Abstract

To extend the transmission distance and relax the strict alignment requirement of underwater wireless optical communication ((UWOC), we design and implement a UWOC system using a 3×1 fiber combiner and a high-sensitive multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC). The 50-m and 100-m transmission distances (corresponding to 24 attenuation lengths) are experimentally achieved with the data rates of 16.78 Mbps and 8.39 Mbps, respectively, in a 50-m standard swimming pool. Moreover, we also investigate and optimize the performance of misalignment tolerance of this system using two MPPCs as the detectors together with different diversity reception technologies. At the 50-m transmission distance, the maximum offset between the MPPC array and the light spot center can be extended to 9 m using the maximal ratio combining (MRC), while the maximum offset is 6 m when using single MPPC.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Currently, the contradictions between the shortage of global food, resources and energy and the rapid growth of global population are increasingly prominent, making the exploitation of marine resources an inevitable historical development. The growing demand for ocean exploration, seabed monitoring and ocean exploitation promotes the development of underwater wireless communication technologies (UWCTs). The existing UWCTs can be divided into three categories: underwater acoustic communication (UAC), radio frequency (RF) communication and underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC). However, UAC suffers from high latency and limited data rate [1] and the distance of RF communication is severely limited by the attenuation in seawater [2]. Therefore, with the advantages of lower latency, higher data rate and smaller device footprint, UWOC has received extensive attention in recent years and the researches [318] on UWOC are also reported in an endless stream. Table 1 summarizes the representative configurations and performances of UWOC systems in recent years and sorts them by the transmission distance. Since water types may vary largely among different reports, here the attenuation length (AL) is used instead of transmission distance as an indicator of system performance. These works usually employed light-emitting diodes (LEDs) [36] or laser diodes (LDs) [715] as optical source. UWOC systems based on LEDs have a relieved alignment requirement between the transmitter and receiver because of the large divergence angle, which in turn leads to a limited transmission distance. Among the UWOC systems based on LEDs, M. Doniec achieved a relatively long transmission distance of 50 m with a maximum data rate of 2.28 Mbps using a modem containing 18 LEDs with a 10-W total output [6]. On the other hand, the LDs have the characteristics of small divergence angle compared with LEDs, which help to achieve a long-distance point-to-point communication. X. Chen successfully achieved a 56-m transmission distance with the data rate of 3.31 Gbps using a 520-nm LD [11]. A UWOC system based on a green LD achieved a 100-m transmission distance with the data rate of 500 Mbps, which was demonstrated by J. M. Wang [13]. Moreover, a communication link with 256-pulse-position modulation (PPM) achieved a 120-m transmission distance with the attenuation length of up to 35.88 in Jerlov II water, although with a data rate not so high compared with other systems [15]. However, the small divergence angle of LDs induces the fact that the transmission link usually needs to be strictly aligned. Therefore, it is meaningful and urgent to carry out the research on relaxing the link alignment while keeping a relative long transmission distance in practical UWOC systems.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of UWOC system configurations and performances.

To extend the transmission distance, two straightforward methods, increasing the output power of the transmitter or improving the sensitivity of the receiver, should be considered firstly. The fiber combiner, as a passive optical device for optical power combination, is low cost and simple. Therefore, it has been widely investigated in the field of high-power laser by the industry and academia in recent years [1924]. A light source with an (18 + 1)×1pump combiner was shown in [19], whose total power handing capacity could reach 2.5 kW. H. Yu employed a 19×1 fiber combiner to generate a 1.2-kW fiber laser [20]. These researches demonstrate the ability of optical combiner to enhance the power of the light source. Moreover, several Gaussian beams can be combined to be a light beam with a multi-Gaussian flat-top function [25], which could increase the detection range in the receiving end and improve the robustness of an optical wireless system. Hence, the optical combiner is promising to be adopted in the UWOC system to extend the transmission distance and enlarge the effective detection range. In addition, the distance can be further extended by employing highly sensitive optical detectors such as avalanche photodiode (APD) [7,8,26], single photo avalanche diode (SPAD) [2729] and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) [5].

Spatial diversity techniques such as arrayed structures and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques can provide an attractive performance enhancement. Diversity techniques are generally used to mitigate the deep fading and intensity fluctuation caused by optical turbulence either in atmosphere or underwater [3033].The combining algorithms such as equal gain combining (EGC) and maximum ratio combining (MRC) can be adopted to further relax the requirement for link alignment and enhance the reliability of the communication system.

