Abstract

An experiment is described where two-dimensional small-angle light scattering (2D-SALS) patterns from single particles are measured in the infrared through a lens-free approach. Spatial filtering is employed to separate scattered light from unscattered light to within approximately one degree from the forward direction. Non-planar reflective elements are used in the filtering process, permitting 2D-SALS measurements to be done without chromatic aberrations over a broad spectral range and from 0.8 to 8 degrees in the polar scattering angle and zero to 360 degrees in the azimuthal angle. Patterns from spherical microparticles are presented along with nonspherical particles including volcanic ash and salt. An asymmetry analysis is applied to demonstrate an ability to differentiate spherical from nonspherical particles from the 2D-SALS patterns.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Aerosol-radiation interactions directly affect Earth’s radiation budget and new measurement techniques for the radiative properties of aerosols are of utmost importance for improved remote sensing capabilities [1]. Laboratory knowledge about how aerosols scatter light is crucial for quantitative radiative-transfer calculations and climate modeling efforts, which rely on accurate information about the light-scattering properties of aerosols, e.g. carbonaceous aerosols, volcanic ash, and mineral dust [2,3]. Although aerosol particles are known to present non-spherical geometries in general, many radiative transfer and climate models continue to use spherical-particle proxies to account for the light-scattering effects of real aerosols. Such approximations for particle shape are known to yield incorrect estimations in remote-sensing retrievals [4,5].

Light-scattering is a powerful method to characterize micron-scale particulate matter, especially aerosol particles, where the collection of particle samples for detailed analysis is either impractical or impossible. By measuring how light disperses in angle upon scattering, a variety of characteristics can be estimated. For example, a particle will exhibit a so-called Guinier region where the scattered-light intensity as a function of the polar scattering angle $\theta$ exhibits a simple power-law relationship [6]. If the particle is larger than the wavelength, this relationship yields an estimate for the particle size. More information, related to particle shape for example, can be obtained if the scattering pattern is measured over two angles, i.e., the polar $\theta$ and azimuthal $\phi$ angles. By changing the wavelength, these analyses can be extended to cover a wider variety of particle size and shapes, thus enhancing their analytical value.

The $\theta$-dependence of a light-scattering pattern for small $\theta$ is related to the particle’s largest physical dimensions. Particle sizing via Guinier analysis, for example, can therefore require measuring the scattering pattern to angles close to the forward direction. A wide variety of particles sizes and shapes can be characterized by such analysis. These measurements are challenging, however, because in many situations the majority of light incident on a particle is unscattered and will dominate the scattered light at a detector viewing small angles. One approach to separate intense unscattered light from near-forward scattered light involves a lens that removes the former light in the lens’s Fourier plane via a spatial filter [712]. Yet, refractive elements introduce chromatic aberration, which complicate the use of this approach with broadband light for instance, and often only one-dimensional, i.e., single angle, scattering measurements are made as in [8,11,12]. Here, we describe an experiment based on the spatial-filtering concept in [9] where two-dimensional small angle light scattering (2D-SALS) patterns of microparticles are measured using reflective elements only. This is achieved with a pair of silver off-axis parabolic mirrors, which are immune to chromatic aberrations over a broad spectral range.

2. Experiment design

Figure 1 shows the experimental arrangement for lens-free 2D-SALS measurements. An infrared, CW laser of wavelength $\lambda =1550$ nm (Thorlabs, LDM1550, 4.5 mW) and beam diameter of $~3$ mm is attenuated by a neural density filter (ND). The beam is then contracted to $\sim 1$ mm in diameter by a reversed beam-expander (BE) and then illuminates microparticles deposited on an anti-reflection (AR) coated CaF$_2$ window, which is called the particle stage (S). Particles are deposited on S from bulk-powder samples of the various particle types discussed below. The particle coated surface of S is then observed by a microscope while compressed air is applied to remove particles such that the number-density remaining is low enough to permit a only single particle to be illuminated by the incident beam. Once done, S is placed in the experimental arrangement and translated until a single particle resides in the beam. As shown in the inset in Fig. 1, the particle resides on the side of S facing away from the laser source. As such, it is only backscattered light from the particle that can interact with the stage glass. This interaction is weak, however, because the backscattered light is much weaker than the forward-scattered light and because the stage is AR coated. For this reason, we neglect the interaction of the particle with the stage glass.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Diagram of the arrangement used to measure infrared 2D-SALS patterns from microparticles. Particles are deposited onto the anti-reflection coated window, the stage, labeled S in the diagram, where the right inset shows the $z$-axis and polar scattering angle $\theta$. Incident, i.e., unscattered light, is indicated by solid lines and scattered light is shown in dash. Scattered light is separated from unscattered light by the off-axis parabolic (OAP) mirror with a $3$ mm diameter through hole. The scattered light is then relayed by another OAP to the IR-CCD sensor. An example of a typical 2D-SALS pattern is shown in false color in the left inset.

