Abstract

We present the bifunctional design of a broadband absorber and a broadband polarization converter based on a switchable metasurface through the insulator-to-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide. When vanadium dioxide is metal, the designed switchable metasurface behaves as a broadband absorber. This absorber is composed of a vanadium dioxide square, silica spacer, and vanadium dioxide film. Calculated results show that in the frequency range of 0.52-1.2 THz, the designed system can absorb more than 90% of the energy, and the bandwidth ratio is 79%. It is insensitive to polarization due to the symmetry, and can still work well even at large incident angles. When vanadium dioxide is an insulator, a terahertz polarizer is realized by a simple anisotropic metasurface. Numerical calculation shows that efficient conversion between two orthogonal linear polarizations can be achieved. Reflectance of a cross-polarized wave can reach 90% from 0.42 THz to 1.04 THz, and the corresponding bandwidth ratio is 85%. This cross-polarized converter has the advantages of wide angle, broad bandwidth, and high efficiency. So our design can realize bifunctionality of broadband absorption and polarization conversion between 0.52 THz and 1.04 THz. This architecture could provide one new way to develop switchable photonic devices and functional components in phase change materials.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Metamaterials, artificially designed electromagnetic composite materials, have aroused great interests in the scientific community because of its potential applications in super-lens [13], perfect absorber [46], and polarization rotator [79]. Typical metamaterials often consist of metal or dielectric element whose size is much smaller than the working wavelength. The behaviors of previous metamaterials are not easy to change once they are fabricated. Recently, a lot of efforts have focused on the manufacture of active metamaterials at microwave, terahertz, and optical frequencies. It is of great significance to develop tunable metamaterials for modulating amplitude, phase, or polarization so as to obtain active devices, such as filter [10,11], modulator [12,13], and sensor [14,15]. One possible way is to integrate metamaterial system with suitable materials like phase change material, because phase change material can be used as thermally or electronically switchable photonic devices. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) as one of phase change materials is an excellent functional material [16], which is a typical Mott material. Its optical and electrical properties will change dramatically during phase transition. This is mainly caused by the transformation of the structure phase from an insulating monoclinic phase (low temperature) to a metallic tetragonal phase (high temperature) around $68{\;^\circ}C$. The dielectric permittivity varies greatly during the phase transition from insulator to metal. VO2 has been extensively studied in recent years due to the large change of dielectric permittivity in the process of phase transition [17]. When thermal heating, external electrical field, or optical stimulus is applied, phase transition of VO2 can occur at an ultra-fast time scale (∼100 fs) [1820]. It shows strong dependence on temperature or electric field, and will have some possibilities for smart design and construction of switchable metamaterial devices. Combining metamaterial system with the large dielectric permittivity change of VO2, it can be used to make new photonic devices. Different applications using VO2 phase transition have been explored, such as metasurface (2D version of metamaterial) [2125], optical memory device [26], nano-antenna [27], temperature sensor [28], and rewritable device [29].

Most of these designs are usually designed for a single functionality. In 2015, A. Tittl et al. presented the first experimental demonstration of a mid-infrared absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability [30]. Their design has very high absorption performance insensitive to incident angle and polarization. It can be integrated on absorption pixels less than 10 $\mu m$, which is of great significance for mid-infrared near diffraction-limited imaging. In 2018, C.R. de Galarreta et al. successfully demonstrated how to combine phase change material with plasmonic metasurface to create a new, nonvolatile, reconfigurable near-infrared beam control and beam shaping devices [31]. When phase-change layer is in the crystalline state, the device reflects incident light in the way of specular reflection, while phase-change layer is in the amorphous state, the device reflects abnormally at a predesigned angle. In 2019, S.G.C. Carrillo et al. combined the structure of chalcogenide phase change material and absorber to create a novel type of tunable optoelectronic color system [32]. Using phase-change layer of crystalline phase, the resonant absorber can be tuned to selectively absorb red, green, and blue bands of visible spectrum, thus producing vivid cyan, magenta, and yellow pixels. When phase-change layer changes to the amorphous phase, resonant absorption is suppressed, resulting in a pseudo white reflection. So it is very desirable to promote the integration of various functionalities into a single device. In this work, a switchable terahertz metasurface based on VO2 is presented, and it can be switched from a broadband absorber to a reflective brandband linear polarization converter in the same frequency band. When VO2 is metal, high absorptance >90% from 0.52 THz to 1.2 THz is achieved with an optimized geometry. Once VO2 is insulator, the design becomes a broadband linear polarization converter with reflectance of 90% from 0.42 THz to 1.04 THz. This VO2-based switchable metasurface exhibits a couple of advantages, such as bifunctionities and ease of scaling to other frequency band.