In this paper, to extend the transmission distance and relax the strict alignment requirement, we design and implement a UWOC system using a 3×1 fiber combiner as the transmitter and a high-sensitive MPPC as the receiver. The fiber combiner is used to increase the transmitting optical power to extend the transmission distance. Besides, the combined beam shows an approximately flat-topped shape, which was proved by the simulated and experimental results, and could enlarge the detection area to improve the system robustness. Within a 50-m standard swimming pool filled with water with an attenuation coefficient of 0.24 /m (relatively high as the swimming pool has been closed for months), the 50-m and 100-m transmission distances are achieved with the data rates of 16.78 Mbps and 8.39 Mbps, respectively. The largest AL of this system is calculated to be 24. Moreover, the performance of misalignment tolerance of this system at the 50-m transmission distance is also investigated. The maximum offset with single MPPC reaches 6 m with the data rate of 12.58 Mbps. In addition, to further relax the alignment requirement, two MPPCs together with diversity reception are employed under the same condition. The maximum offset can be extended to 9 m, implying a 50% improvement compared with the single MPPC case.

2. Characteristics of the 3×1 fiber combiner

The 3×1 fiber combiner is fabricated based on tapered fiber bundle (TFB) technique [24]. Three identical input fibers, with a centrosymmetric arrayed structure, are inserted into a capillary which is shown in Fig. 1. Then, the capillary is tapered and spliced with an output fiber. The inserts of Fig. 1 display the cross sections of the 3×1 fiber combiner at the capillary, taper region, taper waist and output fiber, respectively. It can be found that the pores among the input fibers and the capillary is generally collapsed with tapering and the cross section is petal shaped in the capillary. Finally, the tapered fiber can be completely covered by the core of the output fiber.

 

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a 3 × 1 fiber combiner. Insert: the cross sections of the combiner (a) before tapering and at the (b) tapering region, (c) taper waist and (d) output fiber.

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Since the coherence length of each light beam is assumed to be shorter than the transmission distance, the intensity of the output light field I can be considered as the intensity superposition of each input light field, which can be expressed as follows

$$I = \sum\nolimits_{m = 1}^3 {{I_m}} = {\sum\nolimits_{m = 1}^3 {|{{\mathbf E}_m}|} ^2},$$
where ${I_m}$ and ${{\mathbf E}_m}$ are the intensity and the light field of the m-th input light beam, respectively. Additionally, ${A_m}$ is the amplitude of m-th Gaussian beam and ${w_m}$ is the beam waist radius. Then the light fields of m-th Gaussian beam at ${z_m} = 0$ is
$${{\mathbf E}_m}(x,y,z,t){|_{{z_m} = 0}} = {A_m}{e^{ - ({{(x - {x_m})}^2} + {{(y - {y_m})}^2})/w_m^2}}{e^{iwt}},\quad m = 1,2,3,$$
where ${x_m}$ and ${y_m}$ are the center coordinate of m-th Gaussian beam and w is the angular frequency of light. Assuming that the three input light fields are identical, then we will have ${A_1}\textrm{ = }{A_2}\textrm{ = }{A_\textrm{3}}$ and ${w_1}\textrm{ = }{w_\textrm{2}}\textrm{ = }{w_\textrm{3}}$. Three Gaussian beams are placed in a petal shape as shown in Fig. 1. The normalized intensities of light field relative to normalized coordinates before and after combination are shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), respectively. It can be found that the intensity of output light field after combination is approximately flat-topped.

 

Fig. 2. The simulation diagrams of the intensity distributions of the light field. Insert: (a) before combination and (b) after combination.

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3. Experimental setup

The experimental setup of the proposed long-distance UWOC system based on a 3×1 fiber combiner and the high-sensitive receiver is shown in Fig. 3. At the transmitter, the non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) signals were generated offline and loaded to both channel 1 and channel 2 of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG, Siglent SDG02X-E). The output of channel 1 was divided into two identical parts by a power splitter, thereby three homologous electrical signals were generated. The amplitude of each signal was adjusted to be the same by three amplifiers (AMPs) and variable electrical attenuators (VEAs), respectively. The signals combined with 1.3-A direct currents by three bias tees were injected into three identical 450-nm LDs (Longhui Laser, FJ450A11) with single-core pigtails, and the output power of each LD was about 1W. The core diameter of the pigtail was 105 µm. The beams from LDs were launched into three input fibers of a 3×1 combiner (Xiri, MPC3×1) and the output power is 2.4 W. The combining efficiency was about 80%. Note that the input fiber core diameter was also 105 µm, which matched the output fiber core diameter of LD and the output fiber core diameter of the combiner was 200 µm. Besides, a beam profile analyzer was adopted to analyze the profiles of each laser beam and the combined beam. Additionally, a cascade of collimation system was employed to reduce the divergence angle to be 0.08° to achieve a long-distance communication. Specifically, the 3×1 fiber combiner, collimator and inverted telescope system were assembled into a launch cabin, as shown in Fig. 3(a). Then the light was transported in a 50-m swimming pool as shown in Fig. 3(b). In order to extend the transmission distance, a mirror (30 cm×30 cm) with 97% reflectivity was employed to reflect the light. At the receiver, the optical signals were detected by an MPPC [34] fixed in the receiving cabin (Fig. 3(c)) and recorded by a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO, Agilent Technologies DSO-X 4104A). The window of the receiving cabin was composed of a transparent glass with a radius of 50 mm. The received signals were processed offline for BER calculation and least square (LS) method was applied to mitigate the inter-symbol interference (ISI).

