Abstract

We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength grating metamaterial waveguides coated with tellurium oxide. The structures are first fabricated using a standard CMOS compatible process on a silicon-on-insulator platform. Amorphous tellurium oxide top cladding material is then deposited via post-process RF magnetron sputtering. The photonic bandstructure is controlled by adjustment of the device geometry, opening a wide range of operating regimes, including subwavelength propagation, slow light and the photonic bandgap, for various wavelength bands within the 1550 nm telecommunications window. Propagation loss of 1.0 ± 0.1 dB/mm is reported for the tellurium oxide-cladded device, compared to 1.5 ± 0.1 dB/mm propagation loss reported for the silicon dioxide-cladded reference structure. This is the first time that a high-index (n > 2) oxide cladding has been demonstrated for subwavelength grating metamaterial waveguides, thus introducing a new material platform for on-chip integrated optics.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Silicon photonics has been a subject of immense research interest over the last few decades due to its promise in realizing low cost, integrated optical chips that leverage well-established, state-of-the-art CMOS manufacturing technology [14]. However, silicon still faces several challenges as a photonic material—particularly low light-emission efficiency due to its indirect band gap, short non-radiative recombination lifetime and intrinsic second-order non-linearity [46]. Rather than doping silicon with optically active materials to alter its intrinsic properties and overcome these challenges, hybridization of silicon with functional cladding materials provides a comparatively simple approach with less fabrication complexity. Various on-chip devices have utilized this process, including silicon wire waveguides [78], slot waveguides [910], nanophotonic beam splitters [11] and microring resonators [1214].

Subwavelength grating (SWG) metamaterials on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform are attractive photonic structures due to their simple fabrication process and adjustable waveguide core effective index. The periodic nature of these waveguides can enable various behaviours of light, including low loss Bloch mode propagation, slow light propagation, Bragg reflections and diffraction, depending on which regime the operating point of the device within the dispersion diagram is located [15]. The cladding material surrounding the SWG waveguide core plays an important role in determining the core effective index due to the index averaging effect, according to effective medium theory [16]. Thus far, SWG devices have been fabricated using air, water, silicon dioxide and various polymers as cladding materials, yielding a plethora of silicon-based integrated optical devices, including fiber-to-chip couplers [1722], waveguide crossings [23], sensors [2425], modulators [26], and multiplexers [27], to name a few. However, the refractive indices of these materials are relatively low, limiting the achievable overlap of an SWG waveguide mode with the cladding material.

Tellurium oxide (TeO2) is an amorphous glass material with significant potential as a high index cladding (n ∼ 2.1) for integrated optical devices. Various on-chip thin-film waveguides [2830], lasers [31], optical amplifiers [3134], microring resonators [35], sensors [36] and non-linear devices [37] have incorporated TeO2 due to its wide optical transparency and excellent rare-earth solubility [38]. TeO2 employed as a cladding material for SWG waveguides would provide a useful guiding mechanism for the expanded mode caused by the relatively lower SWG waveguide core index, as well as a buffer against substrate leakage that often threatens modal guidance in SWG waveguides due to the mode’s preference of expanding into the higher index TeO2 top cladding [39]. This significantly increases the modal overlap with the top cladding material, which is beneficial for amplification and sensing, and can reduce light interaction with the silicon waveguide sidewalls that contributes to waveguide propagation loss caused by scattering. Scattering loss is also reduced due to the lower index contrast between the waveguide core and cladding materials. Furthermore, different TeO2 film thicknesses, from tens of nanometers to microns, can be applied to enable fine control of the Bragg condition for applications such as slow light devices [40]. This new design parameter can also be exploited to scale down the waveguide geometry without sacrificing mode effective index, thus increasing design flexibility for SWG waveguides across a wide array of wavelengths that extend beyond the standard telecommunication bands. This advantage is paralleled with the wide optical transparency window of TeO2 that allows light propagation up to the mid-infrared wavelength range, making it a versatile material across multiple platforms.

In this work, we present a new waveguide platform consisting of TeO2 cladding on silicon SWG waveguides. The photonic bandstructure of the periodic SWG waveguides is engineered by tuning the device geometry. The fabrication processes of both the waveguides and the TeO2 film are discussed and considered during the design phase. Modal guidance is demonstrated in the TeO2-clad structure with a propagation loss of 1.0 ± 0.1 dB/mm reported above the bandgap. Similar losses can be achieved across other regimes of the device bandstructure, which can be tuned accordingly over a wide range of wavelengths used in telecommunications.

