Abstract

Integration of active electronics into photonic systems is necessary for large-scale photonic integration. While heterogeneous integration leverages high-performance electronics, a monolithic scheme can coexist by aiding the electronic processing, improving overall efficiency. We report a lateral bipolar junction transistor on a commercial silicon photonics foundry process. We achieved a DC current gain of 10 with a Darlington configuration, and using measured S-parameters for a single BJT, the available AC gain was at least 3dB for signal frequencies up to 1.1 GHz. Our single BJT demonstrated a transimpedance of 3.2mS/μm, which is about 70 times better than existing literature.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Silicon photonics has become an increasingly popular platform for photonic integrated circuits (PICs), particularly a viable option for low power and cheap photonic interconnects. Progress in integrated silicon photonics technology has resulted in advancement from device-level architectures to large scale integrated systems-on-chip for applications such as communications [1], signal processing [24], high-performance computing [5], imaging [6,7], sensing [8], and neuromorphic computing [9]. Optical interconnects based on silicon photonics are becoming ubiquitous in hyper-scale data centers, the centerpiece of the current information infrastructure [1,10]. Silicon photonics is thus establishing itself as a key enabler of the next-generation information and networking technologies.

Current silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic integrated technology allows passive optical guiding as well as active optical modulation and photodetection: high-performance Ge-based photodetectors and PN junction based index modulators [11] are already available in commercial silicon photonic foundries’ design kits. However, the missing piece in this technology for enabling large-scale photonic systems is the absence of electrical amplification and feedback. Active electronics such as transistors incorporated into systems with high-speed modulators and photodetectors opens up the possibility of engineering highly elaborate photonic systems. These systems also benefit from more efficient optical-electrical (O-E) conversion thereby improving their energy and bandwidth metrics. For instance, Si-based neuromorphic photonic systems that rely on optical-electrical-optical (O-E-O) conversion can enjoy energy-efficient and fast computations when integrated with a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) [9].

There have been two avenues of research in electronic-photonic integration: monolithic and heterogeneous/multi-chip. The major impetus for monolithic integration is the optimization of energy and bandwidth metrics. Most monolithic integration approaches thus far include implementation of photonic devices on various CMOS processes, pioneered by IBM and Luxtera [10,12]. However, historically such integration technologies were disqualified given the intensive customization of processes required to realize photonic systems on a CMOS platform. More recently, there have been efforts on novel technology platforms for photonic-electronic integration: namely, CMOS-based zero-change platforms [13] and photonic biCMOS platforms [14]. Adapting a new technology platform however entails reinventing the photonics flow by redesigning and recharacterizing individual devices. Alternatively, heterogeneous integration with photonic and electronic chips connected by wire bonds or micro-bumps is another promising path [1,10,15,16]. It allows for optimizing each chip’s processing individually, albeit at a small cost of wirebond-induced parasitics. Flip-chip bonding is also emerging as a potential solution to alleviate the parasitics and ensure high bandwidth applications. Even though they require through-oxide-vias (TOVs) [17], which might add complexity to the fabrication process, their overall high-performance makes them the most suitable for our short-term needs.

Given that multi-chip solutions leverage the high performance of mature CMOS electronics, they become indispensable for designing high-performance photonic systems. Nevertheless, they are subject to the limitation of inter-chip pin counts in large scale systems. Monolithic integration on a photonics platform offers the opportunity of electronic logic and gain, even in a multi-chip integrated system, before packaging-related parasitics kick in. Having on-chip electrical gain can thus supplement the processing done by off-chip electronics. This will inevitably reduce the number of required off-chip connections and their corresponding parasitics. Thus, strides in monolithic integration technology on a photonics platform can mitigate the drawbacks of multi-chip integration.

Prior work targeting electrical gain on a silicon photonic platform includes demonstration of MESFET [18], Germanium-based MOSFET [19], and lateral BJT with gain less than unity [20]. In this work, we demonstrate a lateral BJT with gain on a silicon photonics platform using a standard commercially available foundry process. We achieved a DC current gain of 10, with a Darlington configuration, which is the best performance metric achieved in a commercial silicon photonic platform to the best of our knowledge. Previously, Novack et al. demonstrated a monolithic n-type MESFET on the same platform [18]. With identical fabrication process, their device was subject to the same design rules as ours. To compare their performance against ours: their device demonstrated a transimpedance of 46 $\mu$S/$\mu$m, while our single device fares remarkably well with approximately 70 times higher transimpedance of 3.2 mS/$\mu$m. For a small-signal AC input, under an impedance matched condition, a single BJT can have an AC gain of at least 3dB for frequencies going up to 1.1 GHz.

This paper is organized as follows: section 2 discusses the relevance of a BJT in integrated photonic systems, section 3 details the design of our BJT, and section 4 and 5 present the DC and AC characterization results of our device respectively.

2. Monolithically integrated electronic-photonic systems

The promise of photonics beating the bottlenecks of its electrical counterpart, both in terms of speed and energy efficiency, has accelerated advancement in integrated photonic technology. A monolithic electronic-photonic integration scheme offers advantages including: lower parasitics and reduced laser power requirement over hybrid solutions, thereby enabling low-energy, high throughput density interconnect solutions. A photonic link is comprised of modulators and receivers, where the overall link performance is reliant on the performance of each unit [21]. A gain element, such as a BJT, can be implemented in a modulator driver, and/or in a TIA at the front-end of the receiver to convert small photocurrent from a photodiode to sizable voltage output. However, applications of a BJT extend far beyond photonic links: it can also be valuable for more complex systems like photonic neural networks, where it can enhance the O-E-O conversion, as discussed in [9].