 

Fig. 3. Experimental setup diagram of the proposed UWOC system based on a 3×1 fiber combiner. Insert: (a) launch cabin, (b) 50-meter swimming pool, and (c) receiving cabin.

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4. Results and discussion

Due to the disinfectant and other particles, the attenuation coefficient of the water in the swimming pool was very large. The received optical powers at different transmission distances were measured with an optical power meter (Thorlabs, PM200). The measured values are shown in the Fig. 4 and a linear fitting is conducted. The attenuation coefficient is calculated to be 0.24 /m according to the Beer-Lambert Law.

 

Fig. 4. The received optical power at different transmission distances.

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To observe the characteristics of the light beams through the fiber combiner, a beam profiler (Thorlabs, BC106N) was placed at the end of the fiber combiner to measure the intensity distribution of light from each laser diode and the combined light beam. The measured light intensity distributions are shown at the center of each picture in Fig. 5. The two yellow curves in each picture show the measured intensity distributions of the maximum intensity in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, with the red curves being their Gaussian fittings. It can be found that each laser beam are approximately Gaussian distribution and the combined beam shows a flat-topped shape, which matches well with the simulation results (Fig. 2) in Section 2.

 

Fig. 5. Light intensity distributions. Insert: (a) laser 1, (b) laser 2, (c) laser 3, and (d) combined light beam.

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To verify the performances of the proposed UWOC system in real underwater environment, the launch cabin and the receiving cabin were both put into a standard 50-m swimming pool. A 30 cm×30 cm plane mirror was employed to extend the transmission distance to 100 m via a midway reflection. Figure 6 shows the measured BERs of the proposed system with different data rates at the transmission distance of 50 m and 100 m. With the increase of the data rate, the measured BER increases and approaches the forward error correction (FEC) threshold. The maximum data rate of the proposed system is 16.78 Mbps and 8.39 Mbps when the transmission distances are fixed at 50 m and 100 m, respectively. The achieved attenuation lengths are calculated to be 12 and 24, respectively.

 

Fig. 6. BER performances of different data rates at the transmission distance of 50 m and 100 m. Insert: (a) the received waveform of 100-m transmission distance with 6.29 Mbps and (b) the received waveform of 50-m transmission distance with 12.58 Mbps.

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To investigate the available detection range and to further relax the alignment requirement, we kept the launch cabin fixed and horizontally moved the receiving cabin away from the center of the spot. The light transmission distance is fixed at 50 m and the data rate is reduced and fixed to be 12.58 Mbps. The relative position between the light spot at the receiving plane and the MPPC is shown in Fig. 7. The impact of the offset on the BER performance was studied. Figure 8 shows the measured BERs with different offset distances. As the offset distance increases from 1 m to 6 m, the BERs are approaching the FEC threshold. The BERs at the distance lower than 2 m keep the same of 6.1×10−5, which is due to the evenly distributed scattering photons in this range. The maximum offset is 6 m, which approximately corresponds to an available detection range of 113.1 m2.

 

Fig. 7. Schematic diagram of the location of the MPPC and the light spot.

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Fig. 8. BER performance under different offset distances between the MPPC and light spot center.

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Based on such a large detection area, diversity reception technologies are considered to resist the adverse effect caused by channel environment, e.g. the bubbles and turbulence for a long-distance UWOC. Therefore, two identical MPPCs separated by 20 cm were used to detect the optical signals separately. Two diversity reception methods, including equal gain combining (EGC) and maximum signal-to-noise ratio combining (MRC), were adopted to process the signals received by these two MPPCs. The offset distance was defined as the distance between the light spot center and the nearest MPPC as shown in Fig. 9. The horizontal offset changes from 2 m to 9 m as the two MPPCs moved horizontally at the same time. The light transmission distance and the data rate were fixed at 50 m and 12.58 Mbps, respectively. The measured BERs at different offsets are shown in Fig. 10. The performances of different diversity reception technologies show little difference and are both better than the case with a single MPPC, which shows the feasibility of diversity reception technologies in improving the system performance. The disconnection of black line is caused by the zero error after being processed using the MRC. Additionally, the maximum offset distance is increased to 9 m after using diversity reception technologies, which proves that the offset can be further extended and the link alignment can be further relaxed by diversity reception.

 

Fig. 9. Schematic diagram of the location of the light spot and the two MPPCs for diversity reception.

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Fig. 10. BER performances using single MPPC and two MPPCs with different diversity reception methods.