2. Theory and simulations

SWG channel waveguides are 1-D periodic structures composed of two or more media with different refractive indices alternating along the axis of light propagation. Their periodicity creates an opening in the electromagnetic dispersion relation of the structure where light in a certain frequency range is forbidden to propagate [41]. A flattened first-order band exists below the bandgap near the Brillouin zone edge where the wavevector k represents a wavelength that is twice the grating period (k =π/Λ), indicating slow light with near-zero group velocity and highly dispersive properties. As the frequency decreases further, along with the periodicity relative to the wavelength of light, light efficiently propagates through the waveguide in the form of Bloch modes [42].

We employed 3D finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations using Lumerical FDTD Solutions to model the bandstructure of our TeO2-coated SWG waveguides and calculate their Bloch mode effective and group indices. The simulation window surrounds a single unit cell as shown in the inset of Fig. 1(a) with silicon (red), TeO2 (blue) and air (white) media indicated. Periodic boundary conditions are used along the propagation direction to reduce simulation time, while perfectly matched layer (PML) boundaries are used in the transverse directions of the simulation window. The bandstructure of our SWG device with waveguide width (WSWG) of 450 nm, period (Λ) of 360 nm, duty cycle (δ) of 0.5 and TeO2 cladding thickness (tclad) of 100 nm is depicted in Fig. 1(a). The dispersion diagram shows the flattening of the first-order band (in red), as the band edge is approached and the bandgap region (shaded in yellow) begins. The grey shaded area located above the black lightline of silicon dioxide (SiO2, n ≈ 1.44) corresponds to a continuum of leaky modes. Various mode profiles along the first-order band are shown in Figs. 1(b)–1(c) to demonstrate the different Bloch mode behaviours that can be exploited in TeO2-coated SWG structures. Figure 1(c) shows the mode profile near the band-edge where the mode intensity is mostly concentrated in and around the high-index silicon grating. The mode is more delocalized in Fig. 1(b), far from the band-edge and the smaller period-to-wavelength ratio results in effective homogenization of index contrast.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) 3D FDTD simulated photonic bandstructure of proposed device. Inset depicts top view index profile at half waveguide height of simulated unit cell with length Λ (black dashed box). Top view Bloch mode intensity distribution profile for periodicities and wavenumbers (b) Λ = 300 nm & k = 0.33 and (c) Λ = 360 nm & k = 0.47 at λ = 1480 nm. Yellow and green star on the first order band show the location of (b) and (c), respectively. Grey and yellow shaded areas correspond to a continuum of unguided modes above the SiO2 lightline (in black) and the photonic bandgap, respectively.

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The Bragg condition states neff = λBragg/2Λ, where neff is the Bloch mode effective index, λBragg is the Bragg wavelength that marks the boundary between subwavelength regime and photonic bandgap and Λ is the period (pitch) of the waveguide gratings. For a grating with a period of 360 nm, a Bloch mode effective index of ∼ 2.06 is achieved at a Bragg wavelength of 1480 nm, as indicated in Fig. 2(b) (in black). Conformal cladding materials with lower refractive index, such as SiO2, and micron-scale thickness cannot achieve a Bloch mode effective index this high without having to increase the volume of the silicon waveguide, which would yield a multimode waveguide and also reduce light-matter interaction with the cladding material that is essential for our aimed application (light amplification). In contrast to conformal SiO2 cladding, high-index TeO2 cladding only a few tens of nanometers thick is sufficient to reach this Bloch mode effective index value. Figure 2 shows the dispersion relation, Bloch mode effective index and group index, with respect to wavelength, for our SWG device with the same parameters as in Fig. 1, but with varying cladding thicknesses of 90 nm (red), 100 nm (green) and 110 nm (blue). The corresponding Bragg wavelengths for these cladding thicknesses are 1444 nm, 1465 nm and 1481 nm, respectively, yielding a 15–20 nm shift in Bragg wavelength with only 10 nm variation in TeO2 cladding thickness. This is a significant Bragg wavelength shift, especially compared to equivalent variations in low index cladding thickness, indicating that TeO2 provides a useful design parameter for bandgap tunability of SWG waveguides.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. 3D FDTD simulated (a) dispersion relation, (b) Bloch mode effective index and (c) group index for the TeO2-coated SWG waveguide with WSWG = 450 nm, Λ = 360 nm and δ = 0.5. The red, green and blue lines correspond to TeO2 cladding thicknesses of 90, 100 and 110 nm, respectively. The black dotted line in (b) corresponds to the Bragg condition at Λ = 360 nm. Shaded areas represent slow light regions where ng > 10 for each case.

