Abstract

We propose multiwavelength-multiplexed phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography. In this technique, a monochrome image sensor records wavelength-multiplexed, phase-shifted, and incoherent holograms, and a phase-shifting interferometry technique selectively extracts object waves at multiple wavelengths from the several recorded holograms. Spatially incoherent light that contains multiple wavelengths illuminates objects, and multiwavelength-incoherent object waves are simultaneously obtained without using any wavelength filters. Its effectiveness is experimentally demonstrated for transparent and reflective objects.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Three-dimensional (3D) image sensing has provided useful information in many fields, such as microscopy, surface shape measurement, and surveying 3D space. 3D imaging enables the observations of physical phenomena and biological specimens without blurring, and thus the demand for 3D image-sensing techniques to obtain a 3D image with a large depth of field has increased. Wavefront sensing is a method of recording 3D space information with a 2D recording material, and holography is an actively researched wavefront-sensing technique [1,2]. The phase distribution of a light wave contains the information of a 3D location of an object, and holography acquires its complex amplitude distribution on a recording medium by utilizing the interference of light. In holography, holograms can be recorded digitally by using a photodetector or an image sensor, and a 3D image of an object can be reconstructed quantitatively by digital signal processing with a computer; this technique is called digital holography (DH) [37]. To date, microscopy and quantitative phase imaging [811], 3D displacement measurement [12,13], 3D phase tomographic imaging [1416], simultaneous 3D imaging of multiple objects [17,18], and 3D imaging with a single pixel sensor [8,19,20] have been presented as possible applications of DH. DH frequently adopts laser light sources to obtain an interference fringe image.

Incoherent DH is a method of recording a hologram that is generated from a spatially incoherent light source [2128]. Fluorescence light [25,26], thermal radiation [27], light illuminated by a light-emitting diode (LED) [28], and even daylight [23] can be recorded using incoherent DH, and thus their applications in fluorescence 3D microscopy [25,26], 3D imaging with white light [23], and recording of a speckleless hologram [24] have been realized. Recording of spatially incoherent light at multiple wavelengths enables holographic multicolor/multispectral 3D image sensing [23,2939] and the technique is called incoherent color DH. Incoherent color DH generally adopts the temporal division technique to record wavelength information of incoherent light [30,32,33,37]. Wavelength information is separated in this technique by inserting wavelength filters in the optical path or by changing the wavelength of illumination light. As a result, the technique is time-consuming, and light intensity becomes low because of the wavelength filters. As another way, frequency-division multiplexing is adopted to record object waves at multiple wavelengths [29,31,35,39]. This multiplexing technique adopts the principle of Fourier spectrometry to obtain wavelength information. A series of incoherent holograms with a carrier wave are recorded, and a piezo-driven mirror or micrometers are used to generate carriers to object waves at multiple wavelengths and to separate these object waves in the Fourier domain. This technique has the ability to obtain wavelength information of temporally incoherent light with high wavelength resolution and is suitable for hyperspectral holographic imaging. However, in this technique, recording of a large number of incoherent holograms was required and more than 500 holograms were recorded even when obtaining three-wavelength incoherent object waves [31]. As a novel way to record wavelength information by using a monochrome image sensor without spatial and temporal divisions, multidimensional imaging with point-spread-function (PSF) engineering was presented [34,36,38]. Particularly in the scheme, coded aperture correlation holography (COACH) [40] performed four-dimensional (4D) imaging that means the visualization of 3D spatial information and multiple wavelengths from wavelength-multiplexed images, by utilizing the differences of PSFs between the wavelengths [34]. Wavelength separation is conducted from the difference of PSFs with a Fresnel lens, using correlation procedures with libraries of PSF holograms at multiple wavelengths. COACH requires the library of PSFs in advance and stability of the PSF of the system but depth resolution of the system is much improved in comparison to Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH), by utilizing PSF engineering [34,38,40].

Wavelength-selective phase-shifting interferometry (WS-PSI) [4146] was proposed as another multiplexing technique to obtain multiwavelength object waves by using a phase shifter and a monochrome image sensor. WS-PSI adds wavelength-dependent phase shifts to wavelength-multiplexed holograms and extracts multiwavelength object waves from the recorded holograms based on phase-shifting interferometry. Experimental demonstrations of WS-PSI were initially performed with a piezo actuator as a wavelength-dependent phase shifter, using four [41] and five [42] two-wavelength-multiplexed holograms with specific phase shifts. In Ref. [41] we described that the least required number of wavelength-multiplexed holograms was the double of the number of central wavelengths measured with specific phase shifts. Reference [41] also indicated optical implementations with not only a piezo actuator but also wave plates. After that, an algorithm for WS-PSI with wavelength-dependent arbitrary phase shifts was presented with lasers [43] and was performed with a temporally low-coherence light source [44]. The number of wavelength-multiplexed phase-shifted holograms required to obtain object waves selectively is 2N + 1 in WS-PSI with the algorithm of Ref. [43], where N is the number of central wavelengths measured. Then, image quality of WS-PSI for dynamic range of the holograms and relationship between the wavelength resolution and the dynamic range were investigated [45]. After that, a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator (LCoS-SLM) was adopted as an electrically-driven phase modulator [46] and neither mechanically moving components nor shutters to select a wavelength of illumination light was required. Therefore, until now three-wavelength spatially coherent object waves were retrieved from wavelength-multiplexed phase-shifted seven holograms in WS-PSI [7,43,46]. The number of recorded holograms was much less than that in frequency-division multiplexing when sensing object waves at several wavelengths. Furthermore, there is no requirement for mechanically moving parts and therefore a construction of an optical system can be simplified by WS-PSI. WS-PSI can also accelerate multiwavelength holographic sensing in comparison to temporal division technique because 4N holograms were required frequently for N-wavelength DH with temporal division technique [44,46]. PSF engineering [34] and WS-PSI are the techniques to conduct 4D imaging from the recording of several wavelength-multiplexed images. When applying a PSF engineering technique, PSFs in 3D position at multiple wavelengths should be known by obtaining libraries of PSF holograms at multiple wavelengths in advance. Therefore, the following are expected: the number of recordings of spatially incoherent multiwavelength holograms is reduced in comparison to the temporal division and temporal division-multiplexing techniques and three-wavelength 3D imaging is conducted from the recording of seven wavelength-multiplexed images without libraries of PSF holograms. However, until now WS-PSI was neither applied to record a spatially incoherent hologram nor implemented by a single-path interferometer. Recording of spatially incoherent multiwavelength holograms is important to obtain a speckle-less holographic image and a single-path interferometer is required to record these holograms successfully.

