Abstract

An optical phased array (OPA) in silicon nitride (SiN) is conspicuously highlighted as a vital alternative to its counterpart in silicon. However, a limited number of studies have been conducted on this array in terms of wavelength-tuned beam steering. A SiN OPA has been proposed and implemented with a grating antenna that incorporated an array of shallow-etched waveguides, rendering wavelength-tuned beam steering along the longitudinal direction. To accomplish a superior directionality on a wavelength-tuned beam steering, the spectral beam emission characteristics of the antenna have been explored from the viewpoint of a planar structure that entails a buried oxide (BOX), a SiN waveguide core, and an upper cladding. Two OPA devices having substantially different thicknesses of the resonant cavities, established by combining the BOX and SiN core, were considered theoretically and experimentally to scrutinize the spectral emission characteristics of the antenna on beam steering. Both of the fabricated OPA devices steered light by an angle of 7.4° along the longitudinal direction for a wavelength ranging from 1530 to 1630 nm, while they maintained a divergence angle of 0.2°×0.6° in the longitudinal and lateral directions. Meanwhile, the OPA fabricated on a substantially thick BOX layer featured a limited steering performance to attain a stabilized response over a broad spectral region. We examined the influence of the cavity thickness on the spectral response of the antenna in terms of optical thickness. Based on the two antenna characteristics, it was confirmed that the grating antenna emitted the beam with a higher efficiency when the optical thickness of the cavity corresponded to odd integer multiples of the quarter wavelength. This work is a considerable strategy for designing a stabilized SiN OPA over a desired spectral region.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

As a viable alternative to the conventional mechanical counterparts predicated on a micro-machined or motor-driven mirror, the optical phased array (OPA) has gained a tremendous amount of interest as a pivotal element for embodying advanced imaging/scanning devices, such as solid-state light detection and ranging sensors for autonomous vehicles and drones, owing to their reliable non-mechanical operations and compact footprints [1,2]. Various types of OPAs in silicon (Si) succeeded in realizing two-dimensional (2D) beam scanning with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor processes (CMOS) [38]. In particular, one-dimensional (1D) OPA structures resorting to a grating antenna are reported to be a feasible candidate on behalf of the conventional 2D beam scanners [58]. With the aid of the grating waveguide array, the 1D OPA realizes 2D beam steering by tuning the wavelength along the longitudinal direction and by inducing a phase gradient across the grating antenna along the lateral direction. However, Si photonic integrated circuits are vulnerable to fabrication processing issues owing to the strict control of their dimensions [9,10]. Moreover, the fact that Si is susceptible to considerable third-order nonlinearity prohibits it from being suitable for applications dealing with high-optical power applications [911]. To the contrary, devices based on silicon nitride (SiN) were spotlighted as prominent substitutes for their Si counterparts given their low nonlinearity, broad transparency range, low propagation loss, and low index contrast characteristics. These features lead to flexible manufacturing and small fabrication-induced phase errors [912]. Recently, considering their smaller nonlinearity and index contrast relative to Si, a 1D SiN photonic phased array has been suggested to cope with a high output power around 400 mW alongside a high beam quality [10]. For other integrated OPA circuits [13], to tune the beam along both longitudinal and lateral directions with a fixed wavelength, the thermo-optic effect has been leveraged to generate a phase gradient, where a switching technique is adopted to adaptively select OPA sections comprising different grating antennas. So far, there has been no report on wavelength-tuned beam steering along the longitudinal direction for the SiN OPA counting on a grating antenna. Moreover, no effort has been reported to experimentally discuss the spectral emission response. Contemplating that grating devices made of SiN are susceptible to low directionality due to their waveguide configurations of low index contrast [1418], the vertical dimension of the grating antenna should be considered for SiN OPA devices. Unlike the standard CMOS process used for Si photonics, the buried oxide (BOX) layer thickness used in the SiN platform ranged between 2.5 µm and 8.0 µm [12]. Hence, it is crucial to take into account the effect of the vertical design of the antenna on the beam emission characteristic over the desired wavelength range.