2. Design and method

As shown in Fig. 1, the basic unit cell of the designed switchable metasurface consists of six layers, which from top to bottom are as follows: VO2 squared patch, (silica) SiO2 spacer, gold strip, VO2 film, SiO2 spacer, and the bottom gold substrate. The optical permittivity of VO2 is described by Drude model $\varepsilon (\omega ) = {\varepsilon _\infty } - \frac{{\omega _p^2(\sigma )}}{{{\omega ^2} + i\gamma \omega }}$ in the terahertz range, where ${\varepsilon _\infty } = 12$ is dielectric permittivity at high frequency, ${\omega _p}(\sigma )$ is the plasma frequency dependent on conductivity and $\gamma$ is the collision frequency [3337]. Besides, $\omega _p^2(\sigma )$ and $\sigma$ are proportional to free carrier density. The plasma frequency at $\sigma$ can be approximately described by $\omega _p^2(\sigma ) = \frac{\sigma }{{{\sigma _0}}}\omega _p^2({\sigma _0})$ with ${\sigma _0} = 3 \times {10^3}\;{\Omega ^{ - 1}}c{m^{ - 1}}$, ${\omega _p}({\sigma _0}) = 1.4 \times {10^{15}}\;rad/s$, and $\gamma = 5.75 \times {10^{13}}\;rad/s$ which is independent of $\sigma$. The phase-transition process of VO2 is accompanied by significant changes in both conductivity and dielectric permittivity. In the process of calculation, different permittivities are used in different phase states of VO2. In our simulation, it is assumed that the conductivity of VO2 is $2 \times {10^5}$ S/m (0 S/m) when it is in the metallic (insulating) state. The relative dielectric permittivity of the insulating VO2 is set as 12. These two assumptions can mimic phase-transition process of VO2. The relative permittivity of gold is described by a Drude model ${\varepsilon _{Au}} = 1 - \omega _p^2/\omega (\omega + i\Gamma )$ with plasma frequency ${\omega _p} = 1.37 \times {10^{16}}\;rad/s$ and collision frequency $\Gamma = 1.2 \times {10^{14}}\;rad/s$ [38]. The dielectric constant of SiO2 is 3.8 with negligible loss at terahertz frequencies [39,40]. With these material parameters, full-wave electromagnetic simulations are carried out using finite-element-method. Unit cell boundary conditions are applied in the x and y directions to mimic the infinite arrays, and open boundaries are set in the z direction. The whole structure is illuminated by a linearly polarized plane wave propagating along the z direction. The simulation mesh is accurately controlled to ensure the conversed results. After some carefully calculations, the optimal geometrical parameters are obtained. The chosen period, width of VO2 square, width of gold strip, thickness of the top SiO2, and thickness of the bottom SiO2 are $P = 150\;\mu m$, ${w_1} = 90\;\mu m$, ${w_2} = 60\;\mu m$, ${t_1} = 41\;\mu m$, and ${t_2} = 40\;\mu m$. The thicknesses of VO2 square, gold strip, and the bottom gold substrate are $0.08\;\mu m$, $0.5\;\mu m$, and $0.5\;\mu m$, respectively.

 

Fig. 1. Schematic of the designed switchable metasurface, consisting of periodic square-shaped VO2, SiO2 spacer, gold strip, VO2 film, and SiO2 spacer, and the bottom gold film.

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3. Results and discussions

3.1 Designed switchable metasurface behaves as a broadband absorber when $V{O_2}$ is metal

As shown in Fig. 1, the designed switchable metasurface performs as a typical structure of absorber when VO2 is metal. It consists of the top VO2 patch, middle SiO2 layer, and the bottom VO2 film. Using finite element method, structure parameters marked in Fig. 1 are optimized to obtain a broadband absorption. In simulation, the complex frequency-dependent S parameters (${S_{11}}$ and ${S_{21}}$) can be obtained. Absorptance (A) of the structure can be written as $A = 1 - R - T = 1 - {|{{S_{11}}} |^2} - {|{{S_{21}}} |^2}$, where $R = {|{{S_{11}}} |^2}$ ($T = {|{{S_{21}}} |^2}$) is the reflectance (transmittance). Transmission ($|{{S_{21}}} |$) is nearly zero in the interesting frequency range since the thickness of VO2 film is $1\;\mu m$ which is thicker than the penetration depth. So absorptance can be directly obtained by A=1-R. Figure 2 shows the calculated absorptance of the designed structure with the conductivity $2 \times {10^5}$ S/m of VO2. It clearly tells that two distinct absorption peaks are observed around 0.61 THz and 1.14 THz. In the frequency range of 0.52-1.2 THz, the designed system can absorb more than 90% of the energy, and the bandwidth ratio $({f_{\max }} - {f_{\min }})/[({f_{\max }} + {f_{\min }})/2]$ is 79%. Absorptance larger than 50% can be maintained within the range of 0.408-1.25 THz, and its bandwidth ratio is 102%. To understand the functionality of the composite structure used here, Fig. 2 numerically compares absorptance with (red) and without (blue) VO2 patch. For the VO2 patterned design, the wave attenuation capability is significantly improved in both bandwidth and efficiency.

