a review,” J. Appl. Phys. 9(6), 362–372 (1938).
[Crossref]

Al-Halbouni, A.

A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anikin, N.

N. Anikin, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, “Tomographic reconstruction of the OH*-chemiluminescence distribution in premixed and diffusion flames,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 675–694 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arcoumanis, C.

D. Bauer, H. Chaves, and C. Arcoumanis, “Measurements of void fraction distribution in cavitating pipe flow using x-ray CT,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arndt, C. M.

B. D. Geraedts, C. M. Arndt, and A. M. Steinberg, “Rayleigh index fields in helically perturbed swirl-stabilized flames using doubly phase conditioned OH* chemiluminescence tomography,” Flow, Turbul. Combust. 96(4), 1023–1038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Balusamy, S.

R. Zhou, S. Balusamy, M. S. Sweeney, R. S. Barlow, and S. Hochgreb, “Flow field measurements of a series of turbulent premixed and stratified methane/air flames,” Combust. Flame 160(10), 2017–2028 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barlow, R. S.

R. Zhou, S. Balusamy, M. S. Sweeney, R. S. Barlow, and S. Hochgreb, “Flow field measurements of a series of turbulent premixed and stratified methane/air flames,” Combust. Flame 160(10), 2017–2028 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Sweeney, S. Hochgreb, M. J. Dunn, and R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent stratified and premixed methane/air flames I: Non-swirling flows,” Combust. Flame 159(9), 2896–2911 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bauer, D.

D. Bauer, H. Chaves, and C. Arcoumanis, “Measurements of void fraction distribution in cavitating pipe flow using x-ray CT,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beck, K. W.

K. W. Beck, T. Heidenreich, S. Busch, U. Spicher, T. Gegg, and A. Kölmel, “Spectroscopic measurements in small two-stroke si engines,” Tech. rep., SAE Technical Paper (2009).

Bennett, N. R.

E. Boigné, N. R. Bennett, A. Wang, K. Mohri, and M. Ihme, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements of gas temperature and pyrolysis of biomass smoldering via X-ray computed tomography,” Proc. Combust. Inst. (2020).

Beyrau, F.

J. Kerl, C. Lawn, and F. Beyrau, “Three-dimensional flame displacement speed and flame front curvature measurements using quad-plane PIV,” Combust. Flame 160(12), 2757–2769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bockhorn, H.

N. Anikin, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, “Tomographic reconstruction of the OH*-chemiluminescence distribution in premixed and diffusion flames,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 675–694 (2010).
[Crossref]

Böhm, B.

T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Weinkauff, D. Michaelis, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic piv measurements in a turbulent lifted jet flame,” Exp. Fluids 54(12), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Weinkauff, J. Koeser, D. Michaelis, B. Peterson, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Volumetric flame measurements in a lifted turbulent jet flame using tomographic reconstruction of chemiluminescence,” in 17th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, (2014), p. 11.

Boigné, E.

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Drake, M. C.

M. Mosburger, V. Sick, and M. C. Drake, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of burned gas temperature and equivalence ratio in internal combustion engines using alkali metal fluorescence,” Int. J. Engine Res. 15(3), 282–297 (2014).
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Dreizler, A.

T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
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J. Weinkauff, J. Koeser, D. Michaelis, B. Peterson, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Volumetric flame measurements in a lifted turbulent jet flame using tomographic reconstruction of chemiluminescence,” in 17th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, (2014), p. 11.

Dunn, M. J.

M. S. Sweeney, S. Hochgreb, M. J. Dunn, and R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent stratified and premixed methane/air flames I: Non-swirling flows,” Combust. Flame 159(9), 2896–2911 (2012).
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D. Ebi and N. T. Clemens, “Simultaneous high-speed 3D flame front detection and tomographic PIV,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27(3), 035303 (2016).
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Elsinga, G. E.