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Because the particles are approximately $50$ µm in size, the majority of the beam passes by the particles unscattered. Scattered and unscattered light are then received by a $52$ mm diameter off-axis parabolic mirror (OAP) containing a $3$ mm diameter through-hole (Thorlabs, MPD249H-P01) as shown in Fig. 1. The focal length of this mirror is $f=102$ mm, which corresponds to the separation between S and the mirror. The diverging scattered light from the particle received by the mirror is thus collimated and reflected by 90$^{\circ }$, while the unscattered (collimated) beam passes through the hole in the mirror. With the $z$-axis along the incident-beam direction, scattered light over the polar $\theta$ and azimuthal $\phi$ scattering angles is collected and relayed by another OAP mirror (Thorlabs, MPD249-P01) without a through-hole to an infrared CCD sensor (Xenics, Bobcat-320). In this way, weak intensity 2D-SLAS scattering patterns are readily separated from the intense unscattered incident beam.

The range of scattering angles is determined by the OAP mirror diameter (52 mm), the through-hole diameter (3 mm), and focal length $f$ (102 mm). These parameters show that the (polar) scattering angle $\theta$ ranges from approximately $0.8^{\circ }\lesssim \theta \lesssim 14^{\circ }$ and all azimuthal angles $\phi$ are collected, $0^{\circ }\le \phi < 360^{\circ }$. In practice, however, the range of $\theta$ is more restricted as described below due to stray light noise. Once the scattered light reflects from the second OAP mirror in Fig. 1, it passes through a $1$ mm diameter pinhole (PH, Thorlabs, P1000D), and is then collimated by a lens (L, $f=16$ mm), and is finally received by the IR-CCD sensor. The lens used here is for convenience but could be replaced by another curved, metal mirror if chromatic aberrations are a concern. The purpose of this PH is to block light not originating from the particles on the stage, S. In particular, due to the Gaussian character of the incident-beam profile, a portion of the light will scatter from the rim of the through-hole in the first OAP mirror. If this light is not removed, it can significantly disturb the scattering pattern. The majority of this unwanted light is blocked by the PH and clear 2D-SALS patterns are resolved. The cost of doing so, however, is that the scattering pattern is vignetted, reducing the maximum range of $\theta$ to approximately $\theta \lesssim 8^{\circ }$.

3. Calibration

The 2D scattering patterns measured by the sensor must be mapped from sensor-pixel number to scattering direction as measured by the angles $(\theta ,\phi )$. To achieve this, a $30$ µm diameter pinhole (Thorlabs, P30D) is placed at the location of the particle stage, producing the Airy far-field diffraction pattern across the first OAP mirror in Fig. 1. The center of the recorded pattern is then found by estimating the center of the missing portion of the pattern that is due to the through-hole in the OAP mirror. This center point corresponds to the forward-scattering direction, $\theta =0$. Next, the measured pattern is fitted to the theoretical expectation, the Airy function. With $k=2\pi /\lambda$, that expectation is given by:

$$I^{\textrm{sca}}_{\textrm{Airy}}(\theta,\phi)=I_{\textrm{o}}\left[\frac{2J_{1}\left(kR_{\textrm{ph}}\sin\theta\right)}{kR_{\textrm{ph}}\sin\theta}\right]^2,$$
where $I_{\textrm {o}}=I(\theta =0)$ is the intensity of the incident beam, $J_{1}$ is the first-order Bessel function, and $R_{\textrm {ph}}$ is the radius of the pinhole. The radial distance $d$ from the center of the pattern in terms of the number of pixels is related to the $\theta$ scattering angle by a constant $\alpha$ as : $\theta =\arctan {d/\alpha }$. From Fig. 1, $\alpha$ can be understood as approximately the focal length of the lens L before the sensor. By adjusting $\alpha$ iteratively, the Airy pattern is fit to the measured pattern, thus establishing the mapping from sensor pixels to $\theta$, i.e., $\theta =\theta (\alpha ,d)$. This same mapping is then used for the other scattering patterns that follow. Figure 2(a) shows the measured 2D-SALS pattern for this pinhole in false-color on a log scale.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Measured and calculated pinhole diffraction pattern used for calibration of the arrangement in Fig. 1. In (a) is the 2D-SALS pattern in false color on a log scale. Plot (b) shows the azimuthal average of this pattern, i.e., the scattering curve $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}$, as a function of $q$ on a log-log scale normalized by the maximum measured intensity $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {max}}$. The polar scattering angle is also shown in degrees on the top horizontal axis for comparison to (a). The fit Airy-pattern $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {Airy}}$ is shown in red dash. Blue shaded regions around the curve in (b) represent the extent of variation in $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}$ for different $\phi$ angles in the average. Note, the gray-shaded region in both plots show the portion of the pattern lost from the through-hole in the OAP mirror in Fig. 1.