 

Fig. 2. Calculated absorptance of the designed absorber with VO2 patch (red solid line) and without VO2 patch (blue dashed line) when the thicknesses of VO2 and SiO2 are $0.08\;\mu m$ and $41\;\mu m$.

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Figure 3 shows the retrieved physical parameters (permittivity, permeability, refractive index, impedance) [41]. The effective optical path is ${\mathop{\rm Re}\nolimits} (n) \times {t_1} = 2.96 \times 41 = 121.36\;\mu m$ at 0.6 THz. It will give rise to a quarter-wavelength mode at the wavelength of $4{\mathop{\rm Re}\nolimits} (n) \times {t_1} = 485.44\;\mu m$. This value is almost equal to the first peak wavelength $500\;\mu m$ (0.6 THz). So the first absorption peak can be attributed to a lowest Fabry-Perot-type resonance. Similarly, at 1.14 THz, the absorption peak is a higher order Fabry-Perot-type resonance. The real and imaginary parts of the effective impedance ${Z_{eff}} = \sqrt {\frac{{{\mu _{eff}}}}{{{\varepsilon _{eff}}}}} = \sqrt {\frac{{{{(1 + {S_{11}})}^2} - S_{21}^2}}{{{{(1 - {S_{11}})}^2} - S_{21}^2}}}$ in Fig. 3(d) are close to one and zero at the frequencies of absorption peak, respectively. At the absorption peaks, the effective impedance of absorber becomes nearly matched with that of free space, which results in near zero reflection and therefore maximum absorption. So this absorption is caused by the impedance adaptation between the effective impedance of metamaterial structure and that of free space. This is achieved by carefully tailoring geometrical parameters and optical properties of materials, which leads to changes in the effective dielectric permittivity and effective permeability.

 

Fig. 3. Retrieved effective physical parameters (a) permittivity, (b) permeability, (c) refractive index, and (d) impedance in the case of perfect absorption when $\sigma$ is $2 \times {10^5}$ S/m.

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To better understand the performance of absorber, the influences of geometrical parameters (${t_1}$ and ${w_1}$) are investigated, and the results are plotted in Fig. 4. In Fig. 4(a), it is found that the intensity of absorptance firstly increases with the increasing of ${t_1}$, and then absorptance narrows when ${t_1}$ is larger than the optimized value. The effective optical path increases with the increasing of ${t_1}$, which results in the red shift of absorption peak. In Fig. 4(b), the intensity of absorption peak firstly shows an obvious increasing and an expected red-shift with the increasing of ${w_1}$, and then absorptance becomes to decrease with the increasing of ${w_1}$. When the width of VO2 patch is $90\;\mu m$, maximal absorptance is achieved.

 

Fig. 4. Absorptance spectra vary with the thickness of SiO2 (a) and the width of VO2 (b) when $\sigma$ is $2 \times {10^5}$ S/m.

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The dependence of the performance of such absorber on incident polarization and angle is also investigated. Figure 5(a) shows the evolution contour of absorptance at tuning polarization angles from ${0^\circ }$ to ${90^\circ }$ in a step of ${5^\circ }$. The results clearly indicate that absorptance is completely independent of polarization under normal incidence. The symmetry of the designed system ensures the polarization-insensitive behavior under normal incidence, which is very helpful in numerous applications. Figures 5(b) and 5(c) present the absorptance of transverse electric (TE) polarization and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization as a function of frequency and incident angle. Figure 5(b) is TE polarization and its electric field is always perpendicular to incident plane. Figure 5(c) is TM polarization and its magnetic field is always perpendicular to incident plane. According to the calculated results, the designed absorber shows excellent performances with stable absorptance and working bandwidth for TE waves over a wide range of incident angle from ${0^\circ }$ to ${60^\circ }$. When incident angle is larger than ${60^\circ }$, absorptance becomes to degrade. For TM polarized waves, the main absorption peak narrows as incident angle increases, and the corresponding absorptance remains high even at larger angle of incidence. At the same time, there are some higher-order diffractions due to the smaller ratio (1.67) of wavelength ($250\;\mu m$, 1.2 THz) to period ($150\;\mu m$). The results show that the designed absorber is insensitive to polarization at small incident angle and still works well at large incident angles. The incident angle- and polarization-roust characteristics may have lots of possible applications in energy harvesting and optical sensing.