G. E. Elsinga, F. Scarano, B. Wieneke, and B. W. van Oudheusden, “Tomographic particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 41(6), 933–947 (2006).
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Floyd, J.

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
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J. Floyd and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): High resolution and instantaneous 3D measurements of a matrix burner,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 751–758 (2011).
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T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
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Geipel, P.

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
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Gordon, R. L.

S. M. Wiseman, M. J. Brear, R. L. Gordon, and I. Marusic, “Measurements from flame chemiluminescence tomography of forced laminar premixed propane flames,” Combust. Flame 183, 1–14 (2017).
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Görs, S.

Grauer, S. J.

S. J. Grauer, A. Unterberger, A. Rittler, K. J. Daun, A. M. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3D flame imaging by background-orientated schlieren tomography,” Combust. Flame 196, 284–299 (2018).
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He, A.

Heidenreich, T.

K. W. Beck, T. Heidenreich, S. Busch, U. Spicher, T. Gegg, and A. Kölmel, “Spectroscopic measurements in small two-stroke si engines,” Tech. rep., SAE Technical Paper (2009).

Hochgreb, S.

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M. S. Sweeney, S. Hochgreb, M. J. Dunn, and R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent stratified and premixed methane/air flames I: Non-swirling flows,” Combust. Flame 159(9), 2896–2911 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Ihme, M.

E. Boigné, N. R. Bennett, A. Wang, K. Mohri, and M. Ihme, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements of gas temperature and pyrolysis of biomass smoldering via X-ray computed tomography,” Proc. Combust. Inst. (2020).

Ikeda, J.

L. Ma, Q. Lei, J. Ikeda, W. Xu, Y. Wu, and C. Carter, “Single-shot 3D flame diagnostic based on volumetric laser induced fluorescence (VLIF),” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4575–4583 (2017).
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Kempf, A.

A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D evolutionary reconstruction of scalar fields in the gas-phase,” Energies 12(11), 2075 (2019).
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A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Mohri, S. Görs, J. Schöler, A. Rittler, T. Dreier, C. Schulz, and A. Kempf, “Instantaneous 3D imaging of highly turbulent flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Appl. Opt. 56(26), 7385–7395 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Menser, A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3d imaging of turbulent stratified methane/air flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” in 5th International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Munich, Germany, (2018), pp. 766–770.

Kempf, A. M.

S. J. Grauer, A. Unterberger, A. Rittler, K. J. Daun, A. M. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3D flame imaging by background-orientated schlieren tomography,” Combust. Flame 196, 284–299 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Floyd and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): High resolution and instantaneous 3D measurements of a matrix burner,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 751–758 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kerl, J.

J. Kerl, C. Lawn, and F. Beyrau, “Three-dimensional flame displacement speed and flame front curvature measurements using quad-plane PIV,” Combust. Flame 160(12), 2757–2769 (2013).
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J. Weinkauff, J. Koeser, D. Michaelis, B. Peterson, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Volumetric flame measurements in a lifted turbulent jet flame using tomographic reconstruction of chemiluminescence,” in 17th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, (2014), p. 11.

Kölmel, A.

K. W. Beck, T. Heidenreich, S. Busch, U. Spicher, T. Gegg, and A. Kölmel, “Spectroscopic measurements in small two-stroke si engines,” Tech. rep., SAE Technical Paper (2009).

Kramida, A.

A. Kramida, Yu. Ralchenko, and J. ReaderNIST ASD Team, NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1), [Online]. Available: https://physics.nist.gov/asd [2017, April 9]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. (2019).

Kubach, H.

J. Reissing, J. M. Kech, K. Mayer, J. Gindele, H. Kubach, and U. Spicher, “Optical investigations of a gasoline direct injection engine,” in SAE Technical Paper, (SAE International, 1999).

Lauer, M.

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M. R. W. Lauer, “Determination of the heat release distribution in turbulent flames by chemiluminescence imaging,” Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Munich (2011).

