Abstract

The interaction of specific surface plasmon modes in metal-dielectric-metal arrangements is investigated, motivated by their relevance to device-based configurations. The absorption spectra of the relevant nanostructures considering geometrical variation, such as the width and height of the metal or dielectric, are probed considering such interactions. Frequency domain simulations are used to study related multiple surface plasmon polariton resonance modes. It is indicated that the resonant energy level interaction due to the coupling between modes in a horizontal dielectric layer and those in a vertical groove can be engineered and understood in terms of energy level hybridization.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Considering that two-dimensional integrated circuit (IC) related feature sizes are now routinely at the deep sub-wavelength scale, possible visible light based far-field optical interrogation would be enabled through a better understanding of the local/near-field optical response [13] of metal-dielectric systems. While the related surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) and optical resonances have been much investigated for applications ranging from energy harvesting [4,5] to Raman spectroscopy [68] and biosensors [9], the present study seeks to extend the domain of application to IC diagnostics, such as feature size variation. We study the plasmonic characteristics relevant to confined geometries and the modulation of the absorption features that may be observed, e.g., due to slight discrepancy in intended lithographic design. The interaction as well as the coupling between the SPPs originating from different underlying geometries, e.g., vertical vs. horizontal modes, are also probed in detail, with respect to the intrinsic electric and magnetic fields.

Foundational to this work, SPP modes at metal /dielectric (M/D) and metal/dielectric/metal (M/D/M) interfaces [10,11] indicating enhanced absorption in deeply sub-wavelength grooves [12] and structures such as metal nanocubes with dielectric spacers [1315] have been previously studied. The resonances in a vertical metal slit [12,1618] as well as the horizontal thin dielectric spacer were probed [1315,1923], e.g., the SPP modes in a M/D/M cavity were characterized through Fabry-Pérot (F-P) resonances fulfilling the condition: β · l ∼ an integer multiple of π/2, with β ( = 2π/λspp), where λspp is the effective wavelength, i.e., the ratio of the free space light wavelength (λ0) to the effective refractive index: neff = λ0spp, at a given length scale (l). Moreover, the coupling between localized/cavity SPP modes and propagating surface SPP modes associated with periodic gratings was evaluated [2326], with observed energy splitting. Such features and aspects may be used in design [1315,19,20] as well as diagnostics.

Here, we probe the coupling effects related to localized/cavity SPP interactions in non-planar geometries. Such interactions are studied with respect to a grating-like background, with specific superimposed structures, constituted from both metal (M) and dielectric (D). A representative assembly, with incident illumination shown, is depicted in Fig. 1(a). The model system is constituted from a horizontal M/D/M cavity in addition to a vertical Metal/Air/Metal (M/A/M) cavity. Such a model was chosen to correspond, for example, to possible topology of metal layers in an IC configuration, where the A and D may be representative of two different dielectrics.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of a metal grating on the top of dielectric spacer (chosen to be SiO2) and metal (Ag) substrate, with normally incident p-polarized light. (b) The configuration of the unit cell (with periodic boundaries – $\color{red}{\textrm{red}}$ vertical lines), indicating the metal/dielectric/metal (M/D/M) as well as the metal/air/metal (M/A/M) constituents. The geometrical parameters studied include the length of the metal cavity (w), groove width (g), periodicity (p) = w + g, height of the grating ($h$), and the dielectric spacer thickness (t). The two ports (port 1: input, port 2: output) were used for the simulations.

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The two confined SPP modes in M/A/M groove and the M/D/M horizontal cavity may be characterized by respective wave propagation constants (β) and pertinent length scales, as of the F-P kind. Relevant geometrical parameters that were used to tune the SPP related absorption characteristics are the (i) length of the metal cavity: w, (ii) groove width: g, (iii) the periodicity: p (= w + g), (iv) the height of the grating: h, as well as the (v) the dielectric spacer thickness: t. The formed SPP modes and their interactions were then probed, through monitoring the variation of the absorption spectra as a function of such tuning. For instance, a SPP mode in a M/A/M groove is excited when βMAM · h ≈ nπ/2. Similarly, a SPP mode in a M/D/M cavity would be excited when βMDM · w ≈ mπ. The n and m are odd integers corresponding to constructive interference [12,13].

The relevant computational simulations to obtain insights related to the metal-dielectric geometries were done using COMSOL. The configuration for the simulation is shown in Fig. 1(b). The mesh size was in the range of 0.1 nm – 40 nm, and the corners were rounded out with ∼ 1 nm radius. The light (p-polarized) is incident normal to the sample surface, with incident wavelength (λ0) in the range of 400 nm to 800 nm. The mismatch between the confined M/D/M or the M/A/M mode and propagating guided modes would be relevant at higher energies, compared to the energies (< 3 eV) considered in this work. For instance, an M/D interface guided mode does not play a major role with small gap widths, say < 50 nm; instead F-P like cavity modes dominate and will be studied here.