 

Fig. 5. Simulated absorptance spectra as a function of polarization angle and frequency (a), incident angle and frequency under TE polarization (b), incident angle and frequency under TM polarization (c). The thickness of VO2 (SiO2) is fixed at $0.08\;\mu m$ ($41\;\mu m$) in all cases when $\sigma$ is $2 \times {10^5}$ S/m.

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3.2 Designed switchable metasurface behaves as a broadband cross polarization converter when $V{O_2}$ is insulator

When VO2 is insulator, only the bottom structure works, which composes of gold strips, SiO2 spacer, and the gold continuous film. It allows for low absorption and broadband linear polarization conversion. Suppose that incident angle of a linearly incident wave is $\theta $ and its electric field is located in the XY plane, where TE wave can conform to this condition in the case of normal incidence and oblique incidence. The reflected wave generally consists of two components, the co-polarized component ${E_{||}}$ parallel to ${E_i}$ and the cross-polarized component ${E_ + }$ orthogonal to ${E_i}$. Reflection coefficients of co-polarized wave and cross-polarized wave are defined as ${r_{||}}$ and ${r_ + }$. ${r_ + }$ is calculated for normal incidence with polarization angle $\phi = {45^\circ }$ (or $\textrm{13}{5^\circ }$) for ${E_i}$. Taking into account normal incidence ($\theta = {0^\circ }$), $\phi $ is meaningless to define the direction of wave vector k, while it still makes sense for the definition of direction of ${E_i}$. As shown in Fig. 6(a), it can be found that cross reflectance is over 90% in the frequency range of 0.42-1.04 THz, and the corresponding bandwidth ratio is 85%. The calculated results show that ${R_ + }\;({|{{r_ + }} |^2})$ can reach almost 100%, indicating that polarization direction of the linearly polarized wave can be completely converted after reflection. This phenomenon can be explained by a simple demonstration. By decoupling electric field (${E_i}$) of incident wave into two independent direction (${E_x}$ and ${E_y}$), reflection coefficient of the normally incident wave along x and y directions are ${r_x}$ and ${r_y}$. If $|{{r_x}} |$ and $|{{r_y}} |$ are identical, and their reflection phase difference for these two directions is ∼${180^\circ }$, then a polarization conversion can be achieved. Because a gold film with the thickness of $0.5\;\mu m$ is used in the bottom layer, the entire structure has a perfect reflection of electromagnetic wave at the terahertz frequency, which is independent of incident angle and polarization. So it is not difficult to get $|{{r_x}} |$=$|{{r_y}} |$. Figure 6(b) shows the calculated reflection magnitudes ($|{{r_x}} |$ and $|{{r_y}} |$) for normally incident wave, and Fig. 6(c) shows the calculated reflection phase (${\varphi _x}$ and ${\varphi _y}$). It can be found in Fig. 6(d) that the relative phase difference between x and y directions approaches ${180^\circ }$. It perfectly matches the frequency range of the ${R_ + }$ peaks in Fig. 6(a).

 

Fig. 6. (a) Calculated cross reflectance in the case of incident angle $\theta = {0^\circ }$ and polarization angle $\phi \textrm{ = }{45^\textrm{o}}$ (or $\textrm{13}{5^\circ }$). Calculated reflection magnitudes (b) and phases (c) for x-polarized (red line) and y-polarized (blue dot) waves under normal incidence. (d) Reflection phase difference $|{{\varphi_x} - {\varphi_y}} |$. There are three points of $|{{\varphi_x} - {\varphi_y}} |$ reaching $\textrm{18}{\textrm{0}^\circ }$, corresponding to three extrema in (a). The inset in (b) gives an illustration of the working mechanism of polarization conversion.

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The relation between cross-polarized reflectance and structure parameters (${t_2}$ and ${w_2}$) are studied. To illustrate this property briefly, we only discuss cross-polarized reflectance at normal incidence. Figure 7(a) illustrates the relation between cross-polarized reflectance and dielectric thickness when other structural parameters are fixed. As the thickness of dielectric layer increases from $20\;\mu m$ to $60\;\mu m$, working bandwidth will become broader and three peaks are conspicuous. But the intensity between peaks will continuously decrease. Figure 7(b) illustrates the relation between cross-polarized reflectance and the width of gold strip when other structural parameters are fixed. As the width of gold strip increases from $40\;\mu m$ to $80\;\mu m$, the performance firstly is improved and then deteriorates. These results show that structure parameters are important factors to determine the performance of the system.