In this article, we propose a single-path, spatially incoherent, wavelength-multiplexed, and color digital holographic sensing technique to obtain a multicolor 3D image with a small number of spatially incoherent holograms and without wavelength filters, wavelength changes of illumination light, nor libraries of PSF holograms. We adopt WS-PSI to selectively extract incoherent object waves at multiple wavelengths from wavelength-multiplexed holograms. By adopting WS-PSI to incoherent color DH, we can obtain wavelength-multiplexed, phase-shifted, and incoherent seven holograms that are sufficient to reconstruct a three-wavelength 3D image of incoherent light with a full space-bandwidth product of a monochrome image sensor. Experimental results show its effectiveness.

2. Multiwavelength-multiplexed phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography

Figure 1 shows the schematic of the proposed incoherent color DH. We call the proposed DH as multiwavelength-multiplexed phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography (MP-ICDH). Figure 1(a) shows the basic configuration of MP-ICDH. MP-ICDH can adopt a FINCH [22,38] system, and thus a single-path phase-shifting interferometer can be utilized. Wavelength-multiplexed spatially incoherent light that is irradiated from narrow-band light sources such as LEDs illuminates objects, and the light diffracted from the objects passes through a single-path interferometer. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the proposed configuration makes use of polarization to construct a single-path self-reference interferometer. In the path of the interferometer, a polarizer is set to generate linearly polarized object waves at multiple wavelengths, and a spatial light modulator (SLM) is set to display a Fresnel lens and phase shifts on the SLM plane. In other words, the SLM works as both a diffractive lens and a phase shifter. Horizontally polarized waves at multiple wavelengths are modulated by a polarization-sensitive diffractive lens. Two wavelength-multiplexed waves that differ both curvature radii of wavefronts and polarization directions are generated from a wavelength-multiplexed object wave by using the SLM. In the case where a series of phase shifts at different wavelengths are different from each other, WS-PSI [43,44] can be adopted to separate wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed images. A polarization-sensitive electrically driven phase modulator such as a liquid-crystal-on-silicon SLM (LCoS-SLM) and a liquid crystal spatial light phase modulator can be utilized to generate phase shifts with a high wavelength dependence [46]. Some of the available LCoS-SLMs have both a high wavelength dependence and a wide phase-modulation range [46], and thus a Fresnel lens function and wavelength-dependent phase shifts are simultaneously generated. Thus, the phase-modulation axis of the polarization-sensitive SLM is different from the transmission axis of the polarizer, and thus two multiwavelength object waves whose curvatures are different are generated after passing the SLM. The other polarizer aligns the polarization direction of the two waves and the two waves can interfere with each other. Finally, a monochrome image sensor records a self-interference, wavelength-multiplexed, and spatially incoherent hologram. Several wavelength-multiplexed incoherent holograms are sequentially recorded by shifting the phase of one of the two waves, using the SLM.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic of MP-ICDH. (a) Basic configuration of MP-ICDH. Arrows in the figure indicate the transmission axis of the polarizers and the modulation axis of the polarization-sensitive SLM. (b) Polarization transitions of spatially-incoherent two waves that form phase-shifted holograms at discrete wavelengths.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 2 shows the optical implementations of the previously constructed DH system based on WS-PSI and the MP-ICDH system, which is illustrated to indicate the differences between the previous and proposed systems. The main differences are the spatial and temporal coherencies of light sources, the types of the interferometers, and phase-mask patterns displayed on the SLM. In the previous system, lasers with high spatial and temporal coherency are used as multiwavelength light sources. A two-arm configuration such as Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers is adopted and a plane wave is introduced as a reference wave at each wavelength. On the other hand, in the proposed system multicolor LEDs can be used as light sources and a single-path interferometer such as a polarization-based FINCH system is adopted to implement a wavelength-filter-less spatially incoherent color DH system. Fresnel lens patterns with wavelength-dependent phase shifts are introduced. Spatially incoherent light sources are important to obtain a speckle-less holographic image. A single-path interferometer has a high stability against external noise such as vibration as demonstrated in Ref. [47] and is important to generate holograms with spatially incoherent light sources due to the extremely short optical-path-length differences between the two waves at each wavelength.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Optical implementations of (a) the previously constructed DH system based on WS-PSI and (b) the proposed MP-ICDH system.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In the reconstruction procedure, one can use an algorithm of DH with WS-PSI as described in Refs. [43,44] for spatially incoherent narrow-band light generated from multiple LEDs. As theoretically described and experimentally demonstrated by FINCH [2224], phase-shifting interferometry works for spatially incoherent phase-shifted holograms. Where I(x, y: α1j, …, αij, …, αNj) is one of the spatially-incoherent narrow-band, wavelength-multiplexed, and phase-shifted holograms, αij is a j-th phase shift at the central wavelength of λi, I0th(x, y) is the summation of the zeroth-order diffraction waves, and Ci, Aoi(x, y), and ϕoi(x, y) are a coefficient that depends on the spectral bandwidth [48,49] and distributions of amplitude and phase in an object wave at λi, respectively, the WS-PSI algorithm used to extract multiwavelength object waves selectively [43] is expressed by