2. SPP induced absorption peaks of metallic grating with dielectric spacer

We first investigate the influence of the dielectric spacer in the M/D/M constituent, with respect to the absorption spectra and related mode structure. For metallic grating with subwavelength periodicity, significant absorption may occur under normally incident p-polarized light due to SPP excitation inside the groove. With small slit widths in the metallic grating, the SPP mode excited on the groove surface can be made to satisfy the resonance condition β · h ≈ π/2 [12]. The initial choice of parameters, i.e., p = 200 nm, g = 40 nm, h = 40nm, t = 5nm, were in the range achievable through commercial lithography, as deployed in IC fabrication. The metal was chosen to be silver (Ag) and the dielectric (D) was SiO2. The absorption spectra, obtained from the simulations, are plotted in Fig. 2(a), for t = 0 nm and t = 5 nm, i.e., in the latter case, with an additional dielectric spacer layer in between the Ag grating on the top and the Ag substrate, on the bottom. The dielectric constant of the Ag (= ɛm) was estimated from a Lorentz model: ɛm(ω) = 1+∑n{ɛn/[an()2-bn()+cn]}, where ɛn is the resonance strength, an, bn and cn are fitted coefficients [23]. The dielectric constant of SiO2 (= ɛd) was determined through a Sellmeier type equation [27],: ɛd = 1+∑i=1,2,3[(Biλo)/(λo-Ci)]. The absorption A = 1-R-T, where R and T are reflectance and transmittance extracted from two ports at the top and bottom boundaries – see the simulation setup in Fig. 1(b). The T = 0 since there is negligible transmittance for Ag substrate (of thickness > 100 nm) in the visible wavelength range.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Absorption (A) spectra of Ag grating with (t = 5 nm, $\color{orange}{\textrm{orange dotted line}}$) and without (t = 0 nm, $\color{blue}{\textrm{blue solid line}}$) $\textrm{Si}{\textrm{O}_2}$ dielectric layer spacer. Here p = 200 nm, h = 40 nm and g = 40 nm. For the labeled absorption peaks in (a), the magnitude of the out-of-plane magnetic field are plotted for structure with dielectric spacer in (b) E ∼ 1.62 eV: peak 1, (c) E ∼ 2.15 eV: peak 2, and (d) E ∼ 2.57 eV: peak 3. The magnitude of the magnetic field is indicated at the right.

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An absorption spectrum with more delineated peaks was observed for the structure with dielectric spacer (M/D/M) – dotted line in Fig. 2(a), in comparison to that seen on a grooved Ag surface [solid line in Fig. 2(a)], when the spacer was absent. An absorption peak observed at ∼ 2.48 eV was ascribed to F-P like SPP resonances in the vertical M/A/M groove, with the resonance condition inferred through:

$${\beta _{MAM}} \cdot h + \phi /2 \approx n\pi /2$$
Here, ϕ denotes the reflection phase change (in radians) at the bottom of the groove and may be obtained numerically from the full field simulation [13,28,29]. The βMAM was estimated through using the following relations [12]:
$$\tan ({\zeta g/2} )\approx{-} i\eta /{\varepsilon _m}\zeta $$
$$\zeta = {({k_0^2 - \beta_{MAM}^2} )^{1/2}}$$
$$\eta = {({{\varepsilon_m}k_0^2 - \beta_{MAM}^2} )^{1/2}}$$

From E = 2.48 eV, we deduce the k0 (= E/ħc = 2π/λ0). Subsequently, we estimate: βMAM = 20.8 µm−1 with neff= λ0βMAM/2π = 1.65 and ϕ = 1.1 from simulations. Equation (1) may not be exactly satisfied, due to the scattering around the corner of the grating and the SPP propagating loss inside the structure.

The use of a thin dielectric spacer layer between the grating and the substrate can support SPP in the related M/D/M structure, with an associated resonance condition:

$${\beta _{MDM}} \cdot w + \delta \approx m\pi $$
Here, δ (in radians) was the phase difference between the right and left propagating SPP modes in M/D/M horizontal cavity, and is directly obtained from numerical simulation [13,28,29].