The platform used in this work was primarily optimized for photonic components, like photodetectors and PN junction modulators. Sample characterization results of a microring modulator, MRM, and a Ge-based photodetector on the same chip are shown in Fig. 1. The long term goal for photonic engineers would be to incorporate photonic and electronic components into a single system that simultaneously harnesses benefits of both. Currently, the missing piece to realize such a system is an active electronic gain element. With a monolithically integrated BJT, this goal becomes viable. A (non-exhaustive) list of application scenarios of BJTs are presented below:

  • • Photonic interconnects:
    • 1. Modulator driver: State-of-the-art index modulators integrated on Si photonic platforms rely on plasma dispersion effect across a PN junction, and typically have $V_{\pi }$ of a few volts [22]. Sample transmitter circuit design, with a microring modulator (MRM), and measured modulation characteristics of the MRM are shown in Fig. 2(a) and 1(c) respectively. Modulator energy cost depends on device parameters (extinction ratio (ER), insertion loss (IL)), and system parameters (data rate). A modulator driver, enabled by a BJT, can reduce the voltage requirement for a certain ER at a desired data rate, improving the overall modulator efficiency.
    • 2. Receiver front-end: At a photonic receiver, optical data is converted back to electrical domain via a photodiode (PD). The most simple receiver implementation is a resistive receiver, where the circuit consists of a resistor in parallel to a PD before the amplifying stage (PA). With its parasitic capacitance, a resistive receiver suffers from the gain-bandwidth tradeoff, which is avoidable with a TIA [21]. Schematic of a TIA-based receiver is shown in Fig. 2(b). Current Ge photodetectors have responsivity of around 0.7A/W. For optical powers of about -10 dBm, the corresponding photocurrent would be few tens of $\mu$A. A resistive receiver would not suffice to drive a modulator with $V_{\pi }$ of a few volts. TIAs come in handy here as they offer the required voltage swing via photocurrent amplification. Additionally, for high data rate operation, the power budget of a photonic link is primarily dominated by modulator/laser/receiver energy cost over electrical tuning. Improvement in receiver sensitivity via a TIA thus lowers the energy cost of the overall photonic link.
  • • Computing systems: BJTs can also be used in photonic systems requiring O-E-O conversion, for instance a modulator photonic neuron. Essentially a photonic neuron circuit is a photonic link where a photodiode output drives a modulator via a TIA (refer Fig. 2(c)) .[9] details the significance of using TIAs in such a circuit: transimpedance provided by the TIA was shown to reduce the optical pump power required for the neuron, and achieve 17 times higher gain-bandwidth tradeoff compared to a resistive passive transimpedance. Reduction of the optical pump power consequently improves the sensitivity of the neuron, thereby improving cascadability, i.e. the ability to drive nearby neurons, in a neural network.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Characterization results of photonic components on the same fabrication run as the BJT. (a) Photodetector dark current at 1550 nm, (b) Zoomed-out plot of (a) showing dark current within reverse bias regime, (c) Eye diagram of a microring modulator modulating 5 Gb/s PRBS pattern with an extinction ratio of 10.4 dB.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Sample applications of BJTs in photonic systems. (a) Microring modulator (MRM) based transmitter circuit: data from a pulse pattern generator (PPG) is modulated onto light (IN) via an MRM, driven by a modulator driver (MD). (b) A TIA-based receiver circuit: incoming light ($P_{\textrm {IN}}$) generates a photocurrent that is amplified by a TIA and then by a power amplifier (PA) before being sent to an ADC. (c) A photonic neuron circuit, where the photocurrent is amplified by a TIA which then drives a modulator (MOD) with transfer function T(V).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Device design

The device was designed on KLayout software and fabricated at AMF Pte Ltd. Singapore on a multi-project wafer run facilitated by CMC. Two BJTs with similar geometry and doping density profile were characterized in this work (parameters tabulated in Table 1). The design schematic, with the implant layers, and the corresponding SEM image (of the Si layer) of a fabricated device are shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b) respectively. Fabrication was carried out on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with top silicon layer and 2$\mu$m buried oxide layer, which is etched with 700A (900A) etch depth to form 220 (90) nm silicon rib (slab) layer. Ion implantation is then performed to realize a set of implants, optimized for modulators or photodetectors. Our BJTs reside in these same layers, and are hence subject to the constraints of discrete set of fixed doping levels, Si height and feature sizes. The highest doping levels, N++/P++ ($10^{20}$cm$^{-3}$), are optimized to fill the 90 nm layer and were used here to ensure ohmic contacts to the metal layers. The doping densities of the emitter and collector regions of the BJT correspond to the modulator (MOD) implants N++ ($10^{20}$cm$^{-3}$) and N ($10^{17}$cm$^{-3}$) respectively, such that the emitter has a higher doping density than the collector. The base implant corresponds to the PD intermediate P+ implant ($10^{19}$cm$^{-3}$). Multiple implantation is tricky given the foundry constraints: for instance, the dimensions annotated in Fig. 3(a) (N++ gap, N gap and P+ width) each had to be at least 1$\mu$m. A key feature of our design is that the base doping region overlaps with the collector and emitter (refer Fig. 3(a)). This overlap was required to comply with these design rules while simultaneously keeping the effective base width as short as possible to ensure minority carrier diffusion. The base doping level was therefore chosen to ensure that the base reached a higher concentration of holes than the collector’s electron concentration, but lower than that of the emitter’s. Furthermore, the various implant levels are implanted at different energies depending on whether they are meant for slab (lower energy) or rib (higher energies) layers. The energy of an implantation determines its penetration depth – as shown in the doping cross section in 3(d) obtained by our process simulation (to be discussed in section 3.1), the penetration depth decreases from collector to base to emitter, resulting from our careful selection of implant types. This led to having additional junctions vertically, as can be seen in Fig. 3(d). The heavy n-doped and p-doped contact pads (refer Fig. 3(a, b)) connect to metal traces that serve as the electrical I/O pathways of the BJT.