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By averaging the measured pattern over the azimuthal angle $\phi$, a scattering curve can be generated $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}(\theta )=\langle I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}(\theta ,\phi )\rangle _{\phi }$, which is plotted in Fig. 2(b) on a log-log scale as a function of the scattering wave-vector magnitude $q=2k\sin (\theta /2)$. The purpose of doing so is because scattering curves often exhibit average power-law functionalities that depend on the size and physical dimension of the scattering object [13]. Here we find an average $q^{-3}$ power-law in Fig. 2(b), which is in agreement with [14]. A portion of the curve for small $q$ is missing due to the light lost from the through-hole in the OAP mirror as is shown by the gray shaded region labeled "hole" in the plot. The scattering curve is normalized by the maximum intensity $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {max}}$ measured in the 2D pattern, and thus, its extrapolation to $\theta =0$, or $q=0$, exceeds one. The blue shaded region about the scattering curve displays the maximum extent of variation of the scattered intensity at different $\phi$ angles for a given $q$. Also shown in Fig. 2(b) is the Airy pattern, $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {Airy}}$, revealing the close agreement between this theoretical expectation and the measured pattern.

4. Measurements for single microparticles

To explore the capability of the method, several types of particles ranging from spherical to irregularly shaped are deposited on the stage S in Fig. 1 and the 2D-SALS patterns are measured and analyzed in the following. While these particles are fixed to S, and thus are not aerosols, they are representative of important classes of aerosols occurring in the coarse-mode aerosol (CMA) size range in the atmosphere, i.e., particles larger than one micron in size. One such class examined below is that of volcanic ash particles.

4.1 Monodisperse spherical particles

Figure 3 shows the measured 2D-SALS pattern and scattering curve for a red-dyed polyethylene microsphere (Cospheric, REDPMS-0.98 45-53um). One can see the expected nested-ring structure in the 2D pattern. In Fig. 3(b), a comparison to Mie theory $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {Mie}}$ is shown. Here, the Mie solution to Maxwell’s equations based on [15] is coded in Mathematica, which provides $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {Mie}}(\theta ,\phi )$ assuming given values for the sphere diameter $D$ and complex-valued refractive index $m$. By adjusting $D$ and $m$, and azimuthally averaging $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {Mie}}(\theta ,\phi )$, a curve is found that qualitatively agrees with the measured curve, $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}$. The values $D=50.66$ µm and $m=1.43+0.0245i$ yield this curve (in red dashed line). Based on the manufacturer-reported particle-size variance of $D=45-53$ µm, the $D$ fit-value appears reasonable. However, the refractive index for pure polyethylene is reported in [16] to be approximately $m=1.54261+2.45\times 10^{-6}i$ at $\lambda =1550$ nm, which differs substantially from the fit-value of $m=1.43+0.0245i$. A possible explanation for this disagreement is that the exact chemical properties of the sphere material are not available from the manufacturer. This uncertainty must affect the refractive index $m$ to some degree in relation to the literature value and the extent of this effect is not known.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Measured 2D-SALS pattern and scattering curve for a spherical microparticle. A $~50$ µm diameter polyethylene microsphere is placed on S in Fig. 1 and the measured 2D-SALS pattern is shown in (a) in false color on a log scale. Plot (b) shows the azimuthal average of this pattern, i.e., the scattering curve $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}$, as a function of $q$ on a log-log scale. The red-dashed curve in (b) shows the Mie theory result using a sphere diameter of $D=50.66$ µm and refractive index $m=1.43+0.0245i$.

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4.2 Volcanic ash

Clouds of volcanic ash generated during explosive eruptions have significant consequences on climate, weather, air quality and health, and aircraft flight safety. Ash particles show a wide variety of irregular shapes with wide size distributions from hundreds of nm to hundreds of µm. Among these, very fine volcanic ash with diameters less than 60 µm, following the physical volcanology-derived terminology [17], are of particular interest as they can remain suspended for days to weeks [18]. Limited information is available for the radiative and optical properties of volcanic ash, which complicates efforts to reliably characterize ash in remote-sensing retrievals [19] using infrared signatures [20].