The absorption peaks essentially arise from the energy stored in the respective resonances associated with the M/A/M and the M/D/M geometries. While the peak, in the absence of a dielectric layer, is related predominantly to an M/A/M resonance, in contrast, peak 3 (with a dielectric layer present) arises from the coupling of modes comprising both M/A/M and M/D/M resonances. In the latter case, e.g., for the peak ∼ 2.57 eV, we estimate: βMAM = 24.5 µm−1 with neff = 1.9 and ϕ = 0.95 from the simulations. It is relevant to note the variation in βMAM as a function of the added dielectric spacer. There are additional resonances specific to the M/D/M geometry, with F-P like character ascribed to the absorption peaks at 1.62 eV, 2.15 eV, and 2.57 eV. The magnetic field profiles are indicated at the bottom of Fig. 2, for each of these peaks. However, the field profile related to E ∼ 2.57 eV, seems to be different in character, compared to the profiles related to peaks 1 and 2, with finite t. As the t is much smaller than λ0, the βMDM of the fundamental guided mode in the M/D/M structure was determined through the following set of relations [11]:

$$\tan ({{\kappa_d}t} )= 2{\varepsilon _d}{\varepsilon _m}{\kappa _d}{\kappa _m}/({\varepsilon_m^2\kappa_d^2 - \varepsilon_d^2\kappa_m^2} )$$
$${\kappa _d} = {({{\varepsilon_d}k_0^2 - \beta_{MDM}^2} )^{1/2}}$$
$${\kappa _m} = {({\beta_{MDM}^2 - {\varepsilon_m}k_0^2} )^{1/2}}$$
The respective values of the βMDM = 50.6 µm−1 (for peak 1 at 1.62 eV), = 85 µm−1 (for peak 2 at 2.15 eV) and = 135 µm−1 (for peak 3 at 2.57 eV). From simulations, it was observed that δ ∼ 2 (at 1.62 eV), ∼ 2.6 (at 2.15 eV) and ∼ 0.9 (at 2.57 eV). Consequently, with w = 160 nm, m ∼ 3 (peak 1), m ∼ 5 (peak 2) and m ∼ 7 (peak 3) in Eq. (3) – all with reference to Figs. 2(b)–2(d), respectively. The absorption peak 3 is enhanced with the introduced dielectric thin film layer and is to be compared with the relatively broad absorption peak at E ∼ 2.48 eV, for the Ag grating without the dielectric spacer. Further, the broadening and energy shifting of the respective absorption peaks may be indicative of coupling between the M/A/M and M/D/M SPP modes. For greater understanding of such coupling, further variation in the grating geometry was considered.

3. Investigating absorption with respect to grating groove width

The air gap width (g) was varied, at a fixed p (of 200 nm, as previously stated) to investigate possible M/A/M - M/D/M mode coupling. Figure 3(a) compares the absorption spectra of the previously considered g = 40 nm with a modified g = 20 nm. For the smaller g, there is a redshift of the absorption peaks as the horizontal M/D/M resonator length, w, is longer implying a smaller βMDM required to match the constancy of the βMDM · w product. Moreover, there are two clear absorption features - peaks (b) and (c) in Fig. 3(a) observed at E = 2.33 eV and E = 2.44 eV. From Eqs. (2a)–(2c), we obtain βMDM = 103.3 µm1 – for peak (b) at 2.33 eV, and = 117.5 µm1 – for peak (c) at 2.44 eV. With a corresponding δ ∼ 2.8, obtained from simulations, m ∼ 7 in Eq. (3). Additionally, we obtain βMAM = 26 µm1, and δ ∼ 0.9, with correspondence to Eq. (1) and yielding a n ∼ 1, related to the M/A/M SPP resonance.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Absorption (A) spectra for g = 40 nm ($\color{blue}{\textrm{blue solid line}}$), with absorption peaks (1, 2, and 3) and g = 20 nm ($\color{orange}{\textrm{orange dotted line}}$), with absorption peaks (a, b, and c). The magnitude of the out-of-plane magnetic field are plotted for the lower energy peak (b) E ∼ 2.33 eV, and the higher energy peak (c) E ∼ 2.44 eV. The magnitude of the magnetic field is indicated at the right.

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Consequently, we conclude that the SPP resonance modes supported by the M/A/M vertical groove and horizontal M/D/M cavity resonator both contribute to the two absorption features – related to peaks (b) and (c) in Fig. 3(a). The field profiles corresponding to the peak features are plotted in the corresponding Figs. 3(b) and 3(c) and show enhanced magnetic field in both groove and dielectric spacer, but differ in detailed distribution, e.g., there seems to be a greater spread of energy in the case of Fig. 3(c). For g varying in the range of 5 nm to 50 nm, and a fixed w of 180 nm, the absorption spectra are compared in Fig. 4(a), with an aim of understanding the origin of the two peaks. The redshift of the lower energy peaks (∼ 2 eV, labeled by short black lines) is hypothesized as due to the interaction of the magnetic moments between two M/D/M cavities on either side of the groove, and will be discussed later in Section 4.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) The variation of the absorption (A) spectra as a function of the groove width (g) in the range of 5 nm (bottom) to 50 nm (top). The M/D/M cavity length (w) is fixed at 180 nm, and the groove height (h) at 40 nm, with t = 5 nm. The circles and the triangles represent the high and low energy modes inside the vertical groove. The absorption peaks labeled by short black lines, on the left, are related to F-P like SPP resonances in the horizontal M/D/M resonator satisfying the resonance condition βMDM · w ≈ 5π. (b) A plot of the high and low energy modes, from (a) indicates an energy gap.