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J. Kerl, C. Lawn, and F. Beyrau, “Three-dimensional flame displacement speed and flame front curvature measurements using quad-plane PIV,” Combust. Flame 160(12), 2757–2769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lei, Q.

L. Ma, Q. Lei, J. Ikeda, W. Xu, Y. Wu, and C. Carter, “Single-shot 3D flame diagnostic based on volumetric laser induced fluorescence (VLIF),” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4575–4583 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ma, Q. Lei, Y. Wu, W. Xu, T. M. Ombrello, and C. D. Carter, “From ignition to stable combustion in a cavity flameholder studied via 3D tomographic chemiluminescence at 20 kHz,” Combust. Flame 165, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, W. Xu, Q. Lei, and L. Ma, “Single-shot volumetric laser induced fluorescence (vlif) measurements in turbulent flows seeded with iodine,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33408–33418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liu, H.

Lu, X.

C. Ruan, T. Yu, F. Chen, S. Wang, W. Cai, and X. Lu, “Experimental characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of a turbulent flame in a gas turbine model combustor using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Energy 170, 744–751 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

L. Ma, Q. Lei, J. Ikeda, W. Xu, Y. Wu, and C. Carter, “Single-shot 3D flame diagnostic based on volumetric laser induced fluorescence (VLIF),” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4575–4583 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ma, Q. Lei, Y. Wu, W. Xu, T. M. Ombrello, and C. D. Carter, “From ignition to stable combustion in a cavity flameholder studied via 3D tomographic chemiluminescence at 20 kHz,” Combust. Flame 165, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, W. Xu, Q. Lei, and L. Ma, “Single-shot volumetric laser induced fluorescence (vlif) measurements in turbulent flows seeded with iodine,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33408–33418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marusic, I.

S. M. Wiseman, M. J. Brear, R. L. Gordon, and I. Marusic, “Measurements from flame chemiluminescence tomography of forced laminar premixed propane flames,” Combust. Flame 183, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

Masri, A. R.

P. R. Medwell, A. R. Masri, P. X. Pham, B. B. Dally, and G. J. Nathan, “Temperature imaging of turbulent dilute spray flames using two-line atomic fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 55(11), 1840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mayer, K.

J. Reissing, J. M. Kech, K. Mayer, J. Gindele, H. Kubach, and U. Spicher, “Optical investigations of a gasoline direct injection engine,” in SAE Technical Paper, (SAE International, 1999).

Medwell, P. R.

P. R. Medwell, A. R. Masri, P. X. Pham, B. B. Dally, and G. J. Nathan, “Temperature imaging of turbulent dilute spray flames using two-line atomic fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 55(11), 1840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Menser, J.

J. Menser, A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3d imaging of turbulent stratified methane/air flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” in 5th International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Munich, Germany, (2018), pp. 766–770.

Michaelis, D.

J. Weinkauff, D. Michaelis, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic piv measurements in a turbulent lifted jet flame,” Exp. Fluids 54(12), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Weinkauff, J. Koeser, D. Michaelis, B. Peterson, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Volumetric flame measurements in a lifted turbulent jet flame using tomographic reconstruction of chemiluminescence,” in 17th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, (2014), p. 11.

Modest, M. F.

T. Ren and M. F. Modest, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional temperature and concentration fields of a laminar flame by machine learning,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Radiative Transfer, RAD-19, (SAE International, 2019).

Mohri, K.

A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D evolutionary reconstruction of scalar fields in the gas-phase,” Energies 12(11), 2075 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. J. Grauer, A. Unterberger, A. Rittler, K. J. Daun, A. M. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3D flame imaging by background-orientated schlieren tomography,” Combust. Flame 196, 284–299 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Mohri, S. Görs, J. Schöler, A. Rittler, T. Dreier, C. Schulz, and A. Kempf, “Instantaneous 3D imaging of highly turbulent flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Appl. Opt. 56(26), 7385–7395 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Menser, A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3d imaging of turbulent stratified methane/air flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” in 5th International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Munich, Germany, (2018), pp. 766–770.