 

Fig. 7. Thickness (${t_2}$) and width (${w_2}$) dependence of cross reflectance under normal incidence with other structure parameters unchanged.

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The influences of polarization and incident angle are also investigated. The result in Fig. 8(a) is cross reflectance ${R_ + }$ as a function of polarization angle ($\phi $) for ${E_i}$ and frequency ($f$) when $\theta = {0^\circ }$. After anisotropy tunes on, ${R_ + }$ can take non-zero value, and polarization conversion effect is strongly related to polarization angle. In the case of $\phi = {45^\circ }$, reflectance of polarization conversion is maximized. Reflectance of polarization conversion disappeared with ${R_ + } = 0$ when polarization angle is ${0^\circ }$ or ${90^\circ }$. This phenomenon is reasonable, because E and H fields of incident wave are parallel to a coordinate axis so that electromagnetic wave cannot detect the anisotropy of the structure. Cross reflectance ${R_ + }$ as a function of $\theta $ and f with $\phi = {45^\circ }$ for k and ${135^\circ }$ for ${E_i}$ in the xy plane is shown in Fig. 8(b). It is calculated in TE mode with different incident angles, where E field is always in the xy plane. Numerical results show the stableness of ${R_ + }$ with the increasing of oblique incidence angle, even for incident angle reaching ${60^\circ }$. The curve with minimum in cross reflectance is mainly caused by the diffraction due to the existence of SiO2 with the thickness of $81\;\mu m$. This phenomenon is also obviously shown in Fig. 5(c).

 

Fig. 8. (a) The variation of cross reflectance with polarization angle and frequency in the case of incidence angle $\theta \textrm{ = }{0^\textrm{o}}$. (b) The variation of cross reflectance with incident angle and frequency in the case of polarization angle $\phi = {135^\circ }$ in xy plane.

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4. Summary

To summarize, a switchable metasurface with bifunctionality is presented based on the phase-transition property of VO2. When VO2 is metal, an isotropic absorber with a simple VO2 structure is proposed in the terahertz region. By adjusting geometrical parameters, simulated results show that absorptance is more than 90% in the frequency band of 0.52-1.2 THz. The condition of impedance matching is well satisfied and then the designed hybrid metasurface behaves as a broadband absorber. The absorptance spectra are independent of incident polarization at small incident angles. Absorptance has a good performance even at large incident angle. The present design may be used in stealth technology, terahertz detection, and other fields. When VO2 is insulator, the designed hybrid metasurface behaves as a high-efficient linear polarization converter. The linearly polarized state of terahertz wave can be effectively rotated to its orthogonal direction by using a simple design of anisotropic metasurface. Numerical results show that cross-polarized reflectance can reach 90% between 0.42 THz and 1.04 THz. The broadband performance remains unchanged over a wide range of incident angles. Our results confirm that by triggering the insulator-metal transition of VO2, the designed hybrid metasurface can be switched from a broadband absorber to a broadband linear polarization converter in the same frequency band of 0.52-1.04 THz. In fact, some recent VO2 experiments are carried out in multilayer structure [4247]. The dielectric spacer SiO2 can withstand temperature operation. To some extent, these successful examples show that our design can be realized in practice. It is a good approach for this design to excite phase transition of VO2 by optical method [48,49]. Our design could open up a new way for the development of switchable devices, which can realize completely different functionalities in a single device. It may be suitable for many potential applications in the fields of terahertz switchable plasmonics and photonics.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (11974294).

Disclosures

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this article.

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33. M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012). [CrossRef]  

34. Q. Chu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional tunable terahertz analog of electromagnetically induced transparency realized by isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018). [CrossRef]  

35. H. Matsui, Y. L. Ho, T. Kanki, H. Tanaka, J. J. Delaunay, and H. Tabata, “Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances in 2D VO2 nanosquare arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1759–1767 (2015). [CrossRef]  

36. S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017). [CrossRef]  

37. Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Terahertz toroidal metamaterial with tunable properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019). [CrossRef]  

38. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009). [CrossRef]  

39. M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(4), 043517 (2007). [CrossRef]  

40. R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012). [CrossRef]  

41. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002). [CrossRef]  

42. G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017). [CrossRef]  

43. K. Sun, C. A. Riedel, A. Urbani, M. Simeoni, S. Mengali, M. Zalkovskij, B. Bilenberg, C. H. de Groot, and O. L. Muskens, “VO2 thermochromic metamaterial-based smart optical solar reflector,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2280–2286 (2018). [CrossRef]  