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For the higher energy features (2.1 eV – 2.6 eV), it was seen from Fig. 4(a) that the high (/low) energy mode has a larger amplitude for large (/small) g. The respective high and low energy resonance energies are plotted in Fig. 4(b) as a function of the g, showing an energy gap. These two resonance peaks may be revealing of energy hybridization and splitting of coupled SPP modes originating from the M/A/M groove and M/D/M cavity. Here we choose three representative groove widths to illustrate: g = 10 nm (with the 2.24 eV and 2.38 eV, as the low and high energy modes), g = 20 nm (with the 2.33 eV and 2.44 eV, as the low and high energy modes) g = 50 nm (with the 2.37 eV and 2.58 eV, as the low and high energy modes). In the dielectric layer, the magnitude of Ex is plotted in Figs. 5(b)–5(d), where we observe that two modes have distinct field profiles – the higher energy mode is mostly situated inside the groove while the lower energy mode is localized to the groove edge.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) The horizontal electric field (Ex) profiles along the dotted yellow line, are plotted for (b) g = 10 nm, (c) g = 20 nm, and (d) g = 40 nm, for the respective lower and higher energy modes, taken from Fig. 4(a). The electric fields may be related to the surface current at the bottom of the groove. The black dashed lines in (b-d) indicate the position of the groove walls.

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A discrimination of the difference between the two resonance modes inside the groove may be considered on the basis of the horizontal Ex components along the dielectric. The higher energy mode dominates over the lower energy mode inside the groove. Specifically, the area under the horizontal electric field (Ex) – spatial variation (position) curve may be related to a potential difference at the bottom of the groove and was found to increase with increased gap width (g). The potential difference (or the related Ex) may be related to a surface current. It was deduced that the high energy mode is dominant at the bottom of the groove, while the lower energy mode is dominant at the groove edge due to the interaction of SPPs.

4. The hybridization of cavity F-P like SPP modes

To further explain the absorption peak and dispersion ∼ 2.4 eV, in Fig. 4(a), the metallic grating was modeled as incorporating an F-P like SPP resonance: (a) in the vertical M/A/M groove, and (b) in horizontal M/D/M cavity and included the subsequent possibility of coupling between the modes related to (a) and (b).

The energy level interaction and subsequent energy gap formation, as in Fig. 4(b), is indicative of energy level hybridization. Consequently, we hypothesize that the individual M/A/M and M/D/M related modes (in the groove and dielectric spacer, respectively) may interact with each other and generate the double peaked structure near ∼ 2.4 eV in Fig. 4(a). The interaction is schematically indicated in Fig. 6. The width of the hybridized energy gap would be proportional to the extent of coupling between the modes and will be discussed subsequently. From a physical standpoint, the surface charges due to the SPP couple together near the groove. The hybrid mode is constituted from larger surface currents near the groove bottom at higher energies, [blue Ex curves in Figs. 5(b)–5(d)] as well as the enhanced field amplitude at/near the side wall/s of the groove.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. The generation of hybrid modes mediated by the interaction of the M/A/M with the M/D/M energy levels. The groove M/A/M mode is coupled to the M/D/M resonance mode, yielding local surface charges and currents (depicted by the black arrows) and related to the electric field profiles of Fig. 5.

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The energy splitting, related to the mode coupling, and resultant absorption may be tuned by modifying the grating geometry parameters. While the M/A/M resonance mainly depends on h as well as the g (changing βMAM), changing w and t can modify the M/D/M resonances. If the p is close to the incident photon wavelength, long range propagating SPP modes would also play a role [24]. With such a goal of tuning the energy splitting, we varied the h to investigate the influences on the hybridization. The M/D/M mode resonance is unaltered as the w and t are not changed. The overall effects are indicated in Fig. 7, indicating the coupling between M/A/M and M/D/M related SPP modes. For instance, the energy level hybridization at h ∼ 55 nm (at 2.05 eV): A in Fig. 7, corresponding to m ∼ 5, and h ∼ 90 nm (at 1.55 eV): B in Fig. 7, corresponding to m ∼ 3, due to interaction between the M/A/M (with n ∼ 1) and the respective M/D/M modes is clearly observed. Higher order M/A/M F-P resonance mode (with n ∼ 3) at ∼ 2.5 eV, are also seen at larger h (at values larger than 100 nm). The magnitude of the hybridization energy gap is directly proportional to the coupling strength of the two SPP modes. To describe the coupling behavior, a relevant Hamiltonian (H) for the resonance structure may be posited to be:

$$H = \left( {\begin{array}{cc} {{E_{MDM}}}&V\\ V&{{E_{MAM}}} \end{array}} \right)$$
Here, the EMDM and EMAM are the energy of M/D/M modes and M/A/M modes, and V denotes the coupling between these two SPP F-P like modes. We obtained the eigenvalues of the energy from Eq. (5) to be:
$${E_{ +{/} - }} = \frac{1}{2}\left[ {({{E_{MAM}} + {E_{MDM}}} )\pm \sqrt {{{({{E_{MAM}} + {E_{MDM}}} )}^2} + 4{V^2}} } \right]$$