In this work, a SiN OPA device capitalizing on an array of SiN waveguide grating antenna has been demonstrated to conduct a wavelength-tuned beam steering along the longitudinal direction. In an effort to achieve a superior directionality over the wavelength range, the emission response of the antenna was characterized with the help of a planar structure, which was composed of a BOX layer, a SiN waveguide, and an upper cladding. Two OPA devices, which incorporated an antenna with different cavity thicknesses formed by combining the BOX and SiN waveguide core, have been prepared to scrutinize the emission response of the antenna with the wavelength. The OPAs were numerically and experimentally assessed in terms of the angular emission and the coupling efficiency responses to the main lobe of the beam. We particularly investigated the influence of the optical thickness of the cavity on the spectral response. It was confirmed that the antenna generated a peak emission response at wavelengths where the optical thickness of the cavity was equal to odd integer multiples of the quarter-wavelength. The cavity thickness was closely relevant to the wavelength sensitivity of the spectral response. The SiN OPA utilizing the grating antenna was rigorously studied from the perspective of the role of the cavity, thereby coming up with an efficient antenna design.

2. Design of a SiN OPA capitalizing on a grating antenna

As illustrated in Fig. 1, a SiN OPA device which is proposed to execute a wavelength-tuned beam steering consists of a spot size converter (SSC), a five-stage 1×2 multimode interference (MMI) beam splitter serving 32 channels, and a grating antenna. The SSC helps efficiently couple light into the input waveguide in SiN. Each MMI component, including a multimode region with a footprint of 7.0-µm width and 29.5-µm length, is meant to evenly divide the input optical power into its two ports, which are properly tapered to ameliorate the coupling loss. The antenna tapping into arrayed surface relief gratings diffracts and steers the light beam at an angle of θ in accordance with the incident wavelength. For the grating antenna, the SiN waveguide core is partially etched while the channel spacing is designed to be 4.0 µm.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic configuration of the proposed silicon nitride (SiN) optical phased array (OPA) which incorporates a surface relief grating antenna that is addressed by a five-stage multimode interference (MMI) based splitter connected to a spot size converter (SSC).

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Regarding the design of grating based waveguide devices, such as the grating coupler, it is assumed that the directionality of the waveguide grating critically relies upon its vertical dimension [15,16]. The influences of the BOX and SiN thicknesses of the grating antenna on the upward emission efficiency were particularly explored over the wavelength ranging from 1530 to 1630 nm through a commercial finite-difference-time-domain method-based tool, FDTD Solutions (Lumerical Inc., Canada). The upper cladding made of oxide was assumed to be adequately designed as a buffer layer to achieve an enhanced transmission toward the free space. Figure 2(a) shows a schematic of the 2D modeled antenna, assuming a three-layered planar structure with a BOX (HBOX), a SiN waveguide core (HSiN), and an upper cladding (Hclad). The 32-ch grating antenna was chosen to be 500 µm long for a sharp beam width along the longitudinal direction, while the constituting surface relief gratings tapped into a shallow etching of 90 nm and a period of 1.0 µm. The angle of emission θ is derived from ${n_o}\sin \theta = {n_{eff}} - \lambda /{\Lambda _{sg}}$, where no is the refractive index of the background, neff the effective refractive index of the antenna, λ the free space wavelength, and Λsg the grating period. Among the candidates for the BOX layer [12], a 5.0-µm thick BOX was taken into account to exhibit a stabilized emission response over the desired spectral region. A substantially different thickness of 14.5 µm was prepared to inspect the emission characteristic of the antenna in comparison with the case of HBOX = 5.0 µm, while the thickness of the upper cladding was fixed at 2.5 µm. Both the results were discussed from the perspective of the spectral range, which is defined as the interval between adjacent peak and dip wavelengths within the given spectral region. The calculated spectral emission results are plotted in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c) for HBOX = 5.0 and 14.5 µm, respectively, for HSiN scanning in the range of 200–600 nm. The refractive indices of SiN and SiO2 were assumed to be 1.97 and 1.44, respectively. To accurately perform the 2D simulations, the effective index of the slab waveguide, which was approximately equal to 1.94, has been used as the refractive index of the waveguide core. The case of HBOX = 5.0 µm shows that the spectral response of the antenna relies on HSiN. For HSiN below 450 nm, the efficiency exhibits variations amounting to more than 3 dB. For HSiN below 300 nm, the emission efficiency drops drastically in the vicinity of the spectral spots which correspond to the upright radiation. This is believed to be caused by the effect of the second-order reflection back into the waveguide for the normal emission [8]. For HSiN over 450 nm, the spectral response appeared to cover the entire spectral band, providing a peak efficiency of -2 dB at λ = 1540 nm (black dot). The efficiency declined and formed a dip (gray dot), leading to a spectral range of Δλ = 70 nm. As HSiN increased, the peak position progressively shifted toward longer wavelengths as indicated by the white dashed line. For HSiN = 600 nm, the antenna for HBOX = 5.0 µm exhibited a superior directionality with a peak at λ = 1580 nm, providing over 3 dB bandwidth. Meanwhile, in the case of HBOX = 14.5 µm, the stabilized response was relatively restricted in view of its narrow spectral range of Δλ = 30 nm. The directionality of the antenna was evidently witnessed to hinge on the thicknesses of both SiN and BOX. Based on the results of the two cases associated with considerably different BOX thicknesses, a grating antenna capitalizing on a thinner BOX was beneficial for the achievement of a response exhibiting lower wavelength sensitivity. A relaxed wavelength dependent response is certainly desirable for wavelength-tuned beam steering. In this work, the SiN waveguide was selected to have a thickness of 600 nm.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Modeled structure of the SiN waveguide grating antenna in two-dimension (2D). Calculated upward spectral emission responses with the HSiN for the cases of (b) HBOX = 5.0 µm and (c) 14.5 µm.