$$\begin{array}{ll} \left( {\begin{array}{c} {\begin{array}{c} \begin{array}{l} \\ I({x,y:0, \ldots ,0} )\end{array}\\ {I({x,y:{\alpha_{11}}, \ldots ,{\alpha_{N1}}} )}\\ {I({x,y:{\alpha_{12}}, \ldots ,{\alpha_{N2}}} )} \end{array}}\\ {}\\ \vdots \\ \begin{array}{l} \\ I({x,y:{\alpha_{1(2N - 1)}}, \ldots ,{\alpha_{N(2N - 1)}}} )\end{array}\\ {I({x,y:{\alpha_{1(2N)}}, \ldots ,{\alpha_{N(2N)}}} )} \end{array}} \right) &= \left( \begin{array}{l} \begin{array}{cccccc} 1&{\textrm{ }1}&{\textrm{ }0}&{\ldots }&{\textrm{ }1}&{\textrm{ }0}\\ 1&{\textrm{ }\cos {\alpha_{11}}}&{\textrm{ }\sin{\alpha_{11}}}&{\ldots }&{\textrm{ }\cos {\alpha_{N1}}}&{\textrm{ }\sin{\alpha_{N1}}}\\ 1&{\textrm{ }\cos {\alpha_{12}}}&{\textrm{ }\sin{\alpha_{12}}}&{\ldots }&{\textrm{ }\cos {\alpha_{N2}}}&{\textrm{ }\sin{\alpha_{N2}}} \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots &\ldots & \vdots & \vdots \\ 1&\cos {\alpha_{1(2N - 1)}}&\sin {\alpha_{1(2N - 1)}}&\ldots&\cos {\alpha_{N(2N - 1)}}&\sin {\alpha_{N(2N - 1)}} \\ 1&{\cos {\alpha_{1(2N)}}}&{\sin{\alpha_{1(2N)}}}&\ldots&{\cos {\alpha_{N(2N)}}}&{\sin{\alpha_{N(2N)}}} \end{array}\end{array} \right)\\ & \textrm{ } \times \left( {\begin{array}{c} {\begin{array}{c} {{I_{0th}}({x,y} )}\\ {{C_1}{A_{o1}}({x,y} )\cos {\phi_{o1}}({x,y} )}\\ {{C_1}{A_{o1}}({x,y} )\sin {\phi_{o1}}({x,y} )} \end{array}}\\ {}\\ \begin{array}{l} \vdots \\ \end{array}\\ {{C_N}{A_{oN}}({x,y} )\cos {\phi_{oN}}({x,y} )}\\ {{C_N}{A_{oN}}({x,y} )\sin {\phi_{oN}}({x,y} )} \end{array}} \right). \end{array}$$
By solving the matrix equation expressed in Eq. (1), amplitude and phase distributions at multiple wavelengths are selectively extracted. (2N + 1) × (2N + 1) matrix in Eq. (1) indicates phase shifts at respective wavelengths. The matrix equation above is solved after its inverse matrix is multiplied from the left side of both the left- and right-hand sides of the equation when the inverse matrix exists. It is worth noting that the required number of wavelength-multiplexed, phase-shifted, and incoherent holograms is 2N + 1 because an N-wavelength-multiplexed hologram contains 2N + 1 variables: the summation of the zeroth-order diffraction waves, N-wavelength object waves, and N-wavelength complex-conjugate images. This number of recordings is much less than the number required for frequency-division multiplexing with the Fourier spectroscopy algorithm. Object waves at N wavelengths are retrieved by a phase-shifting interferometry technique using 2N + 1 wavelength-multiplexed, phase-shifted, and incoherent holograms [43]. Also, WS-PSI can accelerate multiwavelength holographic sensing with a full space-bandwidth product in comparison to temporal division technique because both recording of 4N holograms and mechanical scanning were required generally for N-wavelength DH with temporal division technique [44,46]. It is difficult to extract object waves at multiple wavelengths with little noise if the condition number of (2N + 1) × (2N + 1) matrix in Eq. (1) is large. Phase shifts at multiple wavelengths should be different to reduce the condition number and measurement error as shown in the numerical results in Ref. [43]. Moreover, the phase range is used for not only phase shifts but also display of a Fresnel phase lens. Therefore, it is favorable to prepare an LCoS-SLM with a wide phase-modulation range to set such phase shifts and little condition number. Then, diffraction integrals to these object waves are calculated and a multiwavelength 3D image is reconstructed. We can use the diffraction integrals simply for the reconstruction of a non-monochromatic wave with central wavelength λi when a temporally narrow-bandwidth source is utilized, as described in Ref. [48]. The reason why diffraction integrals are adopted in the reconstruction procedure is that the display of a Fresnel lens generates Fresnel zone-plate patterns from object points [22,38]. When using spatially incoherent light, each wave generated from each object point does not interfere with each other, and thus each Fresnel zone-plate pattern is incoherently superimposed on the image sensor plane. As a result, an object image is reconstructed simply by calculating diffraction integrals.

3. Experiments

We conducted experiments to investigate the validity of MP-ICDH. We constructed imaging-lens-less, multiwavelength-multiplexed, single-path, phase-shifting, and incoherent color digital holography systems for transparent and reflective objects with N = 2 and 3.

3.1 MP-ICDH for transparent color objects

We constructed the MP-ICDH system shown in Fig. 3 and set an LCoS-SLM (X10468-01, fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) to generate wavelength-dependent phase shifts and obtain a wide phase-modulation range. The phase-modulation range of this model of the SLM was twice extended and then both a diffractive lens and phase shifts were simultaneously generated. The central wavelengths of the LEDs used as light sources were λ1 = 625 and λ2 = 530 nm, and FWHMs of these LEDs were 18 and 33 nm. The LCoS-SLM set phase shifts at the wavelengths of (λ1, λ2) as (−97π/123, −100π/99), (−39π/123, −40π/99), (0, 0), (39π/123, 40π/99), and (97π/123, 100π/99). A monochrome sCMOS image sensor with 6.5 µm pixel size and 12 bits recorded wavelength-multiplexed in-line phase-shifted five incoherent holograms with 2048 × 2048 pixels. In front of the image sensor, a lens was set to collect wavelength-multiplexed light. Color objects were prepared by using transparent films and a color inkjet printer and were set in the optical path of the single-path interferometer. A green ‘T’, a red ‘H’, and a black background were drawn on the films using a color inkjet printer. Each character was 7 pt. Rectangular transparent areas were set to these objects as shown in Fig. 3. Two colored objects were 36 mm apart from each other in the depth direction. Two LEDs illuminated an object simultaneously and a monochrome image sensor recorded spatially incoherent and discrete narrow-band, wavelength-multiplexed, and phase-shifted holograms. Phase shifts at multiple wavelengths were generated sequentially by an LCoS-SLM and five grayscale holograms were obtained. Two object waves at two center wavelengths on the image sensor plane were retrieved from the recorded five holograms by applying an algorithm of WS-PSI. This time the image-reconstruction algorithm [43,44] that was described in the previous section was applied. Two-wavelength focused images of objects were reconstructed by calculating diffraction integrals. For comparison, object images were also reconstructed with the same interferometer but the two LEDs were turned on/off to record four phase-shifted incoherent holograms for each color sequentially. Object images were also obtained from a single-wavelength-multiplexed incoherent hologram to determine the wavelength selectivity of MP-ICDH. The depth resolution of the constructed MP-ICDH system is based on a FINCH system as described in Ref. [38]. Figure 4 shows the experimental results. The reconstructed images obtained by the time-division technique in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) did not contain any crosstalk noise between wavelengths and thus were regarded as standard images. Figure 4(c) shows a wavelength-multiplexed incoherent hologram that is recorded by a monochrome image sensor. As seen in Figs. 4(d) and 4(e), plane wavelength-dependent phase shifts were introduced to a static Fresnel phase lens pattern. In Figs. 4(f) and 4(g), not only the sum of the 0th-order diffraction waves and the conjugate images, but also image components given by the crosstalk between the intensity distributions at the two wavelengths were reconstructed from a two-wavelength-multiplexed hologram. As a result, the wavelength information of objects could not be reconstructed correctly. In contrast, color object images were clearly and successfully reconstructed by MP-ICDH, as shown in Figs. 4(h) and 4(i). We show the reconstructed images at respective wavelength components on the different depths in Figs. 4(j)–4(q). Undesired wavelength components were successfully removed by WS-PSI. Thus, it has been clarified that the proposed system can perform imaging-lens-less color 3D imaging without crosstalk between object waves at multiple wavelengths. Its image quality is close to sequential two-wavelength phase-shifting incoherent digital holography with the time-division technique.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Experimental setup of MP-ICDH for transparent color objects.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Experimental results. (a) and (b) Images reconstructed by phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography with time-division technique. (c) One of the wavelength-multiplexed phase-shifted incoherent holograms. Phase masks displayed on the LCoS-SLM with the phase shifts of (d) (−97π/123, −100π/99) and (e) (97π/123, 100π/99) at (λ1, λ2). (f) and (g) Images reconstructed from a single-wavelength-multiplexed incoherent hologram. (h) and (i) Images reconstructed by MP-ICDH. (j), (k) Red- and (l), (m) green-wavelength components obtained by phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography with time-division technique. (n), (o) Red- and (p), (q) green-wavelength components obtained by MP-ICDH. The depth difference between (a), (f), (h), (j), (l), (n), (p) and (b), (g), (i), (k), (m), (o), (q) was 36 mm.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3.2 MP-ICDH for a reflective color 3D object