Device performance is inevitably subject to its geometry and doping profile. The foundry reports $10\%$ thickness variation in both silicon rib (220$\pm$10 nm) and slab (90$\pm$10 nm) layers. They also report width fluctuations of $\pm 20$nm for 500 nm waveguides. Such variation in geometry across a wafer results in fluctuations of BJT resistances and capacitances, which can affect both its current gain characteristics, $\beta$, and bandwidth. Additionally, any variation in doping profile (unreported) directly affects junctions’ capacitances, affecting the device bandwidth. Thus some deviation in performance within a wafer can be expected. Another legitimate concern with our design can be potential lattice damage due to successive ion implantation within the transistor, which may occur for high implant energies (above 15 eV). Such lattice damage can manifest as anomalies in electrical characteristics like high leakage currents due to interstitial states [23]. The measured leakage current in our case was in the order of nA, which is more than $10^3$ orders of magnitude below our current operation range. We finally note that this design can be universally applicable to any commercial foundry process offering comparable geometry and doping profiles, as the physics remain the same.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) BJT design on Klayout, showing Si and implant layers. The contact pads are connected through metal traces to pads probed for I/O. (b) SEM image of a fabricated BJT on the same chip. False colors overlaid to distinguish different doped regions. (Image was taken at PRISM Imaging and Analysis Center, Princeton. (a) and (b) correspond to devices with different dimensions.) Device doping profiles obtained from TCAD process simulation: (c) 3D structure of the lateral BJT (denoting the region marked by the dashed rectangle in (b)) showing the activated dopant density profile, (d) device lateral cross-section. TCAD simulation of DC characteristics of the devices with: (e) $L_b = 3.25$ $\mu$m and (f) $L_b = 4.00$ $\mu$m.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Tables Icon

Table 1. BJT doping density profile and dimensions.

3.1 Simulation using TCAD

Expected device IV curves were simulated using Synopsys’ Sentaurus suite. The simulation geometry was defined according to the mask used for manufacturing. Figure 3(a) and (c) show the full device layout and the simulation region respectively. Device fabrication was first modeled with a process simulation using the software’s recommended calibrations for silicon. The process included estimates of foundry etching, implantation, and annealing procedures. No posteriori adjustments to fit experimental results were performed. To benchmark the accuracy of this approach, the sheet resistance of the individual doping layers was computed in separate simulations. As reported in Table 2, the simulated values yield tentative agreement with the foundry’s reported values for the layers directly involved in the junction (N++, N, and P+).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of simulated and foundry-reported sheet resistance of individual layers. For the BJT of this work, N++ is used as the emitter and collector contact, N is used as the collector, P++ is used as the base contact, and P+ is used as the base.

Transport simulations were then performed on BJT structures adaptively-remeshed according to doping concentration gradients. Contact electrodes were defined at the upper edges of each contacting region to emulate signals incoming from vias (see Fig. 3(c)). The Poisson-drift-diffusion equations were iteratively solved for various current boundary conditions at the two base electrodes and voltage boundary conditions at the collector electrode. The base current of the simulation is half of the reported $I_b$, since the two simulation base contacts share the same electrode in the physical device. The emitter was defined as the zero voltage reference. The substrate contact was left floating. These simulation results are presented in Fig. 3.(e) and (f) where expected BJT transconductance characteristics are observed.

4. DC characterization

4.1 Diode characteristics

Each BJT has two lateral diodes: the base-collector (BC) and the base-emitter (BE) diodes. Figure 4 shows the experimentally measured IV characteristics of each. The measured threshold voltage, $V_T$, was about 0.89 V in each case. Also, as expected, the forward conduction current of the BC diode was measured to be higher than the BE diode, since the collector doping density is lower compared to the emitter. The reverse leakage current is in the order of nA in each case, which indicates there was no significant implantation-induced lattice damage.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Experimental measurement of BC and BE diode characteristics of two fabricated BJTs. (a) Circuit schematic of the setup for BE diode measurement where a Keithley 2400 sourcemeter actuates the voltage and measures the current across the diode, and C is left floating (similar setup used for BC diode, with BC connected to a Keithley and E left floating (not shown)). Measured IV characteristics of BJTs with (b) $L_b$ = 3.25 $\mu$m, and (c) $L_b$ = 4.00 $\mu$m.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4.2 Experimental setup

The setup for DC experimental characterization is shown in Fig. 5. The chip was mounted on a temperature-controlled probe station and electrically probed using DC probes (Picoprobe). A current source (Keithley 2400) was used to actuate the base-emitter current, $I_{BE}$, and measure the corresponding voltage $V_{BE}$, while another voltage source (Keithley 2400) was used to actuate collector-emitter voltage $V_{CE}$ and measure the corresponding current $I_{CE}$. The source meters were remotely controlled through an open source lab automation package, Lightlab [24].