Figure 4 shows the 2D-SALS measurements for a single volcanic ash particle. The ash is collected from the vacinity of the Popocatépetl volcano (coordinates 19.02$^{\circ }$N, 98.62$^{\circ }$W, 5454 m above sea-level), one of Mexico’s most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area of 30 million inhabitants including Mexico City and Puebla. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the ash are shown inset in Fig. 4(b). Here, one can see the irregular nonspherical shape of these particles with a fragmented porous structure originating from the rupture of expanding gas bubbles during magma solidification in explosive decompression. With regard to angular structure, the ash pattern in Fig. 4(a) shows a significantly greater degree of complexity than the spherical particle in Fig. 3, which is typical of a highly nonspherical particle. However, if the pattern is azimuthally averaged to obtain the scattering curve, Fig. 4(b), one finds a relatively smooth power-law behavior of $q^{-3.25}$. Such behavior is reminiscent of the single power-law seen in scattering curves of mineral dust in [21]. Yet the power laws found for dust in [21] differs from the $q^{-3.25}$ seen here, which may be due to the detailed difference between mineral dust and volcanic-ash particle morphology. While for fractal aggregates such as soot-aerosol particles where the $q$-space power law is related to the fractal dimension of the particle’s shape, no clear explanation is known for the power law behavior for non-fractal irregular particles like the ash here. The power-law behavior for dust in [21] is empirically established and a physical explanation for the behavior remains unknown. Such an explanation is known, to some extent, for scattering from spheres and spheroids, see [22,23], and we suspect that a similar explanation may apply to dust measurements as well. Yet, we do not investigate this point here.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Measured 2D-SALS pattern (a) and scattering curve (b) for a single volcanic ash particle. The ash sample originates from the Popocatépetl volcano in Mexico. Inset in (b) is an SEM image of representative particles taken from the ash sample and shows a wide variety of irregularly shaped particles.

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4.3 Sea-spray particles

Another important category of particles are sea-spray aerosols. These particles are composed primarily of salt crystals, or agglomerates thereof, and can vary from less than one micron to several microns in size [24]. Micron scale salt particles also serve as a good particle source to examine shape nonsphericity in scattering patterns as the particles are often cubic or cube-like in morphology.

Figure 5 presents the measured 2D-SALS pattern and curve for a single salt crystal, where the azimuthal symmetry seen in Fig. 3 is completely lost. Indeed, one finds here a pattern reminiscent of diffraction from a rectangular aperture in an opaque screen, implying that the particle observed is somewhat rectangular in profile. Such a conclusion is supported by the similar-structure scattering patterns measured in [25] where the particle shape is known unambiguously.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Measured 2D-SALS pattern (a) and scattering curve (b) for a single salt crystal particle. Notice the qualitative similarity of the 2D pattern’s shape with diffraction from a rectangular aperture in an opaque screen.

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4.4 Asymmetry analysis

The differentiation between spherical and nonspherical particle shapes can be useful, for example, to infer the presence of liquid-drop particles and ice or mineral dust in atmospheric aerosols. While this is readily achieved from backscattering measurements, a simple method is also available to do so from scattering around the near-forward direction [26,27]. In short, the concept is to partition the 2D-SALS pattern into $N$ total angular segments of equal size in the azimuthal angle $\phi$, see Fig. 6. The scattered-light intensity in each segment is found and averaged to arrive at a single number, the asymmetry factor $A_{\textrm {f}}$, that describes the degree of azimuthal asymmetry in the pattern. If $I_{\textrm {tot}}^{\textrm {sca}}$ is the average scattered intensity in the entire 2D-SALS pattern and $I_{i}^{\textrm {sca}}$ is the intensity in the $i^{\textrm {th}}$ azimuthal segment, then the asymmetry factor is given by

$$A_{\textrm{f}}=\frac{k_{N}}{I_{\textrm{tot}}^{\textrm{sca}}} \sqrt{\sum_{i=1}^{N}\left(I_{\textrm{tot}}^{\textrm{sca}}-I_{i}^{\textrm{sca}}\right)^{2}},$$
where $k_{N}=100/\sqrt {N(N-1)}$ such that $0\le A_{\textrm {f}}< 100$ [27]. Particles producing a 2D pattern with a high degree of azimuthal symmetry, such as spheres, exhibit $A_{\textrm {f}}\lesssim 10$ whereas nonspherical particles typically give values of $A_{\textrm {f}}> 10$ [26].

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Asymmetry factor for the particles presented in Figs. 35. Equation (2) is applied to the patterns for each particle and the inset image shows the ash pattern from Fig. 4 with the azimuthal zones specified.

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Following [26], we choose $N=24$ and apply Eq. (2) to the patterns in Figs. 35, reporting the values for $A_{\textrm {f}}$ in Fig. 6. In the case of spherical particles, 2D-SALS patterns for nine different spheres are measured, permitting the variation in the $A_{\textrm {f}}$ reported. The results are consistent with the conclusions in [26], showing that the asymmetry factor is indeed effective in differentiating between spherical and nonspherical particles from the 2D-SALS patterns.