We constructed an MP-ICDH system for a reflective object as shown in Fig. 5. The two LEDs, the monochrome image sensor, and the LCoS-SLM used were the same as those in the previous section. A blue LED was added to record blue incoherent holograms for the reconstruction of a multicolor 3D object image. Its central wavelength and FWHM were λ3 = 455 nm and 18 nm, respectively. The LCoS-SLM sequentially provided regular phase shifts of 40π/123, 40π/99, and 40π/78 at the wavelengths of λ1, λ2, and λ3, respectively. We set a resistor tilted to the depth direction as a reflective color 3D object. The size of the resistor was 6 mm × 3 mm. Three LEDs illuminated a reflective object simultaneously and a monochrome image sensor recorded spatially incoherent and discrete narrow-band, wavelength-multiplexed, and phase-shifted holograms seven times. Phase shifts at multiple wavelengths were generated sequentially by an LCoS-SLM and seven grayscale holograms were obtained. Three object waves at three center wavelengths on the image sensor plane were retrieved from the recorded seven holograms by applying the algorithm of WS-PSI that was described in the section 2. After that, diffraction integrals were calculated to the respective object waves. The maximum phase shift at the central wavelength of 455 nm was more than 6π due to the generations of both a Fresnel phase lens and phase shifts and thus the use of a spatial light phase modulator with a wide phase-modulation range was essential. For comparison, object images were also reconstructed with the same interferometer but the three LEDs were turned on/off to record four phase-shifted incoherent holograms for each color sequentially. Twelve holograms were recorded using phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography with time-division technique. Object images were also obtained from a single-wavelength-multiplexed incoherent hologram to show the wavelength selectivity of MP-ICDH. Figure 6 shows the experimental results. The reconstructed images obtained by the time-division technique in Figs. 6(a)–6(f) did not contain any crosstalk noise between wavelengths and thus were regarded as standard images. As seen in Figs. 6(g)–6(l), not only the sum of the zeroth-order diffraction waves and the conjugate images, but also image components given by the crosstalk between the intensity distributions at the three wavelengths were reconstructed from a three-wavelength-multiplexed hologram. As a result, wavelength information could not be reconstructed correctly. In contrast, Figs. 6(m)–6(r) that were reconstructed by MP-ICDH resembled Figs. 6(a)–6(f). Multicolor object images on the arbitrary depths were reconstructed by MP-ICDH, as shown in Figs. 6(s) and 6(t). Magnified images shown in Figs. 6(u)–6(x) indicates blur and refocused. Thus, it has been clarified that the proposed system can perform imaging-lens-less multicolor 3D imaging without crosstalk between object waves at multiple wavelengths. Its image quality is close to sequential three-wavelength four-step phase-shifting incoherent digital holography with time-division technique.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Experimental setup of MP-ICDH for a reflective 3D color object.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Experimental results. (a)–(f) Images reconstructed by phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography with time-division technique. (g)–(l) Images reconstructed from a single-wavelength-multiplexed incoherent hologram. (m)–(t) Images obtained by MP-ICDH. (a)–(c), (g)–(i), (m)–(o), and (s) are images focused on the left side of the tilted resistor. (d)–(f), (j)–(l), (p)–(r), and (t) are images focused on the right side of the tilted resistor. (a), (d), (g), (j), (m), and (p) are intensity images obtained with a red LED. (b), (e), (h), (k), (n), and (q) are intensity images obtained with a green LED. (c), (f), (i), (l), (n), and (r) are intensity images obtained with a blue LED. (s) indicates the image focused on the color bars of the left side of the resistor through the numerical refocusing. (t) shows the image focused on the wire and the color bar of the right side of the resistor. (u) and (v) are magnified images of (s) and (t). These magnified areas are shown as the red rectangle of (a). (w) and (x) are also magnified images of (s) and (t). These magnified areas are shown as the green rectangle of (a). (y) Photograph of the object. Brightness of (a) – (f) and (m) – (x) is enhanced.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Conclusion

We have proposed MP-ICDH that is a single-path, self-interference, spatially incoherent, wavelength-multiplexed, and color digital holography technique to obtain a multicolor 3D image with a small number of spatially incoherent holograms and without wavelength filters nor wavelength changes of illumination light. WS-PSI enables the selective extraction of incoherent object waves from 2N + 1 wavelength-multiplexed holograms. In comparison with multicolor incoherent digital holography with Fourier spectroscopy and temporal division technique, the number of recordings of spatially incoherent color holograms is reduced by using WS-PSI. There is no requirement for mechanically moving parts and a single-path interferometer is successfully constructed employing an electrically driven phase shifter with a wide phase-modulation range. Wavelength filters are not needed to obtain an incoherent color holographic image with RGB LEDs and it is expected that light-use efficiency is improved. Experimental results show its effectiveness. Depth resolution of the constructed systems is based on FINCH [38]. When improving the depth resolution, it is effective to combine WS-PSI and an incoherent light sensing technique with PSF engineering such as COACH. In contrast, the MP-ICDH does not require the information of libraries of PSFs at multiple wavelengths in advance. The low noise in reconstruction is conducted by applying a FINCH system due to no zero-point problem that is seen in deconvolution imaging techniques. One of the next steps is the application to hyperspectral holographic image sensing of temporally incoherent light with WS-PSI and the collaborative utilization of compressive sensing and an LCoS-SLM is considered as a solution to reduce the number of recordings drastically [50]. The proposed single-path incoherent color digital holographic sensing system has the ability to open the applicability of multiwavelength DH to multicolor 3D sensing of stroboscopic illumination with LEDs, fluorescent lamp, and self-luminous light such as fluorescence light and chemically activated light. MP-ICDH has prospective applications in speckle-less multicolor imagers to observe 3D objects, multispectral 3D image sensing of self-luminous light, wavelength-filter-less and lens-less 3D microscopy, and other multiwavelength 3D imaging techniques.