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3. Fabrication of the proposed SiN OPAs and their characterization

To explore the impact of the vertical dimension of the grating antenna on the emission response, two OPAs of Devices A and B were manufactured with different BOX layers of HBOX = 5.0 and 14.5 µm, respectively. A SiN film was deposited on the BOX layer via low pressure chemical vapor deposition and was fully etched to pattern the waveguide. An array of surface relief gratings in the antenna was produced by partially etching the SiN film. A 2.5-µm-thick oxide film was subsequently deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition to form the upper cladding. Figure 3(a) displays a microscope image of the OPA in the case of the fabricated Device A, in conjunction with the cross-section of the antenna. Figures 3(b) and 3(c) reveal focused ion beam (FIB) images of the cross-sections of the fabricated device along the longitudinal and lateral directions, respectively. When it comes to the manufactured OPAs, the thicknesses of the waveguide core were observed to be HSiN = 630 nm and 610 nm for Devices A and B, respectively, while the thicknesses of the BOX were 5.3 µm and 15.0 µm.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Microscope image of the fabricated SiN OPA device, inclusive of a scanning electron microscope image of the grating antenna. FIB images of the cross-section of the antenna along the (b) x- and (c) y-directions.

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The performances of the prepared OPAs were assessed from the perspective of the steering range and emission efficiency of the main lobe in relation to the radiated beam as a function of the wavelength. As seen in Fig. 4(a), an infrared camera (ABA-001IR-GE, AVAL DATA) was adopted to monitor diffracted light at a distance (d) from the OPA chip, while a photodiode sensor (S130C, Thorlabs) was employed to measure the power of the main lobe. As depicted in Fig. 4(b), the emission was checked in advance by virtue of an infrared sensing card (VRC2, Thorlabs), with the input fiber aligned to the chip. The emanated beam from the fabricated OPA was analyzed by observing the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) in terms of the propagation distance (d). As shown in Fig. 4(c), the angle of emission was also observed with respect to the reference case of λ = 1550 nm, tantamount to 12.5°. Based on the cross-sectional beam profiles along the longitudinal and lateral direction as displayed in Figs. 4(d) and 4(e), respectively, the measured divergence angles for the emitted beam were 0.2° and 0.6°. The wavelength-tuned beam steering was explored with reference to the main lobe at λ = 1550 nm. The position of the main lobe was recorded at d = 13 cm, while the wavelength varied from 1530 nm to 1630 nm in steps of 10 nm. The captured beam images were arranged to determine the wavelength-dependent displacement and corresponding angular steering along the longitudinal direction, as shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) for Device A and Device B, respectively. It appears that the SiN OPA could create a well-defined beam which maneuvers in different directions depending on the wavelength, as intended. For Device A, the beam was steered by an angle of 7.4° in response to wavelengths varying from 1530 to 1630 nm, and exhibited moderate variations in intensity. For Device B, the achieved steering range was similarly about 7.4°. The two devices produced evidently disparate spectral responses. As presented in Fig. 6, the emitted power in connection with the main lobe was measured by tailoring the wavelength in steps of 10 nm to track the total efficiency, referring to the optical coupling from the input fiber to the radiated beam. While both devices commonly lead to peak and dip efficiencies of about -9.0 and -18.0 dB, respectively, their spectral responses present a certain degree of discrepancy. For Device A, whose BOX layer is thinner than that of Device B, the response yielded a spectral range of 65 nm while the spectral range of Device B was equaled to 28 nm. Concerning the spectral range for its operation as an OPA, Device A is considered to be relatively less dependent on the wavelength variation compared to that of the Device B.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) Test setup for evaluating the steering range and emission efficiency of the OPA. (b) Emitted beam as captured on a sensing card. (c) Measured relative displacement in x-direction of the beam at λ = 1550 nm at different distances of d from 8 cm to 12 cm. Cross-section of the normalized beam profiles along the (d) longitudinal and (e) lateral directions.