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5. Discussion

Due to the limitation of the swimming pool and experimental setups, only 50-m and 100-m transmission experiments were conducted. The distance should be longer for the transmission in clean or deep seawater which has a relative lower attenuation coefficient (<0.1635 /m) than that in the swimming pool (0.24 /m). More LDs jointed with an optical combiner with more input ports could also improve the distance but with an increased cost. Besides, it is meaningful to investigate and balance the relationships among the divergence angle, the transmission distance, the detection range, the maximum offset distance and the communication data rate.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, a 3×1 fiber combiner is employed in the UWOC system to extend the transmission distance. Together with a high-sensitive MPPC as the detector, a maximum transmission distance of 100 m, corresponding to 24 ALs, is experimentally achieved with the data rate of 8.39 Mbps in a 50-m standard swimming pool. In the 50-m transmission, the proposed UWOC system can work at a maximum offset of 6 m between the receiver and the light spot center with a data rate of 12.58 Mbps. Additionally, two highly sensitive detectors combined with different diversity reception technologies are also adopted to improve the system performance. The maximum offset can be further extended to 9 m. Therefore, one can relax the alignment requirement by using diversity reception technologies or artificially sacrificing part of the data rate in certain application scenarios where it is difficult to align. The achieved transmission distance and offset tolerance could meet a vast majority of underwater communication demands. Therefore, the optical combination paves a new way to extending the UWOC transmission distance. The proposed UWOC system also offers a dimension to relax the link alignment while keeping a relatively long transmission distance.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61671409, 61971378); National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1401202, 2017YFC0306100, 2017YFC0306601); Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA22030208).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

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3. F. Wang, Y. Liu, and F. Jiang, “High speed underwater visible light communication system based on LED employing maximum ratio combination with multi-PIN reception,” Opt. Commun. 425, 106–112 (2018). [CrossRef]  

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5. J. N. Shen, J. L. Wang, and C. Y. Yu, “Single LED-based 46-m underwater wireless optical communication enabled by a multi-pixel photon counter with digital output,” Opt. Commun. 438, 78–82 (2019). [CrossRef]  

6. M. Doniec and D. Rus, “BiDirectional optical communication with AquaOptical II,” in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems, ed. (Academic, 2010), pp. 390–394.

7. Y. F. Chen, M. W. Kong, and T. Ali, “26 m/5.5 Gbps air-water optical wireless communication based on an OFDM-modulated 520-nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14760 (2017). [CrossRef]  

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9. W. C. Lyu, M. M. Zhao, X. Chen, X. Q. Yang, Y. Qiu, Z. J. Tong, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of an underwater wireless optical communication employing spread spectrum technology,” Opt. Express 28(7), 10027–10038 (2020). [CrossRef]  

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12. X. Liu, S. Yi, R. Liu, L. Zheng, and P. Tian, “34.5 m Underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser with NRZ-OOK modulation,” in 2017 14th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (SSLChina: IFWS), ed. (Academic, 2017), pp. 60–61.

13. J. M. Wang and H. Chun, “100 m/500 Mbps underwater optical wireless communication using an NRZ-OOK modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12171–12181 (2019). [CrossRef]  

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15. S. Q. Hu, M. Le, T. H. Zhou, and W. B. Chen, “35.88 attenuation lengths and 3.32 bits/photon underwater optical wireless communication based on photon-counting receiver with 256-PPM,” Opt. Express 26(17), 21685 (2018). [CrossRef]  

16. X. Huang, F. Yang, and J. Song, “Hybrid LD and LED-based underwater optical communication: state-of-the-art, opportunities, challenges, and trends,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(10), 100002 (2019). [CrossRef]  