Funding

Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (JPMJPR16P8); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (18H01456, 19H01097).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

1. D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948). [CrossRef]  

2. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52(10), 1123–1128 (1962). [CrossRef]  

3. J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967). [CrossRef]  

4. M. K. Kim, ed., Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer, 2011).

5. P. Picart and J.-C. Li, eds., Digital Holography (Wiley, 2013).

6. T.-C. Poon and J.-P. Liu, eds., Introduction to Modern Digital Holography with MATLAB (Cambridge University, 2014).

7. T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018). [CrossRef]  

8. T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995). [CrossRef]  

9. Y. Takaki, H. Kawai, and H. Ohzu, “Hybrid holographic microscopy free of conjugate and zero-order images,” Appl. Opt. 38(23), 4990–4996 (1999). [CrossRef]  

10. T. Shimobaba, Y. Sato, J. Miura, M. Takenouchi, and T. Ito, “Real-time digital holographic microscopy using the graphic processing unit,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11776–11781 (2008). [CrossRef]  

11. E. Watanabe, T. Hoshiba, and B. Javidi, “High-precision microscopic phase imaging without phase unwrapping for cancer cell identification,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1319–1321 (2013). [CrossRef]  

12. P. Picart, E. Moisson, and D. Mounier, “Twin-sensitivity measurement by spatial multiplexing of digitally recorded holograms,” Appl. Opt. 42(11), 1947–1957 (2003). [CrossRef]  

13. P. Picart, J. Leval, D. Mounier, and S. Gougeon, “Some opportunities for vibration analysis with time averaging in digital Fresnel holography,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 337–343 (2005). [CrossRef]  

14. T. Noda, S. Kawata, and S. Minami, “Three-dimensional phase-contrast imaging by a computed-tomography microscope,” Appl. Opt. 31(5), 670–674 (1992). [CrossRef]  

15. T. Kozacki, R. Krajewski, and M. Kujawińska, “Reconstruction of refractive-index distribution in off-axis digital holography optical diffraction tomographic system,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13758–13767 (2009). [CrossRef]  

16. G. Nehmetallah and P. P. Banerjee, “Applications of digital and analog holography in three-dimensional imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(4), 472–553 (2012). [CrossRef]  

17. S. Murata and N. Yasuda, “Potential of digital holography in particle measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32(7-8), 567–574 (2000). [CrossRef]  

18. A. Brodoline, N. Rawat, D. Alexandre, N. Cubedo, and M. Grosse, “4D compressive sensing holographic microscopy imaging of small moving objects,” Opt. Lett. 44(11), 2827–2830 (2019). [CrossRef]  

19. P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012). [CrossRef]  

20. Y. Endo, T. Tahara, and R. Okamoto, “Color single-pixel digital holography with a phase-encoded reference wave,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G149–G154 (2019). [CrossRef]  

21. T.-C. Poon ed, Optical Scanning Holography with Matlab (Springer, New York, 2007).

22. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 912–914 (2007). [CrossRef]  

23. M. K. Kim, “Full color natural light holographic camera,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9636–9642 (2013). [CrossRef]  

24. J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, “Incoherent digital holography: a review,” Appl. Sci. 8(1), 143 (2018). [CrossRef]  

25. B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1506–1508 (1997). [CrossRef]  

26. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 190–195 (2008). [CrossRef]  

27. M. Imbe, “Radiometric temperature measurement by incoherent digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 58(5), A82–A89 (2019). [CrossRef]  

28. T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, “Single-shot phase-shifting incoherent digital holography,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065705 (2017). [CrossRef]  

29. K. Yoshimori, “Interferometric spectral imaging for three-dimensional objects illuminated by a natural light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(4), 765–770 (2001). [CrossRef]  

30. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Fluorescence incoherent color holography,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2244–2250 (2007). [CrossRef]  

31. D. N. Naik, G. Pedrini, M. Takeda, and W. Osten, “Spectrally resolved incoherent holography: 3D spatial and spectral imaging using a Mach-Zehnder radial-shearing interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1857–1860 (2014). [CrossRef]  

32. Y. Wan, T. Man, and D. Wang, “Incoherent off-axis Fourier triangular color holography,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8565–8573 (2014). [CrossRef]  

33. X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014). [CrossRef]  

34. A. Vijayakumar and J. Rosen, “Spectrum and space resolved 4D imaging by coded aperture correlation holography (COACH) with diffractive objective lens,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 947–950 (2017). [CrossRef]  

35. S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, “Hyperspectral holography: an alternative application of the Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(5), B49–B55 (2017). [CrossRef]  

36. S. K. Sahoo, D. Tang, and C. Dang, “Single-shot multispectral imaging with a monochromatic camera,” Optica 4(10), 1209–1213 (2017). [CrossRef]  

37. C. M. Nguyen, D. Muhammad, and H.-S. Kwon, “Spatially incoherent common-path off-axis color digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 57(6), 1504–1509 (2018). [CrossRef]  

38. J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019). [CrossRef]  

39. K. Jianwattananukul, M. Obara, and K. Yoshimori, “Multispectral incoherent holography based on measurement of differential wavefront curvature,” Opt. Rev. 26(6), 616–630 (2019). [CrossRef]  

40. A. Vijayakumar, Y. Kashter, R. Kelner, and J. Rosen, “Coded aperture correlation holography–a new type of incoherent digital holograms,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12430–12441 (2016). [CrossRef]  

41. T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Four-step phase-shifting digital holography simultaneously sensing dual-wavelength information using a monochromatic image sensor,” J. Opt. 17(12), 125707 (2015). [CrossRef]  

42. T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2810–2813 (2015). [CrossRef]  

43. T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Multiwavelength digital holography with wavelength-multiplexed holograms and arbitrary symmetric phase shifts,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11157–11172 (2017). [CrossRef]  

44. S. Jeon, J. Lee, J. Cho, S. Jang, Y. Kim, and N. Park, “Wavelength-multiplexed digital holography for quantitative phase measurement using quantum dot film,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27305–27313 (2018). [CrossRef]  

45. T. Tahara, R. Otani, and Y. Takaki, “Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography: color three-dimensional imaging ability in relation to bit depth of wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2410 (2018). [CrossRef]  

46. T. Tahara and Y. Endo, “Multiwavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography without mechanical scanning,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G218–G225 (2019). [CrossRef]  

47. M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020). [CrossRef]  

48. Y.-C. Lin, C.-J. Cheng, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical sectioning with a low-coherence phase-shifting digital holographic microscope,” Appl. Opt. 50(7), B25–B30 (2011). [CrossRef]  

49. Y. Hayasaki, “Achromatic-phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography: theoretical analyses of zero-phase-shifting error condition and linear and nonlinear calibrations,” Opt. Rev. 22(5), 731–735 (2015). [CrossRef]  