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 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Observed angular beam steering along the longitudinal direction for (a) Device A and (b) Device B, when the wavelength is scanned from 1530 to 1630 nm.

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 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Demonstrated total efficiencies of the two OPAs of Devices A and B with wavelengths in the range of 1530 to 1630 nm.

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4. Impact of the optical thickness of the grating antenna on its spectral response

In an effort to analyze the spectral response of the grating antenna, the vertical dimension of the antenna was primarily inspected in terms of its optical thickness. As depicted in Fig. 7, we first examined the ray optic behavior of the antenna, which is modeled as a three-layered structure composed of a BOX, a SiN waveguide, and an upper cladding. Prior to reaching the lattices, a transverse electric guided mode was assumed to propagate through the SiN waveguide with a propagation constant β. In the course of propagation through the grating region, the guided mode was concurrently diffracted toward the air via the upper cladding and toward the substrate via the SiN and BOX. The upward beam radiation of the antenna was deemed to arise from the constructive interference of diffracted waves pertaining to the upper cladding and a resonator whose cavity was forged by the pair of the SiN and BOX layers. From the standpoint of the multi-layered structure, to achieve a high directionality of upward emission, the cavity was to yield enhanced the resonance, while for the upper cladding the thickness was chosen to efficiently suppress reflection at the air interface. Hence, both the cavity and upper cladding were required to have thicknesses equivalent to odd-integer multiples of a quarter-wavelength, signifying the antenna response was principally governed by the cavity thickness [19]. The optical thickness of each layer is given by the product of its refractive index and physical thickness. We explored the calculated emission responses of the antenna for the two BOX thicknesses as shown in Fig. 2, from the viewpoint of the optical thicknesses of the upper cladding and cavity. From the response plotted in Fig. 2(b), it appears that the resonant peak occurred at wavelengths where the optical thickness of the cavity was equal to odd integer multiples of the quarter-wavelength under varying HSiN. For HSiN = 450 nm, a resonant peak occurred at λ = 1540 nm, where the optical thickness of the cavity was equivalent to 5.3 λ and that of the upper cladding was 2.3 λ. The peak shifted toward longer wavelengths as the thickness of SiN increased. When HSiN = 600 nm, the optical thickness of the cavity at the peak wavelength of λ = 1580 nm was 5.3 λ. Similarly, it is witnessed the results in Fig. 2(c) also comply with the relationship between the emission response and the optical thickness of the cavity. For HSiN = 600 nm, the optical thicknesses of the cavity related to the two peaks at λ = 1540 and 1600 nm were 14.3 λ and 13.8 λ, respectively. Owing to the increased optical thickness of the cavity, two peak wavelengths appeared in the specific spectral region.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Description of the diffracted waves for the 2D modeled grating antenna, which are propagating in the downward (dashed line) and upward directions (solid line) toward the substrate and air, respectively.