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3. Fabrication and layout

Our waveguides were fabricated on a 200 mm multi-project wafer (MPW) on an SOI platform through Advanced Micro Foundry (AMF) in Singapore. A 193 nm deep-UV (DUV) lithographic process was used with a 220 nm-thick silicon waveguide layer on a 2 µm-thick SiO2 buried oxide (BOX) layer. Deep silicon trenches were created along the chip edges to facilitate fiber-chip edge coupling. Wafers with and without top oxide cladding deposited by AMF were fabricated, allowing SiO2-cladded reference structures and exposed waveguide structures for a separate post-process TeO2 thin film deposition, respectively. It is noted that the DUV lithography process used for our manufacturing has a minimum feature size (MFS) of 180 nm, which is comparatively large [43]. This MFS allows a minimum SWG period of 360 nm with a corresponding 50% duty cycle (Λ = 360 nm, δ = 0.5), which we used in all of our SWG structures. Figure 3(a) shows the overall schematic of our SWG waveguide test structure. A series of these straight SWG structures were fabricated with different SWG waveguide length (LSWG) in order to measure loss using the cutback method. The SWG waveguide section is connected with two wire waveguide sections that vary in length between devices so that a constant device length of 3 mm (Ldevice = 3 mm) is maintained for all test structures. A standard wire waveguide width of 450 nm (Wwire = 450 nm) is used for single mode operation [44]. 50 µm-long mode converters (LMC = 50 µm) leveraging the SWG waveguide engineering concept first proposed in [19] are used to connect SWG and wire waveguide sections to gradually transform the mode along the device. The silicon wire taper in the mode converter ends with a width of 180 nm, due to MFS restrictions of the fabrication, before joining the SWG region. A series of 450 nm-wide wire waveguides were also fabricated in order to determine loss of the wire sections. Paperclip structures with 50 µm bend radius are used to obtain different Si-wire waveguide lengths required for loss measurements. All waveguide structures have 75 µm-long tapers (LT = 75 µm) from the wire waveguide sections up to the chip edge where the waveguide width is reduced to 180 nm (MFS limit), in order to enhance the fiber-coupling efficiency.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Top view schematic of fabricated SWG device with silicon wire (solid) and SWG (striped) waveguides sections. Dark dotted lines indicate the locations of the SEM images of the fabricated b) uncoated and c) 105 nm-thick TeO2-coated mode converter-SWG transitions, d) TeO2-coated SWG waveguide (side view), and e) uncoated and f) TeO2-coated SWG waveguides (angled view). Image in d) was taken 52° to the surface normal while all others were taken 45° to the surface normal.

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The wafer was diced into chips following wafer-scale fabrication. Figures 3(b) and 3(e) show SEM images of the uncladded mode converter and SWG waveguide structures on the chip, respectively. We deposited a 101 ± 5 nm-thick amorphous tellurium oxide (TeO2) thin film using a radio frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering process [35,45]. Figures 3(c) and 3(f) depict the structures mentioned above following the TeO2 thin film deposition. This backend deposition procedure enables room temperature deposition at a chip-scale that yields low loss TeO2 thin films compatible with active silicon photonic devices fabricated in CMOS foundries [4647]. With the given pitch and duty cycle available for our SWG device, a thin layer of approximately 100 nm is required in order to assure an appropriate Bloch mode effective index. This also helps minimize air gap formation between the silicon segments caused by nucleation of the film on top of the gratings. This is particularly evident in gratings with increased duty cycles or reduced pitches.

4. Experimental results

We measured the optical propagation loss of the fabricated structures by fiber edge coupling to a set of test structures with different propagation lengths. A tunable laser source was coupled into the chip via lensed fiber with a 2.5 ± 0.5 µm mode field diameter. The input polarization was controlled using polarization paddles at the input of the chip and the transmitted signal at the output was measured using an InGaAs photodetector. Figure 4(a) shows the measured insertion loss of the waveguide with 3 µm-thick SiO2 cladding and 100 nm-thick TeO2 cladding over a 1460–1640 nm wavelength range. Measurements were referenced to a 450 nm-wide wire waveguide structure equivalent to the wire waveguide sections on the SWG device to account only for the loss of the SWG waveguides of varying lengths (LSWG) and the two 50 µm- long mode converters connecting them to the wire waveguide sections. A Savitsky-Golay smoothing filter was applied to the overall spectral data to reduce Fabry-Perot ripple caused by facet reflectivity. Each spectrum displays a bandgap with high reflectivity surrounded by regions of high transmission, as expected. The misalignment of the spectra between the different claddings is caused by differences in Bloch mode effective index, where the SiO2-clad spectra have a lower wavelength bandgap than the TeO2-clad spectra, i.e. a lower Bragg wavelength, as expected. The position of the TeO2-clad waveguide spectra is significantly redshifted in comparison to the simulation results with a Bragg wavelength of ∼ 1530 nm instead of 1465 nm. From the SEM images in Fig. 3, we observe rounded waveguide grating structures that result from limited resolution of the DUV lithographic patterning process. The round shapes are emphasized following the deposition of the TeO2 film, which displays excellent uniformity.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) Measured insertion loss of SWG waveguides with 3 µm-thick SiO2 cladding and 100 nm-thick TeO2 cladding, with WSWG = 450 nm, Λ = 360 nm and δ = 0.5 and varying SWG waveguide lengths (LSWG) indicated in legend. (b) Measured propagation loss at λ = 1630 nm and λ = 1480 nm for the SiO2-clad and TeO2-clad waveguides, respectively.