50. I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52(10), 1123–1128 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. K. Kim, ed., Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer, 2011).
  5. P. Picart and J.-C. Li, eds., Digital Holography (Wiley, 2013).
  6. T.-C. Poon and J.-P. Liu, eds., Introduction to Modern Digital Holography with MATLAB (Cambridge University, 2014).
  7. T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Takaki, H. Kawai, and H. Ohzu, “Hybrid holographic microscopy free of conjugate and zero-order images,” Appl. Opt. 38(23), 4990–4996 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Shimobaba, Y. Sato, J. Miura, M. Takenouchi, and T. Ito, “Real-time digital holographic microscopy using the graphic processing unit,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11776–11781 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. Watanabe, T. Hoshiba, and B. Javidi, “High-precision microscopic phase imaging without phase unwrapping for cancer cell identification,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1319–1321 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. Picart, E. Moisson, and D. Mounier, “Twin-sensitivity measurement by spatial multiplexing of digitally recorded holograms,” Appl. Opt. 42(11), 1947–1957 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Picart, J. Leval, D. Mounier, and S. Gougeon, “Some opportunities for vibration analysis with time averaging in digital Fresnel holography,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 337–343 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Noda, S. Kawata, and S. Minami, “Three-dimensional phase-contrast imaging by a computed-tomography microscope,” Appl. Opt. 31(5), 670–674 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Kozacki, R. Krajewski, and M. Kujawińska, “Reconstruction of refractive-index distribution in off-axis digital holography optical diffraction tomographic system,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13758–13767 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Nehmetallah and P. P. Banerjee, “Applications of digital and analog holography in three-dimensional imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(4), 472–553 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Murata and N. Yasuda, “Potential of digital holography in particle measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32(7-8), 567–574 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Brodoline, N. Rawat, D. Alexandre, N. Cubedo, and M. Grosse, “4D compressive sensing holographic microscopy imaging of small moving objects,” Opt. Lett. 44(11), 2827–2830 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Endo, T. Tahara, and R. Okamoto, “Color single-pixel digital holography with a phase-encoded reference wave,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G149–G154 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. T.-C. Poon ed, Optical Scanning Holography with Matlab (Springer, New York, 2007).
  22. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 912–914 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. K. Kim, “Full color natural light holographic camera,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9636–9642 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, “Incoherent digital holography: a review,” Appl. Sci. 8(1), 143 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1506–1508 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 190–195 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Imbe, “Radiometric temperature measurement by incoherent digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 58(5), A82–A89 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, “Single-shot phase-shifting incoherent digital holography,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065705 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. K. Yoshimori, “Interferometric spectral imaging for three-dimensional objects illuminated by a natural light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(4), 765–770 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Fluorescence incoherent color holography,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2244–2250 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. N. Naik, G. Pedrini, M. Takeda, and W. Osten, “Spectrally resolved incoherent holography: 3D spatial and spectral imaging using a Mach-Zehnder radial-shearing interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1857–1860 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. Wan, T. Man, and D. Wang, “Incoherent off-axis Fourier triangular color holography,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8565–8573 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Vijayakumar and J. Rosen, “Spectrum and space resolved 4D imaging by coded aperture correlation holography (COACH) with diffractive objective lens,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 947–950 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, “Hyperspectral holography: an alternative application of the Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(5), B49–B55 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. K. Sahoo, D. Tang, and C. Dang, “Single-shot multispectral imaging with a monochromatic camera,” Optica 4(10), 1209–1213 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  37. C. M. Nguyen, D. Muhammad, and H.-S. Kwon, “Spatially incoherent common-path off-axis color digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 57(6), 1504–1509 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  38. J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  39. K. Jianwattananukul, M. Obara, and K. Yoshimori, “Multispectral incoherent holography based on measurement of differential wavefront curvature,” Opt. Rev. 26(6), 616–630 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  40. A. Vijayakumar, Y. Kashter, R. Kelner, and J. Rosen, “Coded aperture correlation holography–a new type of incoherent digital holograms,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12430–12441 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  41. T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Four-step phase-shifting digital holography simultaneously sensing dual-wavelength information using a monochromatic image sensor,” J. Opt. 17(12), 125707 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  42. T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2810–2813 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  43. T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Multiwavelength digital holography with wavelength-multiplexed holograms and arbitrary symmetric phase shifts,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11157–11172 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  44. S. Jeon, J. Lee, J. Cho, S. Jang, Y. Kim, and N. Park, “Wavelength-multiplexed digital holography for quantitative phase measurement using quantum dot film,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27305–27313 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  45. T. Tahara, R. Otani, and Y. Takaki, “Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography: color three-dimensional imaging ability in relation to bit depth of wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2410 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  46. T. Tahara and Y. Endo, “Multiwavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography without mechanical scanning,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G218–G225 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  47. M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  48. Y.-C. Lin, C.-J. Cheng, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical sectioning with a low-coherence phase-shifting digital holographic microscope,” Appl. Opt. 50(7), B25–B30 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  49. Y. Hayasaki, “Achromatic-phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography: theoretical analyses of zero-phase-shifting error condition and linear and nonlinear calibrations,” Opt. Rev. 22(5), 731–735 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  50. I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (6)

2018 (5)

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, “Incoherent digital holography: a review,” Appl. Sci. 8(1), 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. M. Nguyen, D. Muhammad, and H.-S. Kwon, “Spatially incoherent common-path off-axis color digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 57(6), 1504–1509 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jeon, J. Lee, J. Cho, S. Jang, Y. Kim, and N. Park, “Wavelength-multiplexed digital holography for quantitative phase measurement using quantum dot film,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27305–27313 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, and Y. Takaki, “Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography: color three-dimensional imaging ability in relation to bit depth of wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2410 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

2016 (2)

A. Vijayakumar, Y. Kashter, R. Kelner, and J. Rosen, “Coded aperture correlation holography–a new type of incoherent digital holograms,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12430–12441 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Y. Hayasaki, “Achromatic-phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography: theoretical analyses of zero-phase-shifting error condition and linear and nonlinear calibrations,” Opt. Rev. 22(5), 731–735 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Four-step phase-shifting digital holography simultaneously sensing dual-wavelength information using a monochromatic image sensor,” J. Opt. 17(12), 125707 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2810–2813 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Nehmetallah and P. P. Banerjee, “Applications of digital and analog holography in three-dimensional imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(4), 472–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

T. Shimobaba, Y. Sato, J. Miura, M. Takenouchi, and T. Ito, “Real-time digital holographic microscopy using the graphic processing unit,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11776–11781 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 190–195 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Murata and N. Yasuda, “Potential of digital holography in particle measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32(7-8), 567–574 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1967 (1)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref]

Abdulhalim, I.

I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Abuleil, M.

I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alexandre, D.

Arai, Y.

T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, “Single-shot phase-shifting incoherent digital holography,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065705 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Multiwavelength digital holography with wavelength-multiplexed holograms and arbitrary symmetric phase shifts,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11157–11172 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Four-step phase-shifting digital holography simultaneously sensing dual-wavelength information using a monochromatic image sensor,” J. Opt. 17(12), 125707 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2810–2813 (2015).
[Crossref]

August, I.

I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Awatsuji, Y.

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, P. P.

G. Nehmetallah and P. P. Banerjee, “Applications of digital and analog holography in three-dimensional imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(4), 472–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brodoline, A.

Brooker, G.

Bulbul, A.