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30. X. Chen, W. C. Lyu, and C. Y. Yu, “Diversity-reception UWOC system using solar panel array and maximum ratio combining,” Opt. Express 27(23), 34284 (2019). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications and Networking: Recent Advances and Future Challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link (ICL) temperature probes for hot hydro thermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).
  3. F. Wang, Y. Liu, and F. Jiang, “High speed underwater visible light communication system based on LED employing maximum ratio combination with multi-PIN reception,” Opt. Commun. 425, 106–112 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Li, B. Wang, P. Wang, Z. Xu, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Generation and Transmission of 745Mb/s OFDM Signal Using a Single Commercial Blue LED and an Analog Post-Equalizer for Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” in 2016 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), ed. (Academic, 2016), pp. 1–3.
  5. J. N. Shen, J. L. Wang, and C. Y. Yu, “Single LED-based 46-m underwater wireless optical communication enabled by a multi-pixel photon counter with digital output,” Opt. Commun. 438, 78–82 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Doniec and D. Rus, “BiDirectional optical communication with AquaOptical II,” in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems, ed. (Academic, 2010), pp. 390–394.
  7. Y. F. Chen, M. W. Kong, and T. Ali, “26 m/5.5 Gbps air-water optical wireless communication based on an OFDM-modulated 520-nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14760 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Liu, S. Yi, and X. Zhou, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. C. Lyu, M. M. Zhao, X. Chen, X. Q. Yang, Y. Qiu, Z. J. Tong, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of an underwater wireless optical communication employing spread spectrum technology,” Opt. Express 28(7), 10027–10038 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Fei, X. Hong, and G. Zhang, “Improving the Performance of Long Reach UOWC with Multiband DFT-Spread DMT,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(16), 1315–1318 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Chen, W. C. Lyu, Z. J. Zhang, J. Zhao, and J. Xu, “56-m/3.31-Gbps underwater wireless optical communication employing Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization with noise prediction,” Opt. Express 28(16), 23784–23795 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. Liu, S. Yi, R. Liu, L. Zheng, and P. Tian, “34.5 m Underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser with NRZ-OOK modulation,” in 2017 14th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (SSLChina: IFWS), ed. (Academic, 2017), pp. 60–61.
  13. J. M. Wang and H. Chun, “100 m/500 Mbps underwater optical wireless communication using an NRZ-OOK modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12171–12181 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Sawa, N. Nishimura, and K. Tojo, “Practical Performance and Prospect of Underwater Optical Wireless Communication,” ICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics Communications and Computer Sciences E102.A(1), ed. (Academic, 2019), pp. 156–167.
  15. S. Q. Hu, M. Le, T. H. Zhou, and W. B. Chen, “35.88 attenuation lengths and 3.32 bits/photon underwater optical wireless communication based on photon-counting receiver with 256-PPM,” Opt. Express 26(17), 21685 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. Huang, F. Yang, and J. Song, “Hybrid LD and LED-based underwater optical communication: state-of-the-art, opportunities, challenges, and trends,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(10), 100002 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. N. Chi and F. C. Hu, “Nonlinear adaptive filters for high-speed LED based underwater visible light communication,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(10), 100011 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Xu, “Underwater wireless optical communication: why, what, and how?” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(10), 100007 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Zheng, W. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 57(10), 1 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. B. Yu, D. A. V. Kliner, K. H. Liao, and J. Segall, “1.2-kW single-mode fiber laser based on 100-W high-brightness pump diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370G (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Cesar, B. Steffen, and W. Georgios, “All-fiber side pump combiner for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801E (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, and P. M. Skovgaard, “All-fiber 7 ( 1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79142L (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. Z. F. Wang, Z. L. Chen, X. F. Zhou, J. Hou, and X. J. Xu, “High-power incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers based on a 7 × 1 all-fiber signal combiner,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 056103 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Zhou, Z. Chen, and X. Zhou, “All-fiber 7×1 pump combiner for high power fiber lase,” Opt. Commun. 347, 137–140 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. A. Tovar, “Propagation of flat-topped multi-Gaussian laser beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(8), 1897–1904 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. F. Huang, C. T. Tsai, and Y. C. Chi, “Filtered Multicarrier OFDM Encoding on Blue Laser Diode for 14.8-Gbps Seawater Transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1739–1745 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. Chitnis and S. Collins, “A SPAD-based photon detecting system for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 2028–2034 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.
  29. J. Zhang, L. Sima, B. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Low-Complexity receivers and energy-efficient constellations for SPAD VLC systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1799–1802 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. Chen, W. C. Lyu, and C. Y. Yu, “Diversity-reception UWOC system using solar panel array and maximum ratio combining,” Opt. Express 27(23), 34284 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “Ber performance of freespace optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. C. Boucouvalas, K. P. Peppas, K. Yiannopoulos, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Underwater optical wireless communications with optical amplification and spatial diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2613–2616 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Hong and L. K. Chen, “On the performance of adaptive MIMO-OFDM indoor visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(8), 907–910 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. N. Shen, J. L. Wang, X. Chen, C. Zhang, M. W. Kong, Z. J. Tong, and J. Xu, “Towards power-efficient long-reach underwater wireless optical communication using a multi-pixel photon counter,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23565–23571 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2020 (2)

2019 (7)

2018 (5)

2017 (2)

2016 (4)

Z. F. Wang, Z. L. Chen, X. F. Zhou, J. Hou, and X. J. Xu, “High-power incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers based on a 7 × 1 all-fiber signal combiner,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 056103 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, L. Sima, B. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Low-Complexity receivers and energy-efficient constellations for SPAD VLC systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1799–1802 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. C. Boucouvalas, K. P. Peppas, K. Yiannopoulos, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Underwater optical wireless communications with optical amplification and spatial diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2613–2616 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Hong and L. K. Chen, “On the performance of adaptive MIMO-OFDM indoor visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(8), 907–910 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. Zhou, Z. Chen, and X. Zhou, “All-fiber 7×1 pump combiner for high power fiber lase,” Opt. Commun. 347, 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

H. B. Yu, D. A. V. Kliner, K. H. Liao, and J. Segall, “1.2-kW single-mode fiber laser based on 100-W high-brightness pump diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370G (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, and P. M. Skovgaard, “All-fiber 7 ( 1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79142L (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Cesar, B. Steffen, and W. Georgios, “All-fiber side pump combiner for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801E (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications and Networking: Recent Advances and Future Challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “Ber performance of freespace optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link (ICL) temperature probes for hot hydro thermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

Abbas, T.A.