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (left) Schematic of the experimental setup for DC Characterization. Keithley 2400 across BE actuates $I_{BE}$ while the one across CE actuates $V_{CE}$ and measures $I_{CE}$. (right) Top-down image of the on- chip DUT, showing BJT contact pads probed using a DC probe array. The dimensions of the contact pads were optimized for available DC probe array.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4.3 Single device DC characteristics

Figure 6 shows the experimental DC characterization results of the two BJTs in a common-emitter configuration, as well as the corresponding model fit as per the Ebers-Moll equations:

$$I_{CE} = I_s\left[\left(e^{\frac{qV_{BE}}{kT}} - e^{\frac{qV_{BC}}{kT}}\right)\left(1 - \frac{V_{BC}}{V_A}\right) - \frac{1}{\beta_R}\left(e^{\frac{qV_{BC}}{kT}} - 1\right)\right]$$
$$I_{BE} = I_s\left[\frac{1}{\beta_F}\left(e^{\frac{qV_{BE}}{kT}} - 1\right) + \frac{1}{\beta_R}\left(e^{\frac{qV_{BC}}{kT}}-1\right)\right]$$
where $I_{CE}$/ $I_{BE}$ and $V_{CE}$/ $V_{BE}$ correspond to the currents and voltages across collector-emitter (CE) and base-emitter (BE). The model parameters: maximum DC current gain ($\beta _F$ (forward), $\beta _R$ (reverse)), saturation current ($I_s$), and Early voltage ($V_A$) were obtained by fitting the data onto the model via Scipy’s curve fit function. Each experimental measurement entailed a two-dimensional sweep of $V_{CE}$ and $I_{BE}$ while measuring $I_{CE}$ at each sweep point. Figure 6 shows that the Ebers-Moll model depicts the measured device characteristics remarkably well in both cases. The characteristic parameters of the BJTs are tabulated in Table 3.

Another key metric for characterizing a transistor, especially for TIA applications, is its transimpedance, defined as: $g=\frac {I_{CE}}{V_{BE}}=\frac {I_{CE}}{I_{BE}\cdot r} = \frac {\beta }{r}$ where $r$ is the BE resistance. With $\beta$ and $r$ obtained from Fig. 4, we can estimate $g$. While a prior work, [18], boasts a transimpedance of 46 $\mu S/\mu m$, we achieved $3.22$ $mS/\mu m$ for our BJT with $L_b = 3.25$ $\mu$m i.e. about 70 times better (refer Table 3). Additionally, these DC characterization results agree well, albeit not exact, with the TCAD process simulation results discussed in section 3.1. The strong correlation between the process simulation predicted characteristics (see Fig. 3(e), (f)) and the experimental measurements (Fig. 6) suggests that device performance could quite reliably be predicted in advance via our process simulation. Some mismatch between experiment and simulation here can be attributed to potential discrepancy between fabricated product and design.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. BJT DC Characterization results. Plot of $I_{CE}$ vs $V_{CE}$ at different $I_{BE}$ (shown in different colors) of two BJTs with (left) $L_b$ =3.25$\mu$m and (right) $L_b$ =4.00$\mu$m. The dots correspond to experimentally measured values, while the solid lines correspond to the fit to the Ebers-Moll equations.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Tables Icon

Table 3. DC characterization model fit parameters ($I_s$, $V_A$, $\beta _F$, $\beta _R$, $c$), and calculated transimpedance, $g$, per unit length of the BJTs.

4.4 Darlington BJT DC characteristics – experiment

With these active BJTs, we then configured a Darlington structure, where the two on-chip BJTs were connected off-chip, as shown in the setup schematic in Fig. 7. The collectors of the two BJTs are in contact, and the emitter of one ($L_b = 4.00$ $\mu$m) is connected to the base of the other ($L_b = 3.25$ $\mu$m). The measured DC characteristics of this Darlington BJT structure is shown in Fig. 7. We measured the current gain, $\beta$, to be 10 at $V_{CE}=2.84$ V. $\beta$ in a Darlington is theoretically estimated as:

$$\beta_{\textrm{Darlington}} = \beta_1 * \beta_2 + \beta_1 + \beta_2,$$
where $\beta _1$ and $\beta _2$ correspond to the current gains of the first and second BJTs in the configuration. Using the $\beta _F$ values of the BJTs from Table 3, the expected gain would be $\beta = 4.5 \times 3.3 + 4.5 + 3.3 = 22.7$. A lower measured $\beta$ can be because the bias condition in this measurement differs from that of a single device owing to the difference in CE biases: here, $V_{CE,2} = V_{CE,1} + V_{BE,2}$, meaning $V_{CE}$ is always about one $V_{BE}$ higher than a single transistor. This also manifests as an increased saturation voltage, i.e. $V_{CE}$ required to reach the active region of operation compared to a single BJT. The dependence of $\beta$ on $V_{CE}$ can be eliminated if there is no dependence of $V_{CE}$ on $I_{CE}$ within the active region. This dependence usually results from the base narrowing phenomena due to the bias-dependent depletion region width at the PN junction, and can be mitigated by increasing the doping concentration of all the transistor regions. However, increase in doping levels can also result in lowered breakdown $V_{CE}$, making this approach undesirable. Instead, circuit-based solutions, like cascoding, may be implemented to eliminate the dependence of $I_{CE}$ on $V_{CE}$. We note that this Darlington configuration is a proof-of-concept that our active BJT can be scaled to achieve higher current gain by cascading BJTs in this fashion.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. (left) Experimental setup for DC Characterization of a Darlington BJT. Sourcemeters (Keithley 2400) were used to actuate voltage (current) and measure voltage (current) for CE (BE) diode. (right) BJT DC characteristics of a Darlington. Each color corresponds to a particular $I_{BE}$ value.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. (Left) Schematic of the experimental setup for AC characterization. (Right) Closeup image of the probed device on chip.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Small-signal equivalent circuit model of the BJT.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

5. AC characterization

5.1 Experimental setup

AC characterization of both the BJTs was carried out, however only the results from one ($L_b = 3.25 \mu$m) are presented here for the sake of brevity. The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 8. A small-signal input was generated by combining AC output from a network analyzer (Port1, PNA N5222A) with a DC current bias, $I_{BE}$, from a Keithley 2400 at a bias tee. The input was then sent to the device through a high frequency probe (Model 40A, Picoprobe GGB). $V_{CE}$ was actuated by a Keithley 2400 Sourcemeter. The AC output was sent back to the PNA Port2 to measure the device S-parameters.