J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.-J.

Cho, J.

Clemente, P.

P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012).
[Crossref]

Company, V. T.

P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cubedo, N.

Dang, C.

Doh, K.

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

Durán, V.

P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012).
[Crossref]

Endo, Y.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[Crossref]

Gotohda, T.

Gougeon, S.

Grosse, M.

Hasebe, M.

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

Hayasaki, Y.

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, “Incoherent digital holography: a review,” Appl. Sci. 8(1), 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Hayasaki, “Achromatic-phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography: theoretical analyses of zero-phase-shifting error condition and linear and nonlinear calibrations,” Opt. Rev. 22(5), 731–735 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hoshiba, T.

Imbe, M.

Indebetouw, G.

Ito, T.

Jang, S.

Javidi, B.

Jeon, S.

Jianwattananukul, K.

K. Jianwattananukul, M. Obara, and K. Yoshimori, “Multispectral incoherent holography based on measurement of differential wavefront curvature,” Opt. Rev. 26(6), 616–630 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kalenkov, G. S.

Kalenkov, S. G.

Kanno, T.

T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, “Single-shot phase-shifting incoherent digital holography,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065705 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kashter, Y.

J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Vijayakumar, Y. Kashter, R. Kelner, and J. Rosen, “Coded aperture correlation holography–a new type of incoherent digital holograms,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12430–12441 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawai, H.

Kawata, S.

Kelner, R.

J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Vijayakumar, Y. Kashter, R. Kelner, and J. Rosen, “Coded aperture correlation holography–a new type of incoherent digital holograms,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12430–12441 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kikunaga, S.

Kim, M. K.

Kim, Y.

Kozacki, T.

Krajewski, R.

Kujawinska, M.

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kwon, H.-S.

Lancis, J.

P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, R. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

Leith, E. N.

Leval, J.

Liang, E.

X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-C.

Liu, J.-P.

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, “Incoherent digital holography: a review,” Appl. Sci. 8(1), 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, F.

X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014).
[Crossref]

Man, T.

Matoba, O.

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018).
[Crossref]

Minami, S.

Miura, J.

Moisson, E.

Mori, R.

T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2810–2813 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Four-step phase-shifting digital holography simultaneously sensing dual-wavelength information using a monochromatic image sensor,” J. Opt. 17(12), 125707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mounier, D.

Muhammad, D.

Mukherjee, S.

J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

Murata, S.

S. Murata and N. Yasuda, “Potential of digital holography in particle measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32(7-8), 567–574 (2000).
[Crossref]

Naik, D. N.

Nehmetallah, G.

G. Nehmetallah and P. P. Banerjee, “Applications of digital and analog holography in three-dimensional imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(4), 472–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, C. M.

Noda, T.

Obara, M.

K. Jianwattananukul, M. Obara, and K. Yoshimori, “Multispectral incoherent holography based on measurement of differential wavefront curvature,” Opt. Rev. 26(6), 616–630 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ohzu, H.

Oiknine, Y.

I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, R.

Omae, K.

Osten, W.

Otani, R.

T. Tahara, R. Otani, and Y. Takaki, “Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography: color three-dimensional imaging ability in relation to bit depth of wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2410 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Multiwavelength digital holography with wavelength-multiplexed holograms and arbitrary symmetric phase shifts,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11157–11172 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ozawa, T.

T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, “Single-shot phase-shifting incoherent digital holography,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065705 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, N.

Pedrini, G.

Picart, P.

Poon, T.-C.

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, “Incoherent digital holography: a review,” Appl. Sci. 8(1), 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Lin, C.-J. Cheng, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical sectioning with a low-coherence phase-shifting digital holographic microscope,” Appl. Opt. 50(7), B25–B30 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1506–1508 (1997).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

Poon ed, T.-C.

T.-C. Poon ed, Optical Scanning Holography with Matlab (Springer, New York, 2007).

Quan, X.

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rai, M. R.

J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rawat, N.

Rosen, J.

Sahoo, S. K.

Sato, Y.

Schilling, B.

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schilling, B. W.

Shi, X.

X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimobaba, T.

Shinoda, K.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1506–1508 (1997).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shtanko, A. E.

Stern, A.

I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Storrie, B.

Suzuki, Y.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1506–1508 (1997).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tahara, T.

Y. Endo, T. Tahara, and R. Okamoto, “Color single-pixel digital holography with a phase-encoded reference wave,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G149–G154 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara and Y. Endo, “Multiwavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography without mechanical scanning,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G218–G225 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, “Incoherent digital holography: a review,” Appl. Sci. 8(1), 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, and Y. Takaki, “Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography: color three-dimensional imaging ability in relation to bit depth of wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2410 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Multiwavelength digital holography with wavelength-multiplexed holograms and arbitrary symmetric phase shifts,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11157–11172 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, “Single-shot phase-shifting incoherent digital holography,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065705 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Four-step phase-shifting digital holography simultaneously sensing dual-wavelength information using a monochromatic image sensor,” J. Opt. 17(12), 125707 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2810–2813 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tajahuerce, E.

P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, and Y. Takaki, “Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography: color three-dimensional imaging ability in relation to bit depth of wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2410 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Multiwavelength digital holography with wavelength-multiplexed holograms and arbitrary symmetric phase shifts,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11157–11172 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Four-step phase-shifting digital holography simultaneously sensing dual-wavelength information using a monochromatic image sensor,” J. Opt. 17(12), 125707 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2810–2813 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki, H. Kawai, and H. Ohzu, “Hybrid holographic microscopy free of conjugate and zero-order images,” Appl. Opt. 38(23), 4990–4996 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takeda, M.

Takenouchi, M.

Tamada, Y.

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Upatnieks, J.

Vijayakumar, A.

Wan, Y.

Wang, D.

Watanabe, E.

Wu, M.

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. H.

Yasuda, N.

S. Murata and N. Yasuda, “Potential of digital holography in particle measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32(7-8), 567–574 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yoshimori, K.

K. Jianwattananukul, M. Obara, and K. Yoshimori, “Multispectral incoherent holography based on measurement of differential wavefront curvature,” Opt. Rev. 26(6), 616–630 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshimori, “Interferometric spectral imaging for three-dimensional objects illuminated by a natural light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(4), 765–770 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yuan, B.