44. H. F. Zhu, L. H. Du, J. Li, Q. W. Shi, B. Peng, Z. R. Li, W. X. Huang, and L. G. Zhu, “Near-perfect terahertz wave amplitude modulation enabled by impedance matching in VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(8), 081103 (2018). [CrossRef]  

45. K. Shibuya, Y. Atsumi, T. Yoshida, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and A. Sawa, “Silicon waveguide optical modulator driven by metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide cladding layer,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4147–4156 (2019). [CrossRef]  

46. Q. Shi, W. Huang, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, M. Mao, Y. Zhang, and M. Tu, “Giant phase transition properties at terahertz range in VO2 films deposited by Sol-Gel method,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(9), 3523–3527 (2011). [CrossRef]  

47. T. Huang, L. Yang, J. Qin, F. Huang, X. Zhu, P. Zhou, B. Peng, H. Duan, L. Deng, and L. Bi, “Study of the phase evolution, metal-insulator transition, and optical properties of vanadium oxide thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(11), 3609–3621 (2016). [CrossRef]  

48. X. Tian and Z. Y. Li, “An optically-triggered switchable mid-infrared perfect absorber based on phase-change material of vanadium dioxide,” Plasmonics 13(4), 1393–1402 (2018). [CrossRef]  

49. Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yin, H. Wang, L. Ma, F. Ma, X. Jiang, O. G. Schmidt, and P. K. Chu, “VO2/TiN plasmonic thermochromic smart coatings for room-temperature applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705421 (2018). [CrossRef]  

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    [Crossref]
  46. Q. Shi, W. Huang, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, M. Mao, Y. Zhang, and M. Tu, “Giant phase transition properties at terahertz range in VO2 films deposited by Sol-Gel method,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(9), 3523–3527 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  47. T. Huang, L. Yang, J. Qin, F. Huang, X. Zhu, P. Zhou, B. Peng, H. Duan, L. Deng, and L. Bi, “Study of the phase evolution, metal-insulator transition, and optical properties of vanadium oxide thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(11), 3609–3621 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  48. X. Tian and Z. Y. Li, “An optically-triggered switchable mid-infrared perfect absorber based on phase-change material of vanadium dioxide,” Plasmonics 13(4), 1393–1402 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  49. Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yin, H. Wang, L. Ma, F. Ma, X. Jiang, O. G. Schmidt, and P. K. Chu, “VO2/TiN plasmonic thermochromic smart coatings for room-temperature applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705421 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2019 (5)

Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Terahertz toroidal metamaterial with tunable properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, and Q. Chen, “Large-angle mid-infrared absorption switch enabled by polarization-independent GST metasurfaces,” Mater. Lett. 236, 350–353 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, Y. Qian, S. Yin, D. Li, M. Jiang, X. Lin, and F. Hu, “Multi-band tunable terahertz bandpass filter based on vanadium dioxide hybrid metamaterial,” Mater. Res. Express 6(5), 055809 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. G. C. Carrillo, L. Trimby, Y. Y. Au, V. K. Nagareddy, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “A nonvolatile phase-change metamaterial color display,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(18), 1801782 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Shibuya, Y. Atsumi, T. Yoshida, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and A. Sawa, “Silicon waveguide optical modulator driven by metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide cladding layer,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4147–4156 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

K. Sun, C. A. Riedel, A. Urbani, M. Simeoni, S. Mengali, M. Zalkovskij, B. Bilenberg, C. H. de Groot, and O. L. Muskens, “VO2 thermochromic metamaterial-based smart optical solar reflector,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2280–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. A. P. Tran and P. H. Bolivar, “Terahertz modulator based on vertically coupled Fano metamaterial,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(5), 502–508 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, Z. Dai, J. Yang, Q. Sun, C. Gong, N. Zhang, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Ultrabroad and angle tunable THz filter based on multiplexed metallic bar resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(24), 2103–2106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yin, H. Wang, L. Ma, F. Ma, X. Jiang, O. G. Schmidt, and P. K. Chu, “VO2/TiN plasmonic thermochromic smart coatings for room-temperature applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705421 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ogawa and M. Kimata, “Metal-insulator-metal-based plasmonic metamaterial absorbers at visible and infrared wavelengths: a review,” Materials 11(3), 458 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. F. Zhu, L. H. Du, J. Li, Q. W. Shi, B. Peng, Z. R. Li, W. X. Huang, and L. G. Zhu, “Near-perfect terahertz wave amplitude modulation enabled by impedance matching in VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(8), 081103 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Chu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional tunable terahertz analog of electromagnetically induced transparency realized by isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Tian and Z. Y. Li, “An optically-triggered switchable mid-infrared perfect absorber based on phase-change material of vanadium dioxide,” Plasmonics 13(4), 1393–1402 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Keshavarz and A. Zakery, “Ultrahigh sensitive temperature sensor based on graphene-semiconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 123(12), 797 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (6)