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The areas of high transmission correspond to the second- and first-order bands below 1480 nm and above 1600 nm, respectively. Fabry-Perot resonance patterns starting at a wavelength of 1540 nm are noted with a gradual ascent in transmission towards higher wavelengths, making it difficult to determine the exact location of the band edge. These oscillations likely arise from the mode converters approaching Bragg resonance near the junction with the silicon wire waveguide. The Bloch mode effective index is significantly raised near the silicon wire taper and any rounding of the described structures caused by the lithographic patterning might leave behind excess silicon, thus contributing to the large redshift in the Bragg wavelength and overall dispersion relation. Bragg wavelengths of 1560 nm and 1670 nm are estimated in the mode converter at the SWG end [Fig. 3(c)] and the wire waveguide end, respectively. This shift affects the transmission spectrum over the wavelength range up to 1670 nm, decreasing transmission and introducing Fabry-Perot fringes. This effect can be readily mitigated by chirping the period along the mode converter to reduce the Bloch mode effective index near the SWG-wire junctions. However, we could not use this technique in our current design due to the comparatively large minimum feature size of the DUV patterning process.

We analyzed losses in the S-band for the TeO2-clad waveguide and the far end of the L-band for the SiO2-clad waveguide since Fabry-Perot fringes are minimal in these regions. The propagation losses are fitted using the cut-back method and linear regression, as seen in Fig. 4(b), and are reported to be 1.0 ± 0.1 dB/mm at λ = 1480 nm for the TeO2-clad SWG waveguide and 1.5 ± 0.1 dB/mm at λ = 1630 nm for the SiO2-clad SWG waveguide. We attribute the loss primarily to the scattering loss of the silicon waveguide structure due to limited resolution of the lithographic process used. The TeO2 coating has been shown to have low planar waveguide propagation loss on the order of 0.1 dB/cm [45]. According to waveguide scattering theory [48], loss scales with a factor of (n12-n22)2, where n1 and n2 are the material indices of the waveguide core and cladding, respectively. Based on this factor, the reduced index contrast of Si-TeO2 compared to Si-SiO2 is expected to reduce the scattering losses by approximately 40% for equal mode overlap with the interface, which is in good agreement with the observed loss reduction. The fiber-chip coupling loss was also extracted from these measurements, with 4.8 ± 0.2 dB at λ = 1480 nm for the TeO2-clad waveguide and 2.5 ± 0.1 dB at λ = 1630 nm for the SiO2-clad waveguide. Higher coupling losses are expected for the TeO2-clad devices due to the higher modal index of the waveguide at the chip edge lowering the overlap with the fiber mode.

5. Summary

In summary, we have demonstrated a new type of subwavelength grating waveguide on an SOI platform coated with tellurium oxide. Measured propagation loss and fiber-chip coupling loss of 1.0 ± 0.1 dB/mm and 4.8 ± 0.2 dB are reported. Our future design of TeO2-clad SOI SWG waveguides will aim to reduce this propagation loss by utilizing a writing process with finer resolution, such as electron-beam or immersion deep-ultraviolet lithography. Together, the benefits of both SWG waveguides and a high index cladding such as TeO2 that can serve as an efficient host for active elements such as erbium ions will likely open new avenues for compact on-chip active devices in SOI photonic integrated circuits.

Funding

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (RGPIN-2017-06423, STPGP 494306); Canadian Foundation for Innovation (35548); National Research Council Canada (Visiting Student Support Grant).

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge Dr. Rafael Kleiman, Doris Stevanovic and Dr. Shahram Ghanad-Tavakoli of the Centre for Emerging