E. Boigné, N. R. Bennett, A. Wang, K. Mohri, and M. Ihme, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements of gas temperature and pyrolysis of biomass smoldering via X-ray computed tomography,” Proc. Combust. Inst. (2020).

Mosburger, M.

M. Mosburger, V. Sick, and M. C. Drake, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of burned gas temperature and equivalence ratio in internal combustion engines using alkali metal fluorescence,” Int. J. Engine Res. 15(3), 282–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nathan, G. J.

P. R. Medwell, A. R. Masri, P. X. Pham, B. B. Dally, and G. J. Nathan, “Temperature imaging of turbulent dilute spray flames using two-line atomic fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 55(11), 1840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ombrello, T. M.

L. Ma, Q. Lei, Y. Wu, W. Xu, T. M. Ombrello, and C. D. Carter, “From ignition to stable combustion in a cavity flameholder studied via 3D tomographic chemiluminescence at 20 kHz,” Combust. Flame 165, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pareja, J.

T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
[Crossref]

Peluso, S.

J. Samarasinghe, S. Peluso, M. Szedlmayer, A. De Rosa, B. Quay, and D. Santavicca, “Three-dimensional chemiluminescence imaging of unforced and forced swirl-stabilized flames in a lean premixed multi-nozzle can combustor,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peterson, B.

J. Weinkauff, J. Koeser, D. Michaelis, B. Peterson, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Volumetric flame measurements in a lifted turbulent jet flame using tomographic reconstruction of chemiluminescence,” in 17th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, (2014), p. 11.

Peterson, C.

C. Peterson, W. Sowa, and G. S. Samuelsen, “Performance of a model rich burn-quick mix-lean burn combustor at elevated temperature and pressure,” Tech. rep., NASA Technical Reports Server: NTRS (2002).

Pham, P. X.

P. R. Medwell, A. R. Masri, P. X. Pham, B. B. Dally, and G. J. Nathan, “Temperature imaging of turbulent dilute spray flames using two-line atomic fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 55(11), 1840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qu, X.

Quay, B.

J. Samarasinghe, S. Peluso, M. Szedlmayer, A. De Rosa, B. Quay, and D. Santavicca, “Three-dimensional chemiluminescence imaging of unforced and forced swirl-stabilized flames in a lean premixed multi-nozzle can combustor,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ralchenko, Yu.

A. Kramida, Yu. Ralchenko, and J. ReaderNIST ASD Team, NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1), [Online]. Available: https://physics.nist.gov/asd [2017, April 9]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. (2019).

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Reader, J.

A. Kramida, Yu. Ralchenko, and J. ReaderNIST ASD Team, NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1), [Online]. Available: https://physics.nist.gov/asd [2017, April 9]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. (2019).

Reissing, J.

J. Reissing, J. M. Kech, K. Mayer, J. Gindele, H. Kubach, and U. Spicher, “Optical investigations of a gasoline direct injection engine,” in SAE Technical Paper, (SAE International, 1999).

Ren, T.

T. Ren and M. F. Modest, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional temperature and concentration fields of a laminar flame by machine learning,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Radiative Transfer, RAD-19, (SAE International, 2019).

Rittler, A.

S. J. Grauer, A. Unterberger, A. Rittler, K. J. Daun, A. M. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3D flame imaging by background-orientated schlieren tomography,” Combust. Flame 196, 284–299 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Mohri, S. Görs, J. Schöler, A. Rittler, T. Dreier, C. Schulz, and A. Kempf, “Instantaneous 3D imaging of highly turbulent flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Appl. Opt. 56(26), 7385–7395 (2017).
[Crossref]

Röder, M.

A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ruan, C.