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Tittl, A. K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. H. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Matsui, Y. L. Ho, T. Kanki, H. Tanaka, J. J. Delaunay, and H. Tabata, “Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances in 2D VO2 nanosquare arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1759–1767 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Q. Shi, W. Huang, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, Y. Zhang, M. Mao, Y. Zhang, and M. Tu, “Giant phase transition properties at terahertz range in VO2 films deposited by Sol-Gel method,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(9), 3523–3527 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Søndergaard, J. Jung, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and G. Della Valle, “Theoretical analysis of gold nano-strip gap plasmon resonators,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105008 (2008).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

J. M. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. X. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(4), 043517 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
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2006 (1)

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
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2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
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1968 (1)

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, “Optical properties of VO2 between 0.25 and 5 eV,” Phys. Rev. 172(3), 788–798 (1968).
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Alexeev, A. M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Andryieuski, A.

Atsumi, Y.

Atwater, H. A.

Au, Y. Y.

S. G. C. Carrillo, L. Trimby, Y. Y. Au, V. K. Nagareddy, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “A nonvolatile phase-change metamaterial color display,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(18), 1801782 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
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Averitt, R. D.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Aydin, K.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Banar, B.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barker, A. S.

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, “Optical properties of VO2 between 0.25 and 5 eV,” Phys. Rev. 172(3), 788–798 (1968).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berglund, C. N.

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, and C. N. Berglund, “Optical properties of VO2 between 0.25 and 5 eV,” Phys. Rev. 172(3), 788–798 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, J.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

S. G. C. Carrillo, L. Trimby, Y. Y. Au, V. K. Nagareddy, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “A nonvolatile phase-change metamaterial color display,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(18), 1801782 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. G. C. Carrillo, G. R. Nash, H. Hayat, M. J. Cryan, M. Klemm, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “Design of practicable phase-change metadevices for near-infrared absorber and modulator applications,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13563–13573 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bi, L.

Bilenberg, B.

K. Sun, C. A. Riedel, A. Urbani, M. Simeoni, S. Mengali, M. Zalkovskij, B. Bilenberg, C. H. de Groot, and O. L. Muskens, “VO2 thermochromic metamaterial-based smart optical solar reflector,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2280–2286 (2018).
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Bolivar, P. H.

T. A. P. Tran and P. H. Bolivar, “Terahertz modulator based on vertically coupled Fano metamaterial,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 8(5), 502–508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boyd, E. M.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Søndergaard, J. Jung, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and G. Della Valle, “Theoretical analysis of gold nano-strip gap plasmon resonators,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Butun, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carrillo, S. G. C.

S. G. C. Carrillo, L. Trimby, Y. Y. Au, V. K. Nagareddy, G. Rodriguez-Hernandez, P. Hosseini, C. Ríos, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “A nonvolatile phase-change metamaterial color display,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(18), 1801782 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. G. C. Carrillo, G. R. Nash, H. Hayat, M. J. Cryan, M. Klemm, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “Design of practicable phase-change metadevices for near-infrared absorber and modulator applications,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13563–13573 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chae, B. G.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. T.

J. M. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. X. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

M. Wei, Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, and Q. Chen, “Large-angle mid-infrared absorption switch enabled by polarization-independent GST metasurfaces,” Mater. Lett. 236, 350–353 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, X. Hu, L. Wen, Y. Yu, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Nanophotonic image sensors,” Small 12(36), 4922–4935 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. W.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yin, H. Wang, L. Ma, F. Ma, X. Jiang, O. G. Schmidt, and P. K. Chu, “VO2/TiN plasmonic thermochromic smart coatings for room-temperature applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705421 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, Q.

Q. Chu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional tunable terahertz analog of electromagnetically induced transparency realized by isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
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Cryan, M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M. J.

Cui, L.

A. Tittl, A. K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. H. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cumming, D. R. S.

Q. Chen, X. Hu, L. Wen, Y. Yu, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Nanophotonic image sensors,” Small 12(36), 4922–4935 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, N.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, Z.

W. Liu, Z. Dai, J. Yang, Q. Sun, C. Gong, N. Zhang, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Ultrabroad and angle tunable THz filter based on multiplexed metallic bar resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(24), 2103–2106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Galarreta, C. R.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase-change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

de Groot, C. H.