O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.

Ali, T.

Almer, O.

O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.

Boucouvalas, A. C.

A. C. Boucouvalas, K. P. Peppas, K. Yiannopoulos, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Underwater optical wireless communications with optical amplification and spatial diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2613–2616 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bradley, A.

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link (ICL) temperature probes for hot hydro thermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

Cesar, J.

J. Cesar, B. Steffen, and W. Georgios, “All-fiber side pump combiner for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801E (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. K.

Y. Hong and L. K. Chen, “On the performance of adaptive MIMO-OFDM indoor visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(8), 907–910 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. B.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Z.

H. Zhou, Z. Chen, and X. Zhou, “All-fiber 7×1 pump combiner for high power fiber lase,” Opt. Commun. 347, 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. L.

Z. F. Wang, Z. L. Chen, X. F. Zhou, J. Hou, and X. J. Xu, “High-power incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers based on a 7 × 1 all-fiber signal combiner,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 056103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chi, N.

Chi, Y. C.

Chitnis, D.

Chitre, M.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications and Networking: Recent Advances and Future Challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

Collins, S.

Doniec, M.

M. Doniec and D. Rus, “BiDirectional optical communication with AquaOptical II,” in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems, ed. (Academic, 2010), pp. 390–394.

Dutton, N.A.W.

O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.

Fei, C.

C. Fei, X. Hong, and G. Zhang, “Improving the Performance of Long Reach UOWC with Multiband DFT-Spread DMT,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(16), 1315–1318 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fornari, D.

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link (ICL) temperature probes for hot hydro thermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

Georgios, W.

J. Cesar, B. Steffen, and W. Georgios, “All-fiber side pump combiner for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801E (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

A. C. Boucouvalas, K. P. Peppas, K. Yiannopoulos, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Underwater optical wireless communications with optical amplification and spatial diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2613–2616 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gnecchi, S.

O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.

Haas, H.

O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.

Henderson, R.K.

O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.

Hong, X.

C. Fei, X. Hong, and G. Zhang, “Improving the Performance of Long Reach UOWC with Multiband DFT-Spread DMT,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(16), 1315–1318 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hong, Y.

Y. Hong and L. K. Chen, “On the performance of adaptive MIMO-OFDM indoor visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(8), 907–910 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

Z. F. Wang, Z. L. Chen, X. F. Zhou, J. Hou, and X. J. Xu, “High-power incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers based on a 7 × 1 all-fiber signal combiner,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 056103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, F. C.

Hu, S. Q.

Huang, X.

Huang, Y. F.

Humphris, S.

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link (ICL) temperature probes for hot hydro thermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

Jiang, F.

F. Wang, Y. Liu, and F. Jiang, “High speed underwater visible light communication system based on LED employing maximum ratio combination with multi-PIN reception,” Opt. Commun. 425, 106–112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kavehrad, M.

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “Ber performance of freespace optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kliner, D. A. V.

H. B. Yu, D. A. V. Kliner, K. H. Liao, and J. Segall, “1.2-kW single-mode fiber laser based on 100-W high-brightness pump diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370G (2012).
[Crossref]

Kong, M. W.

Le, M.

Li, C.

C. Li, B. Wang, P. Wang, Z. Xu, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Generation and Transmission of 745Mb/s OFDM Signal Using a Single Commercial Blue LED and an Analog Post-Equalizer for Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” in 2016 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), ed. (Academic, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Liao, K. H.

H. B. Yu, D. A. V. Kliner, K. H. Liao, and J. Segall, “1.2-kW single-mode fiber laser based on 100-W high-brightness pump diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370G (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

X. Liu, S. Yi, R. Liu, L. Zheng, and P. Tian, “34.5 m Underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser with NRZ-OOK modulation,” in 2017 14th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (SSLChina: IFWS), ed. (Academic, 2017), pp. 60–61.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, S. Yi, and X. Zhou, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Yi, R. Liu, L. Zheng, and P. Tian, “34.5 m Underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser with NRZ-OOK modulation,” in 2017 14th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (SSLChina: IFWS), ed. (Academic, 2017), pp. 60–61.

Liu, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Liu, and F. Jiang, “High speed underwater visible light communication system based on LED employing maximum ratio combination with multi-PIN reception,” Opt. Commun. 425, 106–112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lyu, W. C.

Maack, M. D.