5. Conclusion

This work demonstrates a new method to measure two-dimensional small-angle light scattering patterns from single microparticles. All-reflective optical elements achieve spatial filtering that separates scattered and unscattered light down to approximately one degree from the forward direction. The absence of lenses means that chromatic aberrations would be avoided if scattering measurements were performed with broadband light. Examples of scattering patterns are presented for spherical and nonspherical microparticles fixed to a glass stage including polyethylene microspheres, volcanic ash, and a salt crystal. Using an asymmetry analysis, we show that spherical-particle patterns can be differentiated from nonspherical-particle patterns based on the azimuthal-angle symmetry. While only super-micron sized particles are investigated ($\sim 50$ µm), the approach has potential for smaller particles with further improvement in the experimental design. For example, decreasing the wavelength and increasing the OAP-mirror diameters may allow scattering patterns for single-micron particles, or smaller, to be measured in this manner and thereby expand its applicability to a wider variety of particles.

Funding

ONERA, The French Aerospace Lab (PROMETE project); National Science Foundation (1665456); Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-19-1- 0078); Light-scattering project (BUAP University project).

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for helpful discussions with Nicolas Riviere and Chris Sorensen.

Disclosures

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this article.

References

1. S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012). [CrossRef]  

2. L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020). [CrossRef]  

3. A. Miffre, D. Cholleton, and P. Rairoux, “Laboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix elements of mineral dust particles from 176.0 up to 180.0-exact backscattering angle,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 222-223, 45–59 (2019). [CrossRef]  

4. A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017). [CrossRef]  

5. R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018). [CrossRef]  

6. C. M. Sorensen and D. Shi, “Guinier analysis for homogeneous dielectric spheres of arbitrary size,” Opt. Commun. 178(1-3), 31–36 (2000). [CrossRef]  

7. M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Two-dimensional guinier analysis: Application to single aerosol particles in-flight,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23343–23352 (2010). [CrossRef]  

8. F. Ferri, “Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(6), 2265–2274 (1997). [CrossRef]  

9. M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, G. Videen, and K. P. Gurton, “Spatial filtering technique to image and measure two-dimensional near-forward scattering from single particles,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9486–9495 (2010). [CrossRef]  

10. M. J. Berg, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, and S. Holler, “Solving the inverse problem for coarse-mode aerosol particle morphology with digital holography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9400 (2017). [CrossRef]  

11. Y. C. Agrawal and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Empirical forward scattering phase functions from 0.08 to 16 deg. for randomly shaped terrigenous 1-21 um sediment grains,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8805–8814 (2009). [CrossRef]  

12. I. MacCallum, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(7), 698–702 (2004). [CrossRef]  

13. C. M. Sorensen, “Q-space analysis of scattering by particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 3–12 (2013). [CrossRef]  

14. W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Crossover from spherical particle mie scattering to circular aperture diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(11), 2362–2364 (2014). [CrossRef]  

15. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

16. X. Zhang, J. Qiu, X. Li, J. Zhao, and L. Liu, “Complex refractive indices measurements of polymers in visible and near-infrared bands,” Appl. Opt. 59(8), 2337–2344 (2020). [CrossRef]  

17. W. Rose and A. Durant, “Fine ash content of explosive eruptions,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 186(1-2), 32–39 (2009). [CrossRef]  

18. W. I. Rose and A. J. Durant, “Fate of volcanic ash: Aggregation and fallout,” Geology 39(9), 895–896 (2011). [CrossRef]  

19. P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

20. A. Kylling, M. Kahnert, H. Lindqvist, and T. Nousiainen, “Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(4), 919–929 (2014). [CrossRef]  

21. Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016). [CrossRef]  

22. M. J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, and A. Chakrabarti, “Explanation of the patterns in mie theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111(5), 782–794 (2010). [CrossRef]  

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24. P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015). [CrossRef]  

25. R. Giri, C. Morello, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, G. Videen, and M. J. Berg, “Generation of aerosol-particle light-scattering patterns from digital holograms,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 819–822 (2019). [CrossRef]  

26. K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013). [CrossRef]  

27. R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Miffre, D. Cholleton, and P. Rairoux, “Laboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix elements of mineral dust particles from 176.0 up to 180.0-exact backscattering angle,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 222-223, 45–59 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. M. Sorensen and D. Shi, “Guinier analysis for homogeneous dielectric spheres of arbitrary size,” Opt. Commun. 178(1-3), 31–36 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Two-dimensional guinier analysis: Application to single aerosol particles in-flight,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23343–23352 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Ferri, “Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(6), 2265–2274 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, G. Videen, and K. P. Gurton, “Spatial filtering technique to image and measure two-dimensional near-forward scattering from single particles,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9486–9495 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. J. Berg, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, and S. Holler, “Solving the inverse problem for coarse-mode aerosol particle morphology with digital holography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9400 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. C. Agrawal and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Empirical forward scattering phase functions from 0.08 to 16 deg. for randomly shaped terrigenous 1-21 um sediment grains,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8805–8814 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. I. MacCallum, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(7), 698–702 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. M. Sorensen, “Q-space analysis of scattering by particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 3–12 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Crossover from spherical particle mie scattering to circular aperture diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(11), 2362–2364 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  16. X. Zhang, J. Qiu, X. Li, J. Zhao, and L. Liu, “Complex refractive indices measurements of polymers in visible and near-infrared bands,” Appl. Opt. 59(8), 2337–2344 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. Rose and A. Durant, “Fine ash content of explosive eruptions,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 186(1-2), 32–39 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. I. Rose and A. J. Durant, “Fate of volcanic ash: Aggregation and fallout,” Geology 39(9), 895–896 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).
  20. A. Kylling, M. Kahnert, H. Lindqvist, and T. Nousiainen, “Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(4), 919–929 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, and A. Chakrabarti, “Explanation of the patterns in mie theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111(5), 782–794 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. J. Berg, “Power-law patterns in electromagnetic scattering: A selected review and recent progress,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113(18), 2292–2309 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Giri, C. Morello, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, G. Videen, and M. J. Berg, “Generation of aerosol-particle light-scattering patterns from digital holograms,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 819–822 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2020 (2)