K. Sun, C. A. Riedel, A. Urbani, M. Simeoni, S. Mengali, M. Zalkovskij, B. Bilenberg, C. H. de Groot, and O. L. Muskens, “VO2 thermochromic metamaterial-based smart optical solar reflector,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2280–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Delaunay, J. J.

H. Matsui, Y. L. Ho, T. Kanki, H. Tanaka, J. J. Delaunay, and H. Tabata, “Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances in 2D VO2 nanosquare arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1759–1767 (2015).
[Crossref]

Della Valle, G.

T. Søndergaard, J. Jung, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and G. Della Valle, “Theoretical analysis of gold nano-strip gap plasmon resonators,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105008 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

Deng, Y.

M. Wei, Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, and Q. Chen, “Large-angle mid-infrared absorption switch enabled by polarization-independent GST metasurfaces,” Mater. Lett. 236, 350–353 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Terahertz toroidal metamaterial with tunable properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, R. A.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dicken, M. J.

Ding, F.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Du, L. H.

H. F. Zhu, L. H. Du, J. Li, Q. W. Shi, B. Peng, Z. R. Li, W. X. Huang, and L. G. Zhu, “Near-perfect terahertz wave amplitude modulation enabled by impedance matching in VO2 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(8), 081103 (2018).
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Duan, H.

Evans, P. G.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, Y. Qian, S. Yin, D. Li, M. Jiang, X. Lin, and F. Hu, “Multi-band tunable terahertz bandpass filter based on vanadium dioxide hybrid metamaterial,” Mater. Res. Express 6(5), 055809 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gholipour, B.

A. Tittl, A. K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. H. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

A. Tittl, A. K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. H. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gong, C.

W. Liu, Z. Dai, J. Yang, Q. Sun, C. Gong, N. Zhang, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Ultrabroad and angle tunable THz filter based on multiplexed metallic bar resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(24), 2103–2106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gritti, C.

Gu, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haglund, R. F.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hao, J. M.

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. X. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hao, Q.

Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yin, H. Wang, L. Ma, F. Ma, X. Jiang, O. G. Schmidt, and P. K. Chu, “VO2/TiN plasmonic thermochromic smart coatings for room-temperature applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705421 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hayat, H.

He, Q.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillenbrand, R.

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y. L.

H. Matsui, Y. L. Ho, T. Kanki, H. Tanaka, J. J. Delaunay, and H. Tabata, “Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances in 2D VO2 nanosquare arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1759–1767 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hong, M.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hong, S.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the designed switchable metasurface, consisting of periodic square-shaped VO2, SiO2 spacer, gold strip, VO2 film, and SiO2 spacer, and the bottom gold film.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Calculated absorptance of the designed absorber with VO2 patch (red solid line) and without VO2 patch (blue dashed line) when the thicknesses of VO2 and SiO2 are $0.08\;\mu m$ and $41\;\mu m$ .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Retrieved effective physical parameters (a) permittivity, (b) permeability, (c) refractive index, and (d) impedance in the case of perfect absorption when $\sigma$ is $2 \times {10^5}$ S/m.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Absorptance spectra vary with the thickness of SiO2 (a) and the width of VO2 (b) when $\sigma$ is $2 \times {10^5}$ S/m.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulated absorptance spectra as a function of polarization angle and frequency (a), incident angle and frequency under TE polarization (b), incident angle and frequency under TM polarization (c). The thickness of VO2 (SiO2) is fixed at $0.08\;\mu m$ ( $41\;\mu m$ ) in all cases when $\sigma$ is $2 \times {10^5}$ S/m.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Calculated cross reflectance in the case of incident angle $\theta = {0^\circ }$ and polarization angle $\phi \textrm{ = }{45^\textrm{o}}$ (or $\textrm{13}{5^\circ }$ ). Calculated reflection magnitudes (b) and phases (c) for x-polarized (red line) and y-polarized (blue dot) waves under normal incidence. (d) Reflection phase difference $|{{\varphi_x} - {\varphi_y}} |$ . There are three points of $|{{\varphi_x} - {\varphi_y}} |$ reaching $\textrm{18}{\textrm{0}^\circ }$ , corresponding to three extrema in (a). The inset in (b) gives an illustration of the working mechanism of polarization conversion.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Thickness ( ${t_2}$ ) and width ( ${w_2}$ ) dependence of cross reflectance under normal incidence with other structure parameters unchanged.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) The variation of cross reflectance with polarization angle and frequency in the case of incidence angle $\theta \textrm{ = }{0^\textrm{o}}$ . (b) The variation of cross reflectance with incident angle and frequency in the case of polarization angle $\phi = {135^\circ }$ in xy plane.

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