D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, and P. M. Skovgaard, “All-fiber 7 ( 1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79142L (2011).
[Crossref]

Navidpour, S. M.

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “Ber performance of freespace optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, N.

T. Sawa, N. Nishimura, and K. Tojo, “Practical Performance and Prospect of Underwater Optical Wireless Communication,” ICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics Communications and Computer Sciences E102.A(1), ed. (Academic, 2019), pp. 156–167.

Noordegraaf, D.

D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, and P. M. Skovgaard, “All-fiber 7 ( 1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79142L (2011).
[Crossref]

Peppas, K. P.

A. C. Boucouvalas, K. P. Peppas, K. Yiannopoulos, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Underwater optical wireless communications with optical amplification and spatial diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2613–2616 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.

Rus, D.

M. Doniec and D. Rus, “BiDirectional optical communication with AquaOptical II,” in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems, ed. (Academic, 2010), pp. 390–394.

Sawa, T.

T. Sawa, N. Nishimura, and K. Tojo, “Practical Performance and Prospect of Underwater Optical Wireless Communication,” ICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics Communications and Computer Sciences E102.A(1), ed. (Academic, 2019), pp. 156–167.

Segall, J.

H. B. Yu, D. A. V. Kliner, K. H. Liao, and J. Segall, “1.2-kW single-mode fiber laser based on 100-W high-brightness pump diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370G (2012).
[Crossref]

Shahabudeen, S.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications and Networking: Recent Advances and Future Challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shen, J. N.

J. N. Shen, J. L. Wang, and C. Y. Yu, “Single LED-based 46-m underwater wireless optical communication enabled by a multi-pixel photon counter with digital output,” Opt. Commun. 438, 78–82 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. N. Shen, J. L. Wang, X. Chen, C. Zhang, M. W. Kong, Z. J. Tong, and J. Xu, “Towards power-efficient long-reach underwater wireless optical communication using a multi-pixel photon counter,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23565–23571 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sima, L.

J. Zhang, L. Sima, B. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Low-Complexity receivers and energy-efficient constellations for SPAD VLC systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1799–1802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Skovgaard, P. M.

D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Maack, and P. M. Skovgaard, “All-fiber 7 ( 1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79142L (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Steffen, B.

J. Cesar, B. Steffen, and W. Georgios, “All-fiber side pump combiner for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801E (2010).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, M.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications and Networking: Recent Advances and Future Challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

X. Liu, S. Yi, R. Liu, L. Zheng, and P. Tian, “34.5 m Underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser with NRZ-OOK modulation,” in 2017 14th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (SSLChina: IFWS), ed. (Academic, 2017), pp. 60–61.

Tojo, K.

T. Sawa, N. Nishimura, and K. Tojo, “Practical Performance and Prospect of Underwater Optical Wireless Communication,” ICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics Communications and Computer Sciences E102.A(1), ed. (Academic, 2019), pp. 156–167.

Tong, Z. J.

Tovar, A. A.

Tsai, C. T.

Tsonev, D.

O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.

Uysal, M.

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “Ber performance of freespace optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

O. Almer, D. Tsonev, N.A.W. Dutton, T.A. Abbas, S. Videv, S. Gnecchi, H. Haas, and R.K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based Visible Light Communications Receiver Employing Higher Order Modulation,” in 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.

Wang, B.

J. Zhang, L. Sima, B. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Low-Complexity receivers and energy-efficient constellations for SPAD VLC systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1799–1802 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Li, B. Wang, P. Wang, Z. Xu, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Generation and Transmission of 745Mb/s OFDM Signal Using a Single Commercial Blue LED and an Analog Post-Equalizer for Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” in 2016 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), ed. (Academic, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, Y. Liu, and F. Jiang, “High speed underwater visible light communication system based on LED employing maximum ratio combination with multi-PIN reception,” Opt. Commun. 425, 106–112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. L.

J. N. Shen, J. L. Wang, and C. Y. Yu, “Single LED-based 46-m underwater wireless optical communication enabled by a multi-pixel photon counter with digital output,” Opt. Commun. 438, 78–82 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. N. Shen, J. L. Wang, X. Chen, C. Zhang, M. W. Kong, Z. J. Tong, and J. Xu, “Towards power-efficient long-reach underwater wireless optical communication using a multi-pixel photon counter,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23565–23571 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. M.

Wang, P.

C. Li, B. Wang, P. Wang, Z. Xu, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Generation and Transmission of 745Mb/s OFDM Signal Using a Single Commercial Blue LED and an Analog Post-Equalizer for Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” in 2016 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), ed. (Academic, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Wang, Z. F.

Z. F. Wang, Z. L. Chen, X. F. Zhou, J. Hou, and X. J. Xu, “High-power incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers based on a 7 × 1 all-fiber signal combiner,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 056103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, X. J.