L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, J. Qiu, X. Li, J. Zhao, and L. Liu, “Complex refractive indices measurements of polymers in visible and near-infrared bands,” Appl. Opt. 59(8), 2337–2344 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

A. Miffre, D. Cholleton, and P. Rairoux, “Laboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix elements of mineral dust particles from 176.0 up to 180.0-exact backscattering angle,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 222-223, 45–59 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Giri, C. Morello, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, G. Videen, and M. J. Berg, “Generation of aerosol-particle light-scattering patterns from digital holograms,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 819–822 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, and S. Holler, “Solving the inverse problem for coarse-mode aerosol particle morphology with digital holography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9400 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Crossover from spherical particle mie scattering to circular aperture diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(11), 2362–2364 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kylling, M. Kahnert, H. Lindqvist, and T. Nousiainen, “Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(4), 919–929 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. M. Sorensen, “Q-space analysis of scattering by particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 3–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. J. Berg, “Power-law patterns in electromagnetic scattering: A selected review and recent progress,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113(18), 2292–2309 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

W. I. Rose and A. J. Durant, “Fate of volcanic ash: Aggregation and fallout,” Geology 39(9), 895–896 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, G. Videen, and K. P. Gurton, “Spatial filtering technique to image and measure two-dimensional near-forward scattering from single particles,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9486–9495 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Two-dimensional guinier analysis: Application to single aerosol particles in-flight,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23343–23352 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, and A. Chakrabarti, “Explanation of the patterns in mie theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111(5), 782–794 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2004 (1)

I. MacCallum, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(7), 698–702 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. M. Sorensen and D. Shi, “Guinier analysis for homogeneous dielectric spheres of arbitrary size,” Opt. Commun. 178(1-3), 31–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. Ferri, “Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(6), 2265–2274 (1997).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, Y. C.

Aptowicz, K. B.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Azar, A. S.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bates, T. S.

P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berg, M. J.

R. Giri, C. Morello, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, G. Videen, and M. J. Berg, “Generation of aerosol-particle light-scattering patterns from digital holograms,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 819–822 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, and S. Holler, “Solving the inverse problem for coarse-mode aerosol particle morphology with digital holography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9400 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, “Power-law patterns in electromagnetic scattering: A selected review and recent progress,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113(18), 2292–2309 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, and A. Chakrabarti, “Explanation of the patterns in mie theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111(5), 782–794 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, G. Videen, and K. P. Gurton, “Spatial filtering technique to image and measure two-dimensional near-forward scattering from single particles,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9486–9495 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Two-dimensional guinier analysis: Application to single aerosol particles in-flight,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23343–23352 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bocquet, M.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bonadonna, C.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cariou, J.-P.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Ceolato, R.

L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020).
[Crossref]

R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarti, A.

Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Crossover from spherical particle mie scattering to circular aperture diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(11), 2362–2364 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, and A. Chakrabarti, “Explanation of the patterns in mie theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111(5), 782–794 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. K.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chazette, P.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Cholleton, D.

A. Miffre, D. Cholleton, and P. Rairoux, “Laboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix elements of mineral dust particles from 176.0 up to 180.0-exact backscattering angle,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 222-223, 45–59 (2019).
[Crossref]

Collins, D. B.

P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cotton, R.

R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, A.

I. MacCallum, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(7), 698–702 (2004).
[Crossref]

Diplas, S.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Durant, A.

W. Rose and A. Durant, “Fine ash content of explosive eruptions,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 186(1-2), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Durant, A. J.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. I. Rose and A. J. Durant, “Fate of volcanic ash: Aggregation and fallout,” Geology 39(9), 895–896 (2011).
[Crossref]

Easter, R. C.

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eaton, B.

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Enguehard, F.

L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, E.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferri, F.

F. Ferri, “Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(6), 2265–2274 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gaudfrin, F.

R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ghan, S. J.

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giri, R.