C. Ruan, T. Yu, F. Chen, S. Wang, W. Cai, and X. Lu, “Experimental characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of a turbulent flame in a gas turbine model combustor using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Energy 170, 744–751 (2019).
[Crossref]

Samarasinghe, J.

J. Samarasinghe, S. Peluso, M. Szedlmayer, A. De Rosa, B. Quay, and D. Santavicca, “Three-dimensional chemiluminescence imaging of unforced and forced swirl-stabilized flames in a lean premixed multi-nozzle can combustor,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Samuelsen, G. S.

C. Peterson, W. Sowa, and G. S. Samuelsen, “Performance of a model rich burn-quick mix-lean burn combustor at elevated temperature and pressure,” Tech. rep., NASA Technical Reports Server: NTRS (2002).

Santavicca, D.

J. Samarasinghe, S. Peluso, M. Szedlmayer, A. De Rosa, B. Quay, and D. Santavicca, “Three-dimensional chemiluminescence imaging of unforced and forced swirl-stabilized flames in a lean premixed multi-nozzle can combustor,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sattelmayer, T.

M. Lauer and T. Sattelmayer, “On the adequacy of chemiluminescence as a measure for heat release in turbulent flames with mixture gradients,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(6), 061502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Scarano, F.

F. Scarano, “Tomographic PIV: principles and practice,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012001 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. E. Elsinga, F. Scarano, B. Wieneke, and B. W. van Oudheusden, “Tomographic particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 41(6), 933–947 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schöler, J.

Schulz, C.

Schütte, M.

T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sick, V.

M. Mosburger, V. Sick, and M. C. Drake, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of burned gas temperature and equivalence ratio in internal combustion engines using alkali metal fluorescence,” Int. J. Engine Res. 15(3), 282–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

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A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018).
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L. Ma, Q. Lei, J. Ikeda, W. Xu, Y. Wu, and C. Carter, “Single-shot 3D flame diagnostic based on volumetric laser induced fluorescence (VLIF),” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4575–4583 (2017).
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Q. Wang, T. Yu, H. Liu, J. Huang, and W. Cai, “Optimization of camera arrangement for volumetric tomography with constrained optical access,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 37(4), 1231–1239 (2020).
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R. Zhou, S. Balusamy, M. S. Sweeney, R. S. Barlow, and S. Hochgreb, “Flow field measurements of a series of turbulent premixed and stratified methane/air flames,” Combust. Flame 160(10), 2017–2028 (2013).
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Zhou, Y.

T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. Anikin, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, “Tomographic reconstruction of the OH*-chemiluminescence distribution in premixed and diffusion flames,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 675–694 (2010).
[Crossref]

Combust. Flame (8)

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Kerl, C. Lawn, and F. Beyrau, “Three-dimensional flame displacement speed and flame front curvature measurements using quad-plane PIV,” Combust. Flame 160(12), 2757–2769 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Grauer, A. Unterberger, A. Rittler, K. J. Daun, A. M. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3D flame imaging by background-orientated schlieren tomography,” Combust. Flame 196, 284–299 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Ma, Q. Lei, Y. Wu, W. Xu, T. M. Ombrello, and C. D. Carter, “From ignition to stable combustion in a cavity flameholder studied via 3D tomographic chemiluminescence at 20 kHz,” Combust. Flame 165, 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Wiseman, M. J. Brear, R. L. Gordon, and I. Marusic, “Measurements from flame chemiluminescence tomography of forced laminar premixed propane flames,” Combust. Flame 183, 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Boyer, “Laser tomographic method for flame front movement studies,” Combust. Flame 39(3), 321–323 (1980).
[Crossref]