5.2 AC characteristics (experiment) and device parasitics

With the measured S-parameters, parasitics of the BJT, as depicted in Fig. 9, were calculated using the following equations:

$$C_{\pi} =\frac{\textrm{Im}(Y_{11} + Y_{12})}{2\pi f}$$
$$r_{\pi} =\frac{1}{\textrm{Re}(Y_{11} + Y_{12})}$$
$$C_{\mu} =\frac{-\textrm{Im}(Y_{12})}{2\pi f}$$
$$r_{o} =\frac{1}{\textrm{Re}(Y_{12} + Y_{22})}$$
where $f$ is the signal frequency. The Y-parameters above can in turn be derived from the S-parameters using the following equations:
$$Y_{11} = \frac{1}{Z_0} \cdot \frac{(1 - S_{11})\cdot(1 + S_{22}) + S_{12}\cdot S_{21}}{(1 + S_{11})\cdot(1 + S_{22}) - S_{12}\cdot S_{21}}$$
$$Y_{22} = \frac{1}{Z_0} \cdot \frac{(1 + S_{11})\cdot(1 - S_{22}) + S_{12}\cdot S_{21}}{(1 + S_{11})\cdot(1 + S_{22}) - S_{12}\cdot S_{21}}$$
$$Y_{12} = \frac{1}{Z_0} \cdot \frac{-2 \cdot S_{12}}{(1 + S_{11})\cdot(1 + S_{22}) - S_{12}\cdot S_{21}}$$
$$Y_{21} = \frac{1}{Z_0} \cdot \frac{-2 \cdot S_{21}}{(1 + S_{11})\cdot(1 + S_{22}) - S_{12}\cdot S_{21}}$$
where $Z_0$ = 50 $\Omega$ corresponding to the PNA port impedance. The parasitics for a bias condition of $V_{CE} = 1V$ and $I_{BE} = 80 \mu$A are reported in Fig. 10.

 figure: Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. (left) Device cross-section (generated from TCAD simulation) with the equivalent circuit schematic. (right) Parasitics calculated from the measured S-parameters for the following bias condition: $V_{CE} = 1V$ and $I_{BE} = 80$ $\mu$A.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

5.3 Maximum available gain and matching network design

S-parameters were measured under various biasing conditions ($I_{BE} =$ [0.01, 0.2] mA, $V_{CE} = 1V$). We did not measure any AC gain due to the impedance mismatch between our device and the PNA. However, the measured S-parameters relate to the maximum available gain, $G_{max}$, induced by the device at a given bias under a biconjugate matching condition, by the following relation:

$$G_{max} = \frac{|S_{21}|^2}{(1 - |S_{11}|)^2(1 - |S_{22}|)^2 }.$$
Conjugate matching occurs when the PNA port output (input) impedance equals the conjugate of the BJT input (output) impedance, allowing maximum power transfer. $G_{max}$ essentially gives a measure of the optimum gain achievable by a device under conjugate matching. Figure 11 shows $G_{max}$ vs signal frequency at a single bias condition ($V_{CE} = 1V$ and $I_{BE} = 80$ $\mu$A). It is evident that the BJT can achieve at least 3dB gain within this frequency range.

 figure: Fig. 11.

Fig. 11. Maximum available gain, $G_{max}$, for a BJT ($L_b$ =3.25$\mu$m) calculated from the measured S-parameters under the following bias: $V_{CE} = 1V$ and $I_{BE} = 80$ $\mu$A.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Typically such impedance matching is done by implementing an LC-based matching network (MN) before and after the device, such that both input and output conjugate matching conditions are satisfied. Using Advanced Design Software(ADS) by Keysight, we designed various input and output LC-based MNs, each optimized for a particular frequency range with a bandwidth of at least 200 MHz (refer Fig. 12). An MN enhances power transfer to the BJT, inducing gain. Figure 12 shows that aided by MNs, our BJT can provide gain for the entire measured frequency range. The peak gain here ranges from 3 dB to 2.5 dB for frequencies going up to 1.1 GHz. In this simulation, we are interested in having a network with at least 200 MHz bandwidth. The bandwidth-gain tradeoff means that our bandwidth constraint reduces the peak gain allowed by a matching network. This is evident in the comparison between the peak gain values in Fig. 11 and 12: the maximum gain in the latter is only 3 dB, while that in the former is significantly higher (above 10 dB).

 figure: Fig. 12.

Fig. 12. Simulated device AC gain, S21, incorporating matching networks of 200 MHz bandwidth for a BJT ($L_b$ =3.25$\mu$m). The circuit of an LC matching network for 800-1000 MHz is shown as an inset.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

6. Conclusion

We experimentally demonstrated DC gain of 10 with a Darlington configuration of BJTs fabricated on a silicon photonics SOI platform. We also characterized the performance of our BJT under small-signal AC input by measuring the S-parameters, and have reported the device parasitics and the gain metrics. The maximum available gain, with conjugate impedance matching, was calculated to be at least 3dB for measured frequencies up to 1.1 GHz. With impedance matching networks of 200 MHz bandwidth, we can achieve device gain of at least 2.5 dB for the same frequency range. Our active BJT can serve as a fundamental building block in elaborate photonic systems-on-chip.

Funding

National Science Foundation (EARS-1642962); Office of Naval Research (N00014-18-1-2297).

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank AMF Pte Ltd., Singapore and CMC, Canada for device fabrication, and the PRISM Imaging and Analysis Center, Princeton for imaging support.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

1. D. Okamoto, Y. Suzuki, K. Yashiki, Y. Hagihara, M. Tokushima, J. Fujikata, M. Kurihara, J. Tsuchida, T. Nedachi, J. Inasaka, and K. Kurata, “A 25-gb/s 5 × 5 mm2 chip-scale silicon-photonic receiver integrated with 28-nm cmos transimpedance amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2988–2995 (2015). [CrossRef]  

2. S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018). [CrossRef]  

3. Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

4. C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.

5. A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017). [CrossRef]  

6. Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip for single-pixel ghost imaging,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4E–2.