Gouhier, M.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Grassian, V. H.

P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Greenaway, R. S.

R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gurton, K. P.

Heinson, W. R.

Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Crossover from spherical particle mie scattering to circular aperture diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(11), 2362–2364 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heinson, Y. W.

R. Giri, C. Morello, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, G. Videen, and M. J. Berg, “Generation of aerosol-particle light-scattering patterns from digital holograms,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 819–822 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, and S. Holler, “Solving the inverse problem for coarse-mode aerosol particle morphology with digital holography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hill, S. C.

Hirst, E.

R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holler, S.

M. J. Berg, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, and S. Holler, “Solving the inverse problem for coarse-mode aerosol particle morphology with digital holography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huffman, D. R.

C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Kahnert, M.

A. Kylling, M. Kahnert, H. Lindqvist, and T. Nousiainen, “Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(4), 919–929 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaye, P. H.

R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kemppinen, O.

R. Giri, C. Morello, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, G. Videen, and M. J. Berg, “Generation of aerosol-particle light-scattering patterns from digital holograms,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 819–822 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, and S. Holler, “Solving the inverse problem for coarse-mode aerosol particle morphology with digital holography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krüger, K.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kylling, A.

A. Kylling, M. Kahnert, H. Lindqvist, and T. Nousiainen, “Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(4), 919–929 (2014).
[Crossref]

Labazuy, P.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Lardier, M.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Li, X.

Lindqvist, H.

A. Kylling, M. Kahnert, H. Lindqvist, and T. Nousiainen, “Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(4), 919–929 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

MacCallum, I.

I. MacCallum, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(7), 698–702 (2004).
[Crossref]

Martin, S. D.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maughan, J. B.

Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016).
[Crossref]

McKee, D.

I. MacCallum, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(7), 698–702 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miffre, A.

A. Miffre, D. Cholleton, and P. Rairoux, “Laboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix elements of mineral dust particles from 176.0 up to 180.0-exact backscattering angle,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 222-223, 45–59 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, O. A.

Morello, C.

Nousiainen, T.

A. Kylling, M. Kahnert, H. Lindqvist, and T. Nousiainen, “Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(4), 919–929 (2014).
[Crossref]

Osbprne, S.

R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.-L.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Two-dimensional guinier analysis: Application to single aerosol particles in-flight,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23343–23352 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paulien, L.

L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020).
[Crossref]

Pinnick, R. G.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prather, K. A.

P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pujol, O.

R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Quinn, P. K.

P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rairoux, P.

A. Miffre, D. Cholleton, and P. Rairoux, “Laboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix elements of mineral dust particles from 176.0 up to 180.0-exact backscattering angle,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 222-223, 45–59 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rasch, P. J.

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raut, J.-C.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Riviere, N.

R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rose, W.

W. Rose and A. Durant, “Fine ash content of explosive eruptions,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 186(1-2), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rose, W. I.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. I. Rose and A. J. Durant, “Fate of volcanic ash: Aggregation and fallout,” Geology 39(9), 895–896 (2011).
[Crossref]

Royer, P.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Shi, D.

C. M. Sorensen and D. Shi, “Guinier analysis for homogeneous dielectric spheres of arbitrary size,” Opt. Commun. 178(1-3), 31–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sorensen, C. M.

R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Crossover from spherical particle mie scattering to circular aperture diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(11), 2362–2364 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Sorensen, “Q-space analysis of scattering by particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 3–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, and A. Chakrabarti, “Explanation of the patterns in mie theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111(5), 782–794 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. M. Sorensen and D. Shi, “Guinier analysis for homogeneous dielectric spheres of arbitrary size,” Opt. Commun. 178(1-3), 31–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Soucasse, L.

L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020).
[Crossref]

Soufiani, A.

L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020).
[Crossref]

Stohl, A.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sunding, M. F.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sytchkova, A.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ulanowski, Z.

R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Videen, G.

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Winiarek, V.

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

Yoon, J.-H.

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zaveri, R.

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

A. Kylling, M. Kahnert, H. Lindqvist, and T. Nousiainen, “Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(4), 919–929 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

P. K. Quinn, D. B. Collins, V. H. Grassian, K. A. Prather, and T. S. Bates, “Chemistry and related properties of freshly emitted sea spray aerosol,” Chem. Rev. 115(10), 4383–4399 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geology (1)

W. I. Rose and A. J. Durant, “Fate of volcanic ash: Aggregation and fallout,” Geology 39(9), 895–896 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. (1)

R. Cotton, S. Osbprne, Z. Ulanowski, E. Hirst, P. H. Kaye, and R. S. Greenaway, “The ability of the small ice detector (sid-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the faam bae-146 research aircraft,” J. Atmos. Ocean Tech. 27(2), 290–303 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Clim. (1)

S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton, “Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semidirect, and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 25(19), 6461–6476 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. (2)