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We inspected the spectral behavior of each fabricated antenna from the point of view of the optical thickness, by deducting the insertion losses relating to the SSC and MMI splitters as well as the propagation loss from the fitted curves for the total efficiency. The propagation loss and coupling efficiency of an MMI splitter were properly evaluated and are shown in Appendix. The estimated spectral responses of the antenna are plotted in Fig. 8(a). In comparison to the calculated responses shown in Fig. 2, Device A features an efficiency peak at λ = 1535 nm, which is shorter than the expected position of λ = 1580 nm, while Device B delivers an expected response. To explicate this discrepancy between the expected and estimated results, the upward emission characteristics calculated with the measured thicknesses of the BOX and SiN layers are presented in Fig. 8(b). The calculated response of the antenna pertaining to Device A, with HSiN = 630 nm and HBOX = 5.3 µm, has mimicked a peak efficiency at λ = 1530 nm and was closely matched with the estimated response. The optical thickness of the cavity at λ = 1530 nm is observed to be 5.8 λ, which is 0.5 λ larger than that for Fig. 2(b) and still congruous to odd integer multiples of a quarter wavelength. This increased cavity thickness resulted in an efficiency dip at λ = 1600 nm, where the optical thickness of the cavity was identified to be 5.5 λ, equivalent to even integer multiples of a quarter-wavelength. For Device B, whose spectral response resembles the calculated results shown in Fig. 2(c), a cavity with an excess of optical thickness of 0.5 λ was witnessed due to its increased BOX thickness. It is speculated that the discrepancy in the efficiency between the calculated upward and estimated emissions may be mostly attributed to the side lobes along the lateral direction, which could be controlled by the spacing of the channels of to the antenna [5]. Besides the increased layer thickness, other factors contributing to the deviation of the calculation from the measurement may encompass the refractive index of the materials, the angle of diffraction θ′ related to the grating structure, and the effective index difference between the 2D and 3D modeling cases. Contemplating the adopted period of Λsg = 1.0 µm associated with the current work is supposed to yield a negligibly small angle of diffraction according to Snell’s law, the increased layer thicknesses are dominantly responsible for the unexpected shift in the spectral response. In view of the estimated responses of the two antennas, it was discovered the spectral range Δλ of the grating antenna was governed by the quarter-wavelength optical thickness of the cavity. This supports that the optical thickness determined by the SiN and BOX evidently dictates the emission response of the proposed grating antenna in SiN. It is asserted that a grating antenna, which gives rise to a broad spectral range for a cavity leading to a quarter-wavelength optical thickness, is categorically advantageous in expanding the operation spectrum.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. (a) Experimentally estimated spectral efficiencies and (b) calculated upward emission responses of the fabricated grating antennas (Devices A and B).

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5. Conclusions

A SiN OPA fulfilling a wavelength-tuned beam steering was presented by taking advantage of a grating antenna. Two OPA devices designed with different cavity thicknesses, comprising a BOX and SiN core, were fabricated to experimentally verify the beam emission response of the antenna during the wavelength-tuned beam steering. They featured the same steering range of 7.4° for wavelengths in the range of 1530 to 1630 nm in the longitudinal direction and had a FWHM divergence angle of 0.2°×0.6°, but disparate spectral responses were witnessed depending on the thickness of the cavity. We scrutinized the spectral response of the antenna with reference to the optical thickness, thus corroborating its emission is unequivocally relevant to the optical thickness of the cavity. It is anticipated that this work will pave a valuable avenue for mitigating the directionality issues associated with SiN waveguide grating antenna in photonic phased arrays.

Appendix: Propagation loss and coupling efficiency of an MMI splitter

As plotted in Fig. 9(a), the propagation loss for straight SiN waveguides was ∼1.5 dB/cm at λ = 1550 nm. Figure 9(b) shows the measured coupling efficiency variation of the single output of MMI splitter from a five-stage MMI test structure. The coupling efficiency for a single 1×2 MMI was observed to be -3.07 dB on average at λ = 1550 nm, thus indicating that the total excess (or insertion) loss for the five-stage MMI power splitter is approximately 0.3 dB.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. (a) Measured propagation loss of the fabricated waveguide. (b) Measured coupling efficiency variation at λ = 1550 nm of a single output port of the MMI splitter from a five-stage MMI test structure. The inset shows the test device for a five-stage MMI.

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Funding

Agency for Defense Development (UE171060RD).

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the helpful discussion with Dr. Chang-Joon Chae from the Agency for Defense Development, Dr. Young-Ho Kim and Dr. Sung-Yong Ko from the i3 System, Inc.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

1. M. J. R. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017). [CrossRef]  

2. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013). [CrossRef]  

3. S. H. Kim, J. B. You, Y. G. Ha, G. Kang, D. S. Lee, H. Yoon, D. E. Yoo, D. W. Lee, K. Yu, C. H. Youn, and H. H. Park, “Thermo-optic control of the longitudinal radiation angle in a silicon-based optical phased array,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 411–414 (2019). [CrossRef]  

4. H. Abe, M. Takeuchi, G. Takeuchi, H. Ito, T. Yokokawa, K. Kondo, Y. Furukado, and T. Baba, “Two-dimensional beam-steering device using a doubly periodic Si photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9389–9397 (2018). [CrossRef]  

5. J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Fully integrated hybrid silicon two dimensional beam scanner,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5861–5874 (2015). [CrossRef]  

6. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012). [CrossRef]  

7. K. V. Acoleyen, K. Komorowska, W. Bogaerts, and R. Baets, “One-dimensional off-chip beam steering and shaping using optical phased arrays on silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(23), 3500–3505 (2011). [CrossRef]  

8. K. V. Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. L. Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. Baets, “Off-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1477–1479 (2009). [CrossRef]  

9. A. Rahim, E. Ryckeboer, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, A. Hermans, M. Muneeb, S. Dhoore, Y. Li, U. Dave, P. Bienstman, N. L. Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, P. Helin, S. Severi, X. Rottenberg, and R. Baets, “Expanding the silicon photonics portfolio with silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 639–649 (2017). [CrossRef]  

10. C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017). [CrossRef]  

11. D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013). [CrossRef]  

12. P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017). [CrossRef]  

13. N. A. Tyler, D. Fowler, S. Malhouitre, S. Garcia, P. Grosse, W. Rabaud, and B. Szelag, “SiN integrated optical phased arrays for two-dimensional beam steering at a single near-infrared wavelength,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5851–5858 (2019). [CrossRef]  

14. X. Zhao, D. Li, C. Zeng, G. Gao, Z. Huang, Q. Huang, Y. Wang, and J. Xia, “Compact grating coupler for 700-nm silicon nitride strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(4), 1322–1327 (2016). [CrossRef]  

15. S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14036–14046 (2013). [CrossRef]  

16. A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012). [CrossRef]  

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19. H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010), Chapters 2 and 9.

References

  • View by:
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  • |

  1. M. J. R. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. H. Kim, J. B. You, Y. G. Ha, G. Kang, D. S. Lee, H. Yoon, D. E. Yoo, D. W. Lee, K. Yu, C. H. Youn, and H. H. Park, “Thermo-optic control of the longitudinal radiation angle in a silicon-based optical phased array,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 411–414 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Abe, M. Takeuchi, G. Takeuchi, H. Ito, T. Yokokawa, K. Kondo, Y. Furukado, and T. Baba, “Two-dimensional beam-steering device using a doubly periodic Si photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9389–9397 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Fully integrated hybrid silicon two dimensional beam scanner,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5861–5874 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. V. Acoleyen, K. Komorowska, W. Bogaerts, and R. Baets, “One-dimensional off-chip beam steering and shaping using optical phased arrays on silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(23), 3500–3505 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. V. Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. L. Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. Baets, “Off-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1477–1479 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Rahim, E. Ryckeboer, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, A. Hermans, M. Muneeb, S. Dhoore, Y. Li, U. Dave, P. Bienstman, N. L. Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, P. Helin, S. Severi, X. Rottenberg, and R. Baets, “Expanding the silicon photonics portfolio with silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 639–649 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. A. Tyler, D. Fowler, S. Malhouitre, S. Garcia, P. Grosse, W. Rabaud, and B. Szelag, “SiN integrated optical phased arrays for two-dimensional beam steering at a single near-infrared wavelength,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5851–5858 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. Zhao, D. Li, C. Zeng, G. Gao, Z. Huang, Q. Huang, Y. Wang, and J. Xia, “Compact grating coupler for 700-nm silicon nitride strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(4), 1322–1327 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14036–14046 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16(1), 328–333 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010), Chapters 2 and 9.

2019 (2)

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

M. J. R. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rahim, E. Ryckeboer, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, A. Hermans, M. Muneeb, S. Dhoore, Y. Li, U. Dave, P. Bienstman, N. L. Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, P. Helin, S. Severi, X. Rottenberg, and R. Baets, “Expanding the silicon photonics portfolio with silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 639–649 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2013 (3)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14036–14046 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Abe, H.

Acoleyen, K. V.

Alemany, R.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

Baets, R.

Baños, R.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Bru, L. A.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Byrd, M. J.

Cassan, E.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cirera, J. M.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clemmen, S.

Coldren, L. A.

Coolbaugh, D.

Dave, U.

Davenport, M. L.

Dhakal, A.

Dhoore, S.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Doménech, J. D.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Domínguez, C.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

Fernández, J.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Finkelstein, H.

Fowler, D.

Furukado, Y.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, G.

Garcia, S.

Gargallo, B.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giannone, D.

Griol, A.

Grosse, P.

Gylfason, K.

Ha, Y. G.

Heck, M. J. R.

Helin, P.

Hermans, A.

Hill, D.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

Huang, Q.

Huang, Z.

Hulme, J. C.

Ito, H.

Jágerská, J.

Kang, G.

Kazmierczak, A.

Kim, S. H.

Komorowska, K.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. V. Acoleyen, K. Komorowska, W. Bogaerts, and R. Baets, “One-dimensional off-chip beam steering and shaping using optical phased arrays on silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(23), 3500–3505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

Kuyken, B.

Lee, D. S.

Lee, D. W.

Li, D.

Li, N.

Li, Y.

Lipson, M.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010), Chapters 2 and 9.

Maire, G.

Malhouitre, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mas, R.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Merget, F.

Micó, G.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

Muñoz, P.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, H. H.

Pastor, D.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pérez, D.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peters, J. D.

Poulton, C. V.

Rabaud, W.

Rahim, A.

Raval, M.

Raza, A.

Roelkens, G.

Romero-García, S.

Rottenberg, X.

Ryckeboer, E.

Sanchez, B.

Sánchez, A. M.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sattler, G.

Selvaraja, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Severi, S.

Sohlström, H.

Su, Z.

Subramanian, A. Z.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szelag, B.

Takeuchi, G.

Takeuchi, M.

Thomas, N. L.

Thourhout, D. V.

Timurdogan, E.

Tyler, N. A.

Verheyen, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vermeulen, D.

Vivien, L.

Wang, Y.

Watts, M. R.

Witzens, J.

Xia, J.

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yokokawa, T.

Yoo, D. E.

Yoon, H.

You, J. B.

Youn, C. H.

Yu, K.

Zeng, C.

Zhao, X.

Zhong, F.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nanophotonics (1)

M. J. R. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sensors (1)

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010), Chapters 2 and 9.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic configuration of the proposed silicon nitride (SiN) optical phased array (OPA) which incorporates a surface relief grating antenna that is addressed by a five-stage multimode interference (MMI) based splitter connected to a spot size converter (SSC).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Modeled structure of the SiN waveguide grating antenna in two-dimension (2D). Calculated upward spectral emission responses with the HSiN for the cases of (b) HBOX = 5.0 µm and (c) 14.5 µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Microscope image of the fabricated SiN OPA device, inclusive of a scanning electron microscope image of the grating antenna. FIB images of the cross-section of the antenna along the (b) x- and (c) y-directions.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Test setup for evaluating the steering range and emission efficiency of the OPA. (b) Emitted beam as captured on a sensing card. (c) Measured relative displacement in x-direction of the beam at λ = 1550 nm at different distances of d from 8 cm to 12 cm. Cross-section of the normalized beam profiles along the (d) longitudinal and (e) lateral directions.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Observed angular beam steering along the longitudinal direction for (a) Device A and (b) Device B, when the wavelength is scanned from 1530 to 1630 nm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Demonstrated total efficiencies of the two OPAs of Devices A and B with wavelengths in the range of 1530 to 1630 nm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Description of the diffracted waves for the 2D modeled grating antenna, which are propagating in the downward (dashed line) and upward directions (solid line) toward the substrate and air, respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Experimentally estimated spectral efficiencies and (b) calculated upward emission responses of the fabricated grating antennas (Devices A and B).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Measured propagation loss of the fabricated waveguide. (b) Measured coupling efficiency variation at λ = 1550 nm of a single output port of the MMI splitter from a five-stage MMI test structure. The inset shows the test device for a five-stage MMI.

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