7. G. Yurtsever, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Zabihian, W. Drexler, and R. Baets, “Photonic integrated mach-zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1050–1061 (2014). [CrossRef]  

8. J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008). [CrossRef]  

9. T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

10. C. Gunn, “Cmos photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006). [CrossRef]  

11. T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

12. Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon cmos-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012). [CrossRef]  

13. V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art cmos soi processes,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13106–13121 (2018). [CrossRef]  

14. L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

15. P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

16. F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

17. E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

18. A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014). [CrossRef]  

19. R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. K. Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate photomosfet integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 1–7 (2014). [CrossRef]  

20. S. Li, N. G. Tarr, and N. Y. Winnie, “Monolithic integration of soi waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers,” in Silicon Photonics XIII, vol. 10537 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), p. 105371M.

21. M. Georgas, “Optical receiver techniques for integrated photonic links,” (2014).

22. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A.V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low v pp, ultralow-energy, compact,high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,”Opt. Express 17(25),22484–22490(2009). [CrossRef]  

23. F. Siegelin and A. Stuffer, “Dislocation related leakage in advanced cmos devices,” in Proceedings of the 31 international symposium for testing and failure analysis, (2005).

24. T. de Lima and A. Tait, “Lightlab – laboratory instrumentation and automation,” https://github.com/lightwave-lab/lightlab (2018).

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Okamoto, Y. Suzuki, K. Yashiki, Y. Hagihara, M. Tokushima, J. Fujikata, M. Kurihara, J. Tsuchida, T. Nedachi, J. Inasaka, and K. Kurata, “A 25-gb/s 5 × 5 mm2 chip-scale silicon-photonic receiver integrated with 28-nm cmos transimpedance amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2988–2995 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.
  4. C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.
  5. A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip for single-pixel ghost imaging,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4E–2.
  7. G. Yurtsever, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Zabihian, W. Drexler, and R. Baets, “Photonic integrated mach-zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1050–1061 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).
  10. C. Gunn, “Cmos photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).
  12. Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon cmos-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art cmos soi processes,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13106–13121 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.
  15. P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.
  16. F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.
  17. E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.
  18. A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. K. Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate photomosfet integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 1–7 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Li, N. G. Tarr, and N. Y. Winnie, “Monolithic integration of soi waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers,” in Silicon Photonics XIII, vol. 10537 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), p. 105371M.
  21. M. Georgas, “Optical receiver techniques for integrated photonic links,” (2014).
  22. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A.V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low v pp, ultralow-energy, compact,high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,”Opt. Express 17(25),22484–22490(2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Siegelin and A. Stuffer, “Dislocation related leakage in advanced cmos devices,” in Proceedings of the 31 international symposium for testing and failure analysis, (2005).
  24. T. de Lima and A. Tait, “Lightlab – laboratory instrumentation and automation,” https://github.com/lightwave-lab/lightlab (2018).

2018 (2)

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art cmos soi processes,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13106–13121 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

G. Yurtsever, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Zabihian, W. Drexler, and R. Baets, “Photonic integrated mach-zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1050–1061 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. K. Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate photomosfet integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon cmos-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

C. Gunn, “Cmos photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

Abbaslou, S.

C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

Alex, A.

Alloatti, L.

Armijo, G.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

Asghari, M.

Atabaki, A.

Ayazi, A.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Azaña, J.

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Baets, R.

Bhargava, P.

Boeuf, F.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

Burla, M.

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chase, B.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

Chen, L.

Cheng, R.

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

Coolbaugh, D. D.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Crémer, S.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

Dahl, A.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

De Dobbelaere, P.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

de Lima, T.

T. de Lima and A. Tait, “Lightlab – laboratory instrumentation and automation,” https://github.com/lightwave-lab/lightlab (2018).

De Lima, T. F.

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

Ding, R.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Dong, P.

Drexler, W.

Feng, D.

Foltz, D.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

Fujikata, J.

Georgas, M.

M. Georgas, “Optical receiver techniques for integrated photonic links,” (2014).

Going, R. W.

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. K. Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate photomosfet integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gould, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “Cmos photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

Hagihara, Y.

Harris, N.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

He, L.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

He, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

Heinemann, B.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Hochberg, M.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hon, N.-K.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

Huang, C.

C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.

Inasaka, J.

Jha, A.

C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.

Jiang, X.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

Kaushal, S.

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

Knoll, D.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Kohno, Y.

Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip for single-pixel ghost imaging,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4E–2.

Komatsu, K.

Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip for single-pixel ghost imaging,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4E–2.

Krishnamoorthy, A.V.

Kroh, M.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Kung, C.-C.

Kurata, K.

Kurihara, M.

Leake, G.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Li, G.

Li, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Li, S.

S. Li, N. G. Tarr, and N. Y. Winnie, “Monolithic integration of soi waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers,” in Silicon Photonics XIII, vol. 10537 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), p. 105371M.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art cmos soi processes,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13106–13121 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Lipson, M.

Lischke, S.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Lisker, M.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Liu, T.-J. K.

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. K. Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate photomosfet integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loo, J.

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. K. Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate photomosfet integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, M.

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

McGee, G.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

Mehta, N.

Mekis, A.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

Micusik, D.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Mistry, A.

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

Moazeni, S.

V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art cmos soi processes,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13106–13121 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Moresco, M.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Moss, B. R.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Nahmias, M. A.

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

Nakano, Y.

Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip for single-pixel ghost imaging,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4E–2.

Nedachi, T.

Novack, A.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, D.

Ostrovskyy, P.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip for single-pixel ghost imaging,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4E–2.

Pavanello, F.

Peng, H.-T.

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

Petousi, D.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Pinguet, T.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Popovic, M.

Považay, B.

Prucnal, P. R.

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.

Qian, W.

Qiu, C.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

Ram, R. J.

Robinson, J. T.

Saeidi, H.

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

Settaluri, K.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Shafiiha, R.

Shastri, B. J.

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.

Shi, R.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Siegelin, F.

F. Siegelin and A. Stuffer, “Dislocation related leakage in advanced cmos devices,” in Proceedings of the 31 international symposium for testing and failure analysis, (2005).

Stojanovic, V.

V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art cmos soi processes,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13106–13121 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Streshinsky, M.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Stuffer, A.

F. Siegelin and A. Stuffer, “Dislocation related leakage in advanced cmos devices,” in Proceedings of the 31 international symposium for testing and failure analysis, (2005).

Su, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

Su, Z.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Sun, C.

V. Stojanović, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, M. Wade, C. Sun, L. Alloatti, A. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, N. Mehta, and P. Bhargava, “Monolithic silicon-photonic platforms in state-of-the-art cmos soi processes,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13106–13121 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Sun, P.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

Suzuki, Y.

Tait, A.

T. de Lima and A. Tait, “Lightlab – laboratory instrumentation and automation,” https://github.com/lightwave-lab/lightlab (2018).

Tait, A. N.

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

Tan, K.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tanemura, T.

Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip for single-pixel ghost imaging,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4E–2.

Tao, J.

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tarr, N. G.

S. Li, N. G. Tarr, and N. Y. Winnie, “Monolithic integration of soi waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers,” in Silicon Photonics XIII, vol. 10537 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), p. 105371M.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Tokushima, M.

Tsuchida, J.

Verslegers, L.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon cmos-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vulliet, N.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

Wade, M.

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

Weber, B.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

Welch, B.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

Winnie, N. Y.

S. Li, N. G. Tarr, and N. Y. Winnie, “Monolithic integration of soi waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers,” in Silicon Photonics XIII, vol. 10537 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), p. 105371M.

Winzer, G.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Wu, A. X.

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. K. Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate photomosfet integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

Yashiki, K.

Yurtsever, G.

Zabihian, B.

Zhang, Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, E.

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

Zimmermann, L.

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Front. Optoelectron. (1)

S. Kaushal, R. Cheng, M. Ma, A. Mistry, M. Burla, L. Chrostowski, and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processing based on silicon photonics waveguide bragg gratings,” Front. Optoelectron. 11(2), 163–188 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon cmos-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100g,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. W. Going, J. Loo, T.-J. K. Liu, and M. C. Wu, “Germanium gate photomosfet integrated to silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Micro (1)

C. Gunn, “Cmos photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

D. Okamoto, Y. Suzuki, K. Yashiki, Y. Hagihara, M. Tokushima, J. Fujikata, M. Kurihara, J. Tsuchida, T. Nedachi, J. Inasaka, and K. Kurata, “A 25-gb/s 5 × 5 mm2 chip-scale silicon-photonic receiver integrated with 28-nm cmos transimpedance amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2988–2995 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, R. Shi, M. Streshinsky, J. Tao, K. Tan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Monothically integrated mesfet devices on a high-speed silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 4345–4348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. N. Tait, T. F. De Lima, E. Zhou, A. X. Wu, M. A. Nahmias, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7430 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (13)

Y. Kohno, K. Komatsu, Y. Ozeki, Y. Nakano, and T. Tanemura, “Large-scale silicon photonic phased array chip for single-pixel ghost imaging,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4E–2.

Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Zhou, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon photonic devices for optical signal processing in wavelength, polarization and mode domains,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. Th2C–1.

C. Huang, T. F. De Lima, A. Jha, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Giant enhancement in signal contrast using integrated all-optical nonlinear thresholder,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–3.

T. F. de Lima, A. N. Tait, H. Saeidi, M. A. Nahmias, H.-T. Peng, S. Abbaslou, B. J. Shastri, and P. R. Prucnal, “Noise analysis of photonic modulator neurons,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.07325 (2019).

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, and Y. Zhang, “A 25 gb/s silicon photonics platform,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.0767 (2012).

L. Zimmermann, D. Knoll, S. Lischke, D. Petousi, M. Kroh, G. Winzer, B. Heinemann, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Micusik, and M. Lisker, “Monolithic integration of photonic devices in sige bicmos,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 102–103.

P. De Dobbelaere, A. Dahl, A. Mekis, B. Chase, B. Weber, B. Welch, D. Foltz, G. Armijo, G. Masini, and G. McGee, “Advanced silicon photonics technology platform leveraging a semiconductor supply chain,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 34–1.

F. Boeuf, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, L. Verslegers, P. Sun, A. Ayazi, and N.-K. Hon, “A multi-wavelength 3d-compatible silicon photonics platform on 300mm soi wafers for 25gb/s applications,” in 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 13–3.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, B. R. Moss, M. Moresco, V. Stojanović, and M. R. Watts, “An ultra low power 3d integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Th5B–8.

S. Li, N. G. Tarr, and N. Y. Winnie, “Monolithic integration of soi waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers,” in Silicon Photonics XIII, vol. 10537 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2018), p. 105371M.

M. Georgas, “Optical receiver techniques for integrated photonic links,” (2014).

F. Siegelin and A. Stuffer, “Dislocation related leakage in advanced cmos devices,” in Proceedings of the 31 international symposium for testing and failure analysis, (2005).