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. The coupling of the M/A/M modes [characterized by Eq. (1)] with the M/D/M modes [characterized by Eq. (3)] leads to energy level interaction and gap formation as seen in the absorption spectra as a function of the grating height (h). The numbers after the MDM refer to the m in Eq. (3). Here, the g = 20 nm, while p = 200 nm, w = 180 nm, and t = 5 nm. The incident photon wavelength is varied from 400 nm to 1200 nm. The magnitude of the absorption coefficient is indicated on the right.

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The EMAM and the EMDM are the respective energies of the M/A/M and M/D/M modes obtained through simulation. For different grating heights (h), the bare resonance energies are plotted in Fig. 7. The upper and lower coupled mode energies (E+ and E-, respectively) are estimated and labeled by black circles in Fig. 7, with a fitted coupling parameter V ∼ 0.1 eV and ∼ 0.18 eV at points A and B, respectively, through a graphical fit using MATLAB. Such a value of V is in close agreement with observations in literature [30], e.g., involving coupling between a surface plasmon mode and a F-P resonance mode [31], or related to the coupling across a silica spacer layer between a MoS2 sheet and a periodic array of metal nanogrooves [32]. Consequently, our computationally predicted upper and lower energy bounds, and related V are in good agreement with those in literature and correspond well to the interaction between the associated M/A/M and M/D/M resonances.

The notion of mode hybridization implies both symmetric (attractive) – lower energy, and anti-symmetric (repulsive) – higher energy interactions and may be used to yield absorption bands of larger bandwidth. Such interactions may also be considered in terms of current loops with associated magnetic moments: Figs. 8(b)–8(d). Near the side walls of the groove, the two current loops in the M/D/M constituent have the same direction, implying greater interaction related to higher energies, and a larger βMDM. Such interactions would be enhanced with decreasing g. The shift of the energy resonances, as seen in Fig. 4(a) is now understood on a deeper physical basis.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. (a) An overall summary of the horizontal M/D/M and vertical M/A/M modes with related SPPs). The magnitude of the out-of-plane magnetic field are plotted for peaks (b) E ∼ 2.33 eV, (c) E ∼ 2.44 eV – from Fig. 4(a), as well as for the lower energy modes, i.e., (d) E ∼ 2.01 eV. The current flow directions are related to induced magnetic moments and their related interactions. A higher degree of interaction leads to a larger energy gap and broader energy gap. The magnitude of the magnetic field is indicated at the right.

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The novelty of our work is related to (a) the detailed study of possible interactions between two types of confined surface plasmon polariton modes, as may be ascribed to Fabry-Perot resonances, with a motivation related to (b) applying the related findings to confined geometries as may be found, e.g., in integrated circuit layouts. While mode interaction would inevitably yield energy splitting, e.g., as in the interaction between a localized mode and delocalized mode [24], here the nature of the studied interacting modes is different.

Moreover, plasmonic considerations may allow the determination of variations in critical dimensions through optical interrogation instead of laborious and destructive SEM (scanning electron microscopy) or related FIB (focused-ion-beam) based probing. Given the nanoscale features of modern electronic devices, plasmonic characteristics, as related for example to absorption features may now be used. The main advantages would then be the use of non-destructive techniques coupled with the use of visible light, and spectroscopic characterization. The validity of the proposed methodology may be tested through experimentally varying the feature size (as indicated in the paper) through electron-beam lithography-based procedures (which may be probed through SEM) and observing the changes in the related absorption spectra.

5. Conclusions

In summary, the hybridization of SPP modes, e.g., between the vertical M/A/M groove SPP resonance mode and a horizontal M/D/M cavity SPP resonance mode, has been indicated. The F-P like M/A/M and M/D/M SPP modes could be tuned by a relevant geometry length scale and related to a particular propagation constant: βMAM or βMDM, through Eq. (1) and Eq. (3), respectively. Consequently, the mode coupling, and the resultant energy hybridization and energy gap could be engineered by the variation of geometrical parameters. Such mode interactions could be used to broaden the energy absorption spectra, as for energy harvesting [13,14,19]. The aspect of the multiple resonances and interactions brought about through both vertical and horizontal geometries in metal-dielectric (/air)-metal geometries would be of relevance to understanding optical interactions in circuit geometries and be of utility for diagnostics related to parameter variation in lithographic fabrication.