M. S. Sweeney, S. Hochgreb, M. J. Dunn, and R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent stratified and premixed methane/air flames I: Non-swirling flows,” Combust. Flame 159(9), 2896–2911 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Zhou, S. Balusamy, M. S. Sweeney, R. S. Barlow, and S. Hochgreb, “Flow field measurements of a series of turbulent premixed and stratified methane/air flames,” Combust. Flame 160(10), 2017–2028 (2013).
[Crossref]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Wang, Z. Xie, J. Yan, and K. Cen, “Simultaneous measurement of three-dimensional particle temperature, particle concentration, and H2O concentration distributions using multispectral flame images,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 189(11), 1891–1906 (2017).
[Crossref]

Energies (1)

A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D evolutionary reconstruction of scalar fields in the gas-phase,” Energies 12(11), 2075 (2019).
[Crossref]

Energy (1)

C. Ruan, T. Yu, F. Chen, S. Wang, W. Cai, and X. Lu, “Experimental characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of a turbulent flame in a gas turbine model combustor using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” Energy 170, 744–751 (2019).
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P. R. Medwell, A. R. Masri, P. X. Pham, B. B. Dally, and G. J. Nathan, “Temperature imaging of turbulent dilute spray flames using two-line atomic fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 55(11), 1840 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Klinner and C. Willert, “Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions,” Exp. Fluids 53(2), 531–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. E. Elsinga, F. Scarano, B. Wieneke, and B. W. van Oudheusden, “Tomographic particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 41(6), 933–947 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Weinkauff, D. Michaelis, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic piv measurements in a turbulent lifted jet flame,” Exp. Fluids 54(12), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flow, Turbul. Combust. (1)

B. D. Geraedts, C. M. Arndt, and A. M. Steinberg, “Rayleigh index fields in helically perturbed swirl-stabilized flames using doubly phase conditioned OH* chemiluminescence tomography,” Flow, Turbul. Combust. 96(4), 1023–1038 (2016).
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Int. J. Engine Res. (1)

M. Mosburger, V. Sick, and M. C. Drake, “Quantitative high-speed imaging of burned gas temperature and equivalence ratio in internal combustion engines using alkali metal fluorescence,” Int. J. Engine Res. 15(3), 282–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Withrow and G. M. Rassweiler, “Studying engine combustion by physical methods a review,” J. Appl. Phys. 9(6), 362–372 (1938).
[Crossref]

J. Combust. (1)

A. Unterberger, M. Röder, A. Giese, A. Al-Halbouni, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “3D instantaneous reconstruction of turbulent industrial flames using Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC),” J. Combust. 2018, 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power (2)

J. Samarasinghe, S. Peluso, M. Szedlmayer, A. De Rosa, B. Quay, and D. Santavicca, “Three-dimensional chemiluminescence imaging of unforced and forced swirl-stabilized flames in a lean premixed multi-nozzle can combustor,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101503 (2013).
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M. Lauer and T. Sattelmayer, “On the adequacy of chemiluminescence as a measure for heat release in turbulent flames with mixture gradients,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(6), 061502 (2010).
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R. R. John and M. Summerfield, “Effect of turbulence on radiation intensity from propane-air flames,” J. Jet Propuls. 27(2), 169–175 (1957).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (5)

T. Li, J. Pareja, F. Fuest, M. Schütte, Y. Zhou, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Tomographic imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence in laminar and turbulent jet flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(1), 015206 (2018).
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D. Bauer, H. Chaves, and C. Arcoumanis, “Measurements of void fraction distribution in cavitating pipe flow using x-ray CT,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055302 (2012).
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N. A. Worth and J. R. Dawson, “Tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in two interacting turbulent flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(2), 024013 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Opt. Express (3)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (2)

L. Ma, Q. Lei, J. Ikeda, W. Xu, Y. Wu, and C. Carter, “Single-shot 3D flame diagnostic based on volumetric laser induced fluorescence (VLIF),” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4575–4583 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Floyd and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): High resolution and instantaneous 3D measurements of a matrix burner,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 751–758 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (12)

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C. Peterson, W. Sowa, and G. S. Samuelsen, “Performance of a model rich burn-quick mix-lean burn combustor at elevated temperature and pressure,” Tech. rep., NASA Technical Reports Server: NTRS (2002).