A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, W. I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, and A. Stohl, “Reference data set of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 122(17), 9485–9514 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Heinson, J. B. Maughan, W. R. Heinson, A. Chakrabarti, and C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 121(2), 682–691 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

I. MacCallum, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “The measurement and modelling of light scattering by phytoplankton cells at narrow forward angles,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6(7), 698–702 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (7)

C. M. Sorensen, “Q-space analysis of scattering by particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 3–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Ceolato, F. Gaudfrin, O. Pujol, N. Riviere, M. J. Berg, and C. M. Sorensen, “Lidar cross-sections of soot fractal aggregates: Assessment of equivalent-sphere models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 212, 39–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Paulien, R. Ceolato, L. Soucasse, F. Enguehard, and A. Soufiani, “Lidar-relevant radiative properties of soot fractal aggregate ensembles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 241, 106706 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. Miffre, D. Cholleton, and P. Rairoux, “Laboratory evaluation of the scattering matrix elements of mineral dust particles from 176.0 up to 180.0-exact backscattering angle,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 222-223, 45–59 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, C. M. Sorensen, and A. Chakrabarti, “Explanation of the patterns in mie theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111(5), 782–794 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. J. Berg, “Power-law patterns in electromagnetic scattering: A selected review and recent progress,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113(18), 2292–2309 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. (1)

W. Rose and A. Durant, “Fine ash content of explosive eruptions,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 186(1-2), 32–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. M. Sorensen and D. Shi, “Guinier analysis for homogeneous dielectric spheres of arbitrary size,” Opt. Commun. 178(1-3), 31–36 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Ferri, “Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(6), 2265–2274 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. J. Berg, Y. W. Heinson, O. Kemppinen, and S. Holler, “Solving the inverse problem for coarse-mode aerosol particle morphology with digital holography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. Chazette, M. Bocquet, P. Royer, V. Winiarek, J.-C. Raut, P. Labazuy, M. Gouhier, M. Lardier, and J.-P. Cariou, “Eyjafjallajökull ash concentrations derived from both lidar and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 117(D20), (2012).

C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Diagram of the arrangement used to measure infrared 2D-SALS patterns from microparticles. Particles are deposited onto the anti-reflection coated window, the stage, labeled S in the diagram, where the right inset shows the $z$-axis and polar scattering angle $\theta$. Incident, i.e., unscattered light, is indicated by solid lines and scattered light is shown in dash. Scattered light is separated from unscattered light by the off-axis parabolic (OAP) mirror with a $3$ mm diameter through hole. The scattered light is then relayed by another OAP to the IR-CCD sensor. An example of a typical 2D-SALS pattern is shown in false color in the left inset.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measured and calculated pinhole diffraction pattern used for calibration of the arrangement in Fig. 1. In (a) is the 2D-SALS pattern in false color on a log scale. Plot (b) shows the azimuthal average of this pattern, i.e., the scattering curve $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}$, as a function of $q$ on a log-log scale normalized by the maximum measured intensity $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {max}}$. The polar scattering angle is also shown in degrees on the top horizontal axis for comparison to (a). The fit Airy-pattern $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {Airy}}$ is shown in red dash. Blue shaded regions around the curve in (b) represent the extent of variation in $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}$ for different $\phi$ angles in the average. Note, the gray-shaded region in both plots show the portion of the pattern lost from the through-hole in the OAP mirror in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured 2D-SALS pattern and scattering curve for a spherical microparticle. A $~50$ µm diameter polyethylene microsphere is placed on S in Fig. 1 and the measured 2D-SALS pattern is shown in (a) in false color on a log scale. Plot (b) shows the azimuthal average of this pattern, i.e., the scattering curve $I^{\textrm {sca}}_{\textrm {exp}}$, as a function of $q$ on a log-log scale. The red-dashed curve in (b) shows the Mie theory result using a sphere diameter of $D=50.66$ µm and refractive index $m=1.43+0.0245i$.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured 2D-SALS pattern (a) and scattering curve (b) for a single volcanic ash particle. The ash sample originates from the Popocatépetl volcano in Mexico. Inset in (b) is an SEM image of representative particles taken from the ash sample and shows a wide variety of irregularly shaped particles.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured 2D-SALS pattern (a) and scattering curve (b) for a single salt crystal particle. Notice the qualitative similarity of the 2D pattern’s shape with diffraction from a rectangular aperture in an opaque screen.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Asymmetry factor for the particles presented in Figs. 35. Equation (2) is applied to the patterns for each particle and the inset image shows the ash pattern from Fig. 4 with the azimuthal zones specified.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I Airy sca ( θ , ϕ ) = I o [ 2 J 1 ( k R ph sin θ ) k R ph sin θ ] 2 ,
A f = k N I tot sca i = 1 N ( I tot sca I i sca ) 2 ,

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