Funding

Directorate for Engineering (CBET1606192).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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22. J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010). [CrossRef]  

23. Z. Sun and X. Zuo, “Tunable Absorption of Light via Localized Plasmon Resonances on a Metal Surface with Interspaced Ultra-thin Metal Gratings,” Plasmonics 6(1), 83–89 (2011). [CrossRef]  

24. W. Zhou, J. Y. Suh, Y. Hua, and T. W. Odom, “Hybridization of Localized and Guided Modes in 2D Metal–Insulator–Metal Nanocavity Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2541–2546 (2013). [CrossRef]  

25. L. Lin and Y. Zheng, “Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14788 (2015). [CrossRef]  

26. Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017). [CrossRef]  

27. I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica*,†,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205 (1965). [CrossRef]  

28. A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007). [CrossRef]  

29. E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16529 (2008). [CrossRef]  

30. H. Li, M. Qin, Y. Ren, and J. Hu, “Angle-independent strong coupling between plasmonic magnetic resonances and excitons in monolayer WS 2,” Opt. Express 27(16), 22951 (2019). [CrossRef]  

31. Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016). [CrossRef]  

32. H.-J. Li, J.-G. Hu, L.-L. Wang, M. Qin, and Y.-Z. Ren, “Wavelength-Selective Wide-Angle Light Absorption Enhancement in Monolayers of Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(16), 3236–3241 (2018). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, US, 2007).
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Fei Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. V. Boriskina, H. Ghasemi, and G. Chen, “Plasmonic materials for energy: From physics to applications,” Mater. Today 16(10), 375–386 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy and Sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  11. I. P. Kaminow, W. L. Mammel, and H. P. Weber, “Metal-Clad Optical Waveguides: Analytical and Experimental Study,” Appl. Opt. 13(2), 396 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Bonod, G. Tayeb, D. Maystre, S. Enoch, and E. Popov, “Total absorption of light by lamellar metallic gratings,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15431 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 1–7 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Kuttge, F. J. de Abajo, and A. Polman, “How grooves reflect and confine surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10385 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. Z. Sun and X. Zuo, “Tunable Absorption of Light via Localized Plasmon Resonances on a Metal Surface with Interspaced Ultra-thin Metal Gratings,” Plasmonics 6(1), 83–89 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Zhou, J. Y. Suh, Y. Hua, and T. W. Odom, “Hybridization of Localized and Guided Modes in 2D Metal–Insulator–Metal Nanocavity Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2541–2546 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Lin and Y. Zheng, “Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14788 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica*,†,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16529 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Li, M. Qin, Y. Ren, and J. Hu, “Angle-independent strong coupling between plasmonic magnetic resonances and excitons in monolayer WS 2,” Opt. Express 27(16), 22951 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  32. H.-J. Li, J.-G. Hu, L.-L. Wang, M. Qin, and Y.-Z. Ren, “Wavelength-Selective Wide-Angle Light Absorption Enhancement in Monolayers of Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(16), 3236–3241 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Lin and Y. Zheng, “Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14788 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Fei Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. V. Boriskina, H. Ghasemi, and G. Chen, “Plasmonic materials for energy: From physics to applications,” Mater. Today 16(10), 375–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhou, J. Y. Suh, Y. Hua, and T. W. Odom, “Hybridization of Localized and Guided Modes in 2D Metal–Insulator–Metal Nanocavity Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2541–2546 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Z. Sun and X. Zuo, “Tunable Absorption of Light via Localized Plasmon Resonances on a Metal Surface with Interspaced Ultra-thin Metal Gratings,” Plasmonics 6(1), 83–89 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy and Sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Akselrod, G. M.

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barbara, A.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bonod, N.

Boriskina, S. V.

S. V. Boriskina, H. Ghasemi, and G. Chen, “Plasmonic materials for energy: From physics to applications,” Mater. Today 16(10), 375–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowen, P. T.

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

Cao, F.

C. Fei Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chandran, A.

Chen, G.

Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Boriskina, H. Ghasemi, and G. Chen, “Plasmonic materials for energy: From physics to applications,” Mater. Today 16(10), 375–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chilkoti, A.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ciracì, C.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

de Abajo, F. J.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ding, F.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, S. Y.

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[Crossref]

Edee, K.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[Crossref]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref]

Enoch, S.

Fei Guo, C.

C. Fei Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gan, Q.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghasemi, H.

S. V. Boriskina, H. Ghasemi, and G. Chen, “Plasmonic materials for energy: From physics to applications,” Mater. Today 16(10), 375–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, C.

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Granet, G.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[Crossref]

Han, Z.

Hao, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, S.

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645 (2005).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hill, R. T.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoang, T. B.