P. A. Tipler, Physics for scientists and engineers, fourth edition (W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 1999).

M. R. W. Lauer, “Determination of the heat release distribution in turbulent flames by chemiluminescence imaging,” Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Munich (2011).

E. Boigné, N. R. Bennett, A. Wang, K. Mohri, and M. Ihme, “Simultaneous in-situ measurements of gas temperature and pyrolysis of biomass smoldering via X-ray computed tomography,” Proc. Combust. Inst. (2020).

T. Ren and M. F. Modest, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional temperature and concentration fields of a laminar flame by machine learning,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Radiative Transfer, RAD-19, (SAE International, 2019).

J. Weinkauff, J. Koeser, D. Michaelis, B. Peterson, A. Dreizler, and B. Böhm, “Volumetric flame measurements in a lifted turbulent jet flame using tomographic reconstruction of chemiluminescence,” in 17th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, (2014), p. 11.

J. Menser, A. Unterberger, A. Kempf, and K. Mohri, “Instantaneous 3d imaging of turbulent stratified methane/air flames using computed tomography of chemiluminescence,” in 5th International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Munich, Germany, (2018), pp. 766–770.

J. Reissing, J. M. Kech, K. Mayer, J. Gindele, H. Kubach, and U. Spicher, “Optical investigations of a gasoline direct injection engine,” in SAE Technical Paper, (SAE International, 1999).

K. W. Beck, T. Heidenreich, S. Busch, U. Spicher, T. Gegg, and A. Kölmel, “Spectroscopic measurements in small two-stroke si engines,” Tech. rep., SAE Technical Paper (2009).

A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flames (Chapman and Hall Ltd, 1974).

A. Kramida, Yu. Ralchenko, and J. ReaderNIST ASD Team, NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ver. 5.7.1), [Online]. Available: https://physics.nist.gov/asd [2017, April 9]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. (2019).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The principle of atomic emission spectroscopy as applicable to this work.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the Cambridge-Sandia burner exit geometry cross-section, showing the salt solutions that were seeded into each annulus.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup used for the method of TIMes for flame emission tomography. The green, red and blue dots denote the cameras that detected the emitted light from the inner (NaCl) and outer Sr(NO$_3$)$_2$ streams and the flame front, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The transmission curve of the optical filters used in the experiment and the emission spectrum of both flames investigated.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Exemplary instantaneous flame images obtained from one camera for each measured channel. The signals are normalised to a 0 - 1 range.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Horizontal slices from the instantaneous reconstructions of Flame I and Flame II, at different heights $z$ above the burner ($\textrm{d}$ is the bluff body diameter). Also shown are slices (horizontal and vertical) from the instantaneous flame front reconstruction of Flame I, based on bandpass filtered CH* measurements using all the cameras with exposure time $t_{\textrm{exp}} = {200}\;\mu \textrm{s}$.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Horizontal slices at different heights above the burner $z/\textrm{d}$ and vertical slices at the flame centreline $x/\textrm{d}=0$ from the instantaneous and averaged reconstructions. The approximate burner exit geometry is also shown. The flame front, inner and outer streams are colour coded in blue, green and red, respectively, for illustration purposes.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Plot of segmented regions from the instantaneous and averaged reconstructions of Flame I and Flame II. Horizontal slices at different heights above the burner $z/\textrm{d}$, vertical slices at the flame centreline $x/\textrm{d}=0$, and the approximate burner exit geometry are shown. The same colour coding for the inner and outer streams and flame front (green, red and blue, respectively) is used.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Curves showing the fraction of the area for each segment relative to the total area of all segments at each height above the burner $z/\textrm{d}$, corresponding to the averaged data presented for Flame I and Flame II in Fig. 8.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The flame conditions used in the experiments. The subscripts i and o stand for the inner and outer streams respectively, and t exp is the camera exposure time.

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