X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (2)

G. Nehmetallah and P. P. Banerjee, “Applications of digital and analog holography in three-dimensional imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 4(4), 472–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, “Recent advances in self-interference incoherent digital holography,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(1), 1–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (9)

C. M. Nguyen, D. Muhammad, and H.-S. Kwon, “Spatially incoherent common-path off-axis color digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 57(6), 1504–1509 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara and Y. Endo, “Multiwavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography without mechanical scanning,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G218–G225 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Lin, C.-J. Cheng, and T.-C. Poon, “Optical sectioning with a low-coherence phase-shifting digital holographic microscope,” Appl. Opt. 50(7), B25–B30 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Picart, E. Moisson, and D. Mounier, “Twin-sensitivity measurement by spatial multiplexing of digitally recorded holograms,” Appl. Opt. 42(11), 1947–1957 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Picart, J. Leval, D. Mounier, and S. Gougeon, “Some opportunities for vibration analysis with time averaging in digital Fresnel holography,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 337–343 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Noda, S. Kawata, and S. Minami, “Three-dimensional phase-contrast imaging by a computed-tomography microscope,” Appl. Opt. 31(5), 670–674 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki, H. Kawai, and H. Ohzu, “Hybrid holographic microscopy free of conjugate and zero-order images,” Appl. Opt. 38(23), 4990–4996 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Endo, T. Tahara, and R. Okamoto, “Color single-pixel digital holography with a phase-encoded reference wave,” Appl. Opt. 58(34), G149–G154 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Imbe, “Radiometric temperature measurement by incoherent digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 58(5), A82–A89 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (2)

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, “Incoherent digital holography: a review,” Appl. Sci. 8(1), 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, and Y. Takaki, “Wavelength-selective phase-shifting digital holography: color three-dimensional imaging ability in relation to bit depth of wavelength-multiplexed holograms,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2410 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Kumar, X. Quan, Y. Awatsuji, C. Cheng, M. Hasebe, Y. Tamada, and O. Matoba, “Common-path multimodal three-dimensional fluorescence and phase imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 25(03), 1 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, “Four-step phase-shifting digital holography simultaneously sensing dual-wavelength information using a monochromatic image sensor,” J. Opt. 17(12), 125707 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, “Single-shot phase-shifting incoherent digital holography,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065705 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) (1)

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, “Digital holography and its multidimensional imaging applications: a review,” Microscopy (Oxford, U. K.) 67(2), 55–67 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 190–195 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34(5), 1338–1344 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

S. Murata and N. Yasuda, “Potential of digital holography in particle measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32(7-8), 567–574 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Rev. (2)

K. Jianwattananukul, M. Obara, and K. Yoshimori, “Multispectral incoherent holography based on measurement of differential wavefront curvature,” Opt. Rev. 26(6), 616–630 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Hayasaki, “Achromatic-phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography: theoretical analyses of zero-phase-shifting error condition and linear and nonlinear calibrations,” Opt. Rev. 22(5), 731–735 (2015).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Clemente, V. Durán, E. Tajahuerce, V. T. Company, and J. Lancis, “Single-pixel digital ghost holography,” Phys. Rev. A 86(4), 041803 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

X. Shi, B. Yuan, W. Zhu, E. Liang, X. Liu, and F. Ma, “4D imaging based on the Fresnel incoherent correlation holography,” Proc. SPIE 9271, 92710W (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

I. August, Y. Oiknine, M. Abuleil, I. Abdulhalim, and A. Stern, “Miniature compressive ultraspectral imaging system utilizing a single liquid crystal phase retarder,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

T.-C. Poon ed, Optical Scanning Holography with Matlab (Springer, New York, 2007).

M. K. Kim, ed., Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer, 2011).

P. Picart and J.-C. Li, eds., Digital Holography (Wiley, 2013).

T.-C. Poon and J.-P. Liu, eds., Introduction to Modern Digital Holography with MATLAB (Cambridge University, 2014).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of MP-ICDH. (a) Basic configuration of MP-ICDH. Arrows in the figure indicate the transmission axis of the polarizers and the modulation axis of the polarization-sensitive SLM. (b) Polarization transitions of spatially-incoherent two waves that form phase-shifted holograms at discrete wavelengths.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Optical implementations of (a) the previously constructed DH system based on WS-PSI and (b) the proposed MP-ICDH system.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of MP-ICDH for transparent color objects.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental results. (a) and (b) Images reconstructed by phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography with time-division technique. (c) One of the wavelength-multiplexed phase-shifted incoherent holograms. Phase masks displayed on the LCoS-SLM with the phase shifts of (d) (−97π/123, −100π/99) and (e) (97π/123, 100π/99) at (λ1, λ2). (f) and (g) Images reconstructed from a single-wavelength-multiplexed incoherent hologram. (h) and (i) Images reconstructed by MP-ICDH. (j), (k) Red- and (l), (m) green-wavelength components obtained by phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography with time-division technique. (n), (o) Red- and (p), (q) green-wavelength components obtained by MP-ICDH. The depth difference between (a), (f), (h), (j), (l), (n), (p) and (b), (g), (i), (k), (m), (o), (q) was 36 mm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental setup of MP-ICDH for a reflective 3D color object.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental results. (a)–(f) Images reconstructed by phase-shifting incoherent color digital holography with time-division technique. (g)–(l) Images reconstructed from a single-wavelength-multiplexed incoherent hologram. (m)–(t) Images obtained by MP-ICDH. (a)–(c), (g)–(i), (m)–(o), and (s) are images focused on the left side of the tilted resistor. (d)–(f), (j)–(l), (p)–(r), and (t) are images focused on the right side of the tilted resistor. (a), (d), (g), (j), (m), and (p) are intensity images obtained with a red LED. (b), (e), (h), (k), (n), and (q) are intensity images obtained with a green LED. (c), (f), (i), (l), (n), and (r) are intensity images obtained with a blue LED. (s) indicates the image focused on the color bars of the left side of the resistor through the numerical refocusing. (t) shows the image focused on the wire and the color bar of the right side of the resistor. (u) and (v) are magnified images of (s) and (t). These magnified areas are shown as the red rectangle of (a). (w) and (x) are also magnified images of (s) and (t). These magnified areas are shown as the green rectangle of (a). (y) Photograph of the object. Brightness of (a) – (f) and (m) – (x) is enhanced.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( I ( x , y : 0 , , 0 ) I ( x , y : α 11 , , α N 1 ) I ( x , y : α 12 , , α N 2 ) I ( x , y : α 1 ( 2 N 1 ) , , α N ( 2 N 1 ) ) I ( x , y : α 1 ( 2 N ) , , α N ( 2 N ) ) ) = ( 1   1   0   1   0 1   cos α 11   sin α 11   cos α N 1   sin α N 1 1   cos α 12   sin α 12   cos α N 2   sin α N 2 1 cos α 1 ( 2 N 1 ) sin α 1 ( 2 N 1 ) cos α N ( 2 N 1 ) sin α N ( 2 N 1 ) 1 cos α 1 ( 2 N ) sin α 1 ( 2 N ) cos α N ( 2 N ) sin α N ( 2 N ) )   × ( I 0 t h ( x , y ) C 1 A o 1 ( x , y ) cos ϕ o 1 ( x , y ) C 1 A o 1 ( x , y ) sin ϕ o 1 ( x , y ) C N A o N ( x , y ) cos ϕ o N ( x , y ) C N A o N ( x , y ) sin ϕ o N ( x , y ) ) .

Metrics