T. de Lima and A. Tait, “Lightlab – laboratory instrumentation and automation,” https://github.com/lightwave-lab/lightlab (2018).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Characterization results of photonic components on the same fabrication run as the BJT. (a) Photodetector dark current at 1550 nm, (b) Zoomed-out plot of (a) showing dark current within reverse bias regime, (c) Eye diagram of a microring modulator modulating 5 Gb/s PRBS pattern with an extinction ratio of 10.4 dB.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Sample applications of BJTs in photonic systems. (a) Microring modulator (MRM) based transmitter circuit: data from a pulse pattern generator (PPG) is modulated onto light (IN) via an MRM, driven by a modulator driver (MD). (b) A TIA-based receiver circuit: incoming light ( $P_{\textrm {IN}}$ ) generates a photocurrent that is amplified by a TIA and then by a power amplifier (PA) before being sent to an ADC. (c) A photonic neuron circuit, where the photocurrent is amplified by a TIA which then drives a modulator (MOD) with transfer function T(V).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) BJT design on Klayout, showing Si and implant layers. The contact pads are connected through metal traces to pads probed for I/O. (b) SEM image of a fabricated BJT on the same chip. False colors overlaid to distinguish different doped regions. (Image was taken at PRISM Imaging and Analysis Center, Princeton. (a) and (b) correspond to devices with different dimensions.) Device doping profiles obtained from TCAD process simulation: (c) 3D structure of the lateral BJT (denoting the region marked by the dashed rectangle in (b)) showing the activated dopant density profile, (d) device lateral cross-section. TCAD simulation of DC characteristics of the devices with: (e) $L_b = 3.25$ $\mu$ m and (f) $L_b = 4.00$ $\mu$ m.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental measurement of BC and BE diode characteristics of two fabricated BJTs. (a) Circuit schematic of the setup for BE diode measurement where a Keithley 2400 sourcemeter actuates the voltage and measures the current across the diode, and C is left floating (similar setup used for BC diode, with BC connected to a Keithley and E left floating (not shown)). Measured IV characteristics of BJTs with (b) $L_b$ = 3.25 $\mu$ m, and (c) $L_b$ = 4.00 $\mu$ m.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (left) Schematic of the experimental setup for DC Characterization. Keithley 2400 across BE actuates $I_{BE}$ while the one across CE actuates $V_{CE}$ and measures $I_{CE}$ . (right) Top-down image of the on- chip DUT, showing BJT contact pads probed using a DC probe array. The dimensions of the contact pads were optimized for available DC probe array.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. BJT DC Characterization results. Plot of $I_{CE}$ vs $V_{CE}$ at different $I_{BE}$ (shown in different colors) of two BJTs with (left) $L_b$ =3.25 $\mu$ m and (right) $L_b$ =4.00 $\mu$ m. The dots correspond to experimentally measured values, while the solid lines correspond to the fit to the Ebers-Moll equations.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (left) Experimental setup for DC Characterization of a Darlington BJT. Sourcemeters (Keithley 2400) were used to actuate voltage (current) and measure voltage (current) for CE (BE) diode. (right) BJT DC characteristics of a Darlington. Each color corresponds to a particular $I_{BE}$ value.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (Left) Schematic of the experimental setup for AC characterization. (Right) Closeup image of the probed device on chip.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Small-signal equivalent circuit model of the BJT.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (left) Device cross-section (generated from TCAD simulation) with the equivalent circuit schematic. (right) Parasitics calculated from the measured S-parameters for the following bias condition: $V_{CE} = 1V$ and $I_{BE} = 80$ $\mu$ A.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Maximum available gain, $G_{max}$ , for a BJT ( $L_b$ =3.25 $\mu$ m) calculated from the measured S-parameters under the following bias: $V_{CE} = 1V$ and $I_{BE} = 80$ $\mu$ A.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Simulated device AC gain, S21, incorporating matching networks of 200 MHz bandwidth for a BJT ( $L_b$ =3.25 $\mu$ m). The circuit of an LC matching network for 800-1000 MHz is shown as an inset.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. BJT doping density profile and dimensions.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of simulated and foundry-reported sheet resistance of individual layers. For the BJT of this work, N++ is used as the emitter and collector contact, N is used as the collector, P++ is used as the base contact, and P+ is used as the base.

Tables Icon

Table 3. DC characterization model fit parameters ( I s , V A , β F , β R , c ), and calculated transimpedance, g , per unit length of the BJTs.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I C E = I s [ ( e q V B E k T e q V B C k T ) ( 1 V B C V A ) 1 β R ( e q V B C k T 1 ) ]
I B E = I s [ 1 β F ( e q V B E k T 1 ) + 1 β R ( e q V B C k T 1 ) ]
β Darlington = β 1 β 2 + β 1 + β 2 ,
C π = Im ( Y 11 + Y 12 ) 2 π f
r π = 1 Re ( Y 11 + Y 12 )
C μ = Im ( Y 12 ) 2 π f
r o = 1 Re ( Y 12 + Y 22 )
Y 11 = 1 Z 0 ( 1 S 11 ) ( 1 + S 22 ) + S 12 S 21 ( 1 + S 11 ) ( 1 + S 22 ) S 12 S 21
Y 22 = 1 Z 0 ( 1 + S 11 ) ( 1 S 22 ) + S 12 S 21 ( 1 + S 11 ) ( 1 + S 22 ) S 12 S 21
Y 12 = 1 Z 0 2 S 12 ( 1 + S 11 ) ( 1 + S 22 ) S 12 S 21
Y 21 = 1 Z 0 2 S 21 ( 1 + S 11 ) ( 1 + S 22 ) S 12 S 21
G m a x = | S 21 | 2 ( 1 | S 11 | ) 2 ( 1 | S 22 | ) 2 .

Metrics