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Hu, J.-G.

Hua, Y.

W. Zhou, J. Y. Suh, Y. Hua, and T. W. Odom, “Hybridization of Localized and Guided Modes in 2D Metal–Insulator–Metal Nanocavity Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2541–2546 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ji, D.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaminow, I. P.

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kuttge, M.

Lafarge, C.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lassiter, J. B.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laurent, N.

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[Crossref]

Le Perchec, J.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, H.-J.

Li, J. F.

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, L.

L. Lin and Y. Zheng, “Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14788 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. D.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Liu, Q.

C. Fei Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

López-Ríos, T.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, US, 2007).

Malitson, I. H.

Mammel, W. L.

Maystre, D.

McGuire, F.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, M. H.

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mock, J. J.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moreau, A.

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref]

Odom, T. W.

W. Zhou, J. Y. Suh, Y. Hua, and T. W. Odom, “Hybridization of Localized and Guided Modes in 2D Metal–Insulator–Metal Nanocavity Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2541–2546 (2013).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Panneerselvam, R.

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

Popov, E.

Qi, Z.

Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qin, M.

Qiu, M.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quémerais, P.

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, B.

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

Ren, Y.-Z.

Ren, Z.

C. Fei Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, H.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

Su, L.

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suh, J. Y.

W. Zhou, J. Y. Suh, Y. Hua, and T. W. Odom, “Hybridization of Localized and Guided Modes in 2D Metal–Insulator–Metal Nanocavity Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2541–2546 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, T.

C. Fei Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun and X. Zuo, “Tunable Absorption of Light via Localized Plasmon Resonances on a Metal Surface with Interspaced Ultra-thin Metal Gratings,” Plasmonics 6(1), 83–89 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tayeb, G.

Tian, Z. Q.

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Van Duyne, R. P.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy and Sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. L.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.-L.

Wang, Q.

Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weber, H. P.

White, J. S.

Wiley, B. J.

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy and Sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, D. Y.

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xia, S. X.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yi, J.

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yong, Z.

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhai, X.

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhai, Y.

Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, N.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

L. Lin and Y. Zheng, “Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14788 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, S.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, J. Y. Suh, Y. Hua, and T. W. Odom, “Hybridization of Localized and Guided Modes in 2D Metal–Insulator–Metal Nanocavity Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2541–2546 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zuo, X.

Z. Sun and X. Zuo, “Tunable Absorption of Light via Localized Plasmon Resonances on a Metal Surface with Interspaced Ultra-thin Metal Gratings,” Plasmonics 6(1), 83–89 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. M. Akselrod, J. Huang, T. B. Hoang, P. T. Bowen, L. Su, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Large-Area Metasurface Perfect Absorbers from Visible to Near-Infrared,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8028–8034 (2015).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy and Sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Q. Lin, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, X. Luo, G. D. Liu, J. P. Liu, and S. X. Xia, “A novel design of plasmon-induced absorption sensor,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 062002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Moreau, C. Lafarge, N. Laurent, K. Edee, and G. Granet, “Enhanced transmission of slit arrays in an extremely thin metallic film,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), 165–169 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

W. Zhou, J. Y. Suh, Y. Hua, and T. W. Odom, “Hybridization of Localized and Guided Modes in 2D Metal–Insulator–Metal Nanocavity Arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2541–2546 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

C. Fei Guo, T. Sun, F. Cao, Q. Liu, and Z. Ren, “Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (1)

S. V. Boriskina, H. Ghasemi, and G. Chen, “Plasmonic materials for energy: From physics to applications,” Mater. Today 16(10), 375–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. B. Lassiter, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, B. J. Wiley, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Plasmonic waveguide modes of film-coupled metallic nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5866–5872 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Rev. Mater. (1)

S. Y. Ding, J. Yi, J. F. Li, B. Ren, D. Y. Wu, R. Panneerselvam, and Z. Q. Tian, “Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(6), 16021 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Moreau, C. Ciracì, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, R. T. Hill, A. Chilkoti, Q. Wang, and B. J. Wiley, “Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas,” Nature 492(7427), 86–89 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Zhai, G. Chen, J. Xu, Z. Qi, X. Li, and Q. Wang, “Multiple-band perfect absorbers based on the combination of Fabry-Perot resonance and the gap plasmon resonance,” Opt. Commun. 399, 28–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in Thin Films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Le Perchec, P. Quémerais, A. Barbara, and T. López-Ríos, “Why Metallic Surfaces with Grooves a Few Nanometers Deep and Wide May Strongly Absorb Visible Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 066408 (2008).
[Crossref]

Plasmonics (1)