Z. F. Wang, Z. L. Chen, X. F. Zhou, J. Hou, and X. J. Xu, “High-power incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers based on a 7 × 1 all-fiber signal combiner,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 056103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

C. Li, B. Wang, P. Wang, Z. Xu, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Generation and Transmission of 745Mb/s OFDM Signal Using a Single Commercial Blue LED and an Analog Post-Equalizer for Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” in 2016 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), ed. (Academic, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Yang, F.

Yang, Q.

C. Li, B. Wang, P. Wang, Z. Xu, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Generation and Transmission of 745Mb/s OFDM Signal Using a Single Commercial Blue LED and an Analog Post-Equalizer for Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” in 2016 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), ed. (Academic, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Yang, X. Q.

Yi, S.

X. Liu, S. Yi, and X. Zhou, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Yi, R. Liu, L. Zheng, and P. Tian, “34.5 m Underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser with NRZ-OOK modulation,” in 2017 14th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (SSLChina: IFWS), ed. (Academic, 2017), pp. 60–61.

Yiannopoulos, K.

A. C. Boucouvalas, K. P. Peppas, K. Yiannopoulos, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Underwater optical wireless communications with optical amplification and spatial diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2613–2616 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. Y.

X. Chen, W. C. Lyu, and C. Y. Yu, “Diversity-reception UWOC system using solar panel array and maximum ratio combining,” Opt. Express 27(23), 34284 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. N. Shen, J. L. Wang, and C. Y. Yu, “Single LED-based 46-m underwater wireless optical communication enabled by a multi-pixel photon counter with digital output,” Opt. Commun. 438, 78–82 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. B.

H. B. Yu, D. A. V. Kliner, K. H. Liao, and J. Segall, “1.2-kW single-mode fiber laser based on 100-W high-brightness pump diodes,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370G (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

C. Li, B. Wang, P. Wang, Z. Xu, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Generation and Transmission of 745Mb/s OFDM Signal Using a Single Commercial Blue LED and an Analog Post-Equalizer for Underwater Optical Wireless Communications,” in 2016 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), ed. (Academic, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, G.

C. Fei, X. Hong, and G. Zhang, “Improving the Performance of Long Reach UOWC with Multiband DFT-Spread DMT,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(16), 1315–1318 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, L. Sima, B. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Low-Complexity receivers and energy-efficient constellations for SPAD VLC systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1799–1802 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, L. Sima, B. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Low-Complexity receivers and energy-efficient constellations for SPAD VLC systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1799–1802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

J. Zhang, L. Sima, B. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Low-Complexity receivers and energy-efficient constellations for SPAD VLC systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1799–1802 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. J.

Zhao, B.

J. Zheng, W. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 57(10), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, M. M.

Zhao, W.

J. Zheng, W. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 57(10), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, W. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 57(10), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L.

X. Liu, S. Yi, R. Liu, L. Zheng, and P. Tian, “34.5 m Underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser with NRZ-OOK modulation,” in 2017 14th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting: International Forum on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors China (SSLChina: IFWS), ed. (Academic, 2017), pp. 60–61.

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Z. Chen, and X. Zhou, “All-fiber 7×1 pump combiner for high power fiber lase,” Opt. Commun. 347, 137–140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T. H.

Zhou, X.

Zhou, X. F.

Z. F. Wang, Z. L. Chen, X. F. Zhou, J. Hou, and X. J. Xu, “High-power incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers based on a 7 × 1 all-fiber signal combiner,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 056103 (2016).
[Crossref]

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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a 3 × 1 fiber combiner. Insert: the cross sections of the combiner (a) before tapering and at the (b) tapering region, (c) taper waist and (d) output fiber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The simulation diagrams of the intensity distributions of the light field. Insert: (a) before combination and (b) after combination.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup diagram of the proposed UWOC system based on a 3×1 fiber combiner. Insert: (a) launch cabin, (b) 50-meter swimming pool, and (c) receiving cabin.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The received optical power at different transmission distances.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Light intensity distributions. Insert: (a) laser 1, (b) laser 2, (c) laser 3, and (d) combined light beam.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. BER performances of different data rates at the transmission distance of 50 m and 100 m. Insert: (a) the received waveform of 100-m transmission distance with 6.29 Mbps and (b) the received waveform of 50-m transmission distance with 12.58 Mbps.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Schematic diagram of the location of the MPPC and the light spot.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. BER performance under different offset distances between the MPPC and light spot center.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Schematic diagram of the location of the light spot and the two MPPCs for diversity reception.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. BER performances using single MPPC and two MPPCs with different diversity reception methods.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of UWOC system configurations and performances.

Equations (2)

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I = m = 1 3 I m = m = 1 3 | E m | 2 ,
E m ( x , y , z , t ) | z m = 0 = A m e ( ( x x m ) 2 + ( y y m ) 2 ) / w m 2 e i w t , m = 1 , 2 , 3 ,

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