Z. Sun and X. Zuo, “Tunable Absorption of Light via Localized Plasmon Resonances on a Metal Surface with Interspaced Ultra-thin Metal Gratings,” Plasmonics 6(1), 83–89 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4498 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Lin and Y. Zheng, “Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14788 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, US, 2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of a metal grating on the top of dielectric spacer (chosen to be SiO2) and metal (Ag) substrate, with normally incident p-polarized light. (b) The configuration of the unit cell (with periodic boundaries – $\color{red}{\textrm{red}}$ vertical lines), indicating the metal/dielectric/metal (M/D/M) as well as the metal/air/metal (M/A/M) constituents. The geometrical parameters studied include the length of the metal cavity (w), groove width (g), periodicity (p) = w + g, height of the grating ($h$), and the dielectric spacer thickness (t). The two ports (port 1: input, port 2: output) were used for the simulations.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Absorption (A) spectra of Ag grating with (t = 5 nm, $\color{orange}{\textrm{orange dotted line}}$) and without (t = 0 nm, $\color{blue}{\textrm{blue solid line}}$) $\textrm{Si}{\textrm{O}_2}$ dielectric layer spacer. Here p = 200 nm, h = 40 nm and g = 40 nm. For the labeled absorption peaks in (a), the magnitude of the out-of-plane magnetic field are plotted for structure with dielectric spacer in (b) E ∼ 1.62 eV: peak 1, (c) E ∼ 2.15 eV: peak 2, and (d) E ∼ 2.57 eV: peak 3. The magnitude of the magnetic field is indicated at the right.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Absorption (A) spectra for g = 40 nm ($\color{blue}{\textrm{blue solid line}}$), with absorption peaks (1, 2, and 3) and g = 20 nm ($\color{orange}{\textrm{orange dotted line}}$), with absorption peaks (a, b, and c). The magnitude of the out-of-plane magnetic field are plotted for the lower energy peak (b) E ∼ 2.33 eV, and the higher energy peak (c) E ∼ 2.44 eV. The magnitude of the magnetic field is indicated at the right.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The variation of the absorption (A) spectra as a function of the groove width (g) in the range of 5 nm (bottom) to 50 nm (top). The M/D/M cavity length (w) is fixed at 180 nm, and the groove height (h) at 40 nm, with t = 5 nm. The circles and the triangles represent the high and low energy modes inside the vertical groove. The absorption peaks labeled by short black lines, on the left, are related to F-P like SPP resonances in the horizontal M/D/M resonator satisfying the resonance condition βMDM · w ≈ 5π. (b) A plot of the high and low energy modes, from (a) indicates an energy gap.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The horizontal electric field (Ex) profiles along the dotted yellow line, are plotted for (b) g = 10 nm, (c) g = 20 nm, and (d) g = 40 nm, for the respective lower and higher energy modes, taken from Fig. 4(a). The electric fields may be related to the surface current at the bottom of the groove. The black dashed lines in (b-d) indicate the position of the groove walls.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The generation of hybrid modes mediated by the interaction of the M/A/M with the M/D/M energy levels. The groove M/A/M mode is coupled to the M/D/M resonance mode, yielding local surface charges and currents (depicted by the black arrows) and related to the electric field profiles of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The coupling of the M/A/M modes [characterized by Eq. (1)] with the M/D/M modes [characterized by Eq. (3)] leads to energy level interaction and gap formation as seen in the absorption spectra as a function of the grating height (h). The numbers after the MDM refer to the m in Eq. (3). Here, the g = 20 nm, while p = 200 nm, w = 180 nm, and t = 5 nm. The incident photon wavelength is varied from 400 nm to 1200 nm. The magnitude of the absorption coefficient is indicated on the right.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) An overall summary of the horizontal M/D/M and vertical M/A/M modes with related SPPs). The magnitude of the out-of-plane magnetic field are plotted for peaks (b) E ∼ 2.33 eV, (c) E ∼ 2.44 eV – from Fig. 4(a), as well as for the lower energy modes, i.e., (d) E ∼ 2.01 eV. The current flow directions are related to induced magnetic moments and their related interactions. A higher degree of interaction leads to a larger energy gap and broader energy gap. The magnitude of the magnetic field is indicated at the right.

Equations (10)

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β M A M h + ϕ / 2 n π / 2
tan ( ζ g / 2 ) i η / ε m ζ
ζ = ( k 0 2 β M A M 2 ) 1 / 2
η = ( ε m k 0 2 β M A M 2 ) 1 / 2
β M D M w + δ m π
tan ( κ d t ) = 2 ε d ε m κ d κ m / ( ε m 2 κ d 2 ε d 2 κ m 2 )
κ d = ( ε d k 0 2 β M D M 2 ) 1 / 2
κ m = ( β M D M 2 ε m k 0 2 ) 1 / 2
H = ( E M D M V V E M A M )
E + / = 1 2 [ ( E M A M + E M D M ) ± ( E M A M + E M D M ) 2 + 4 V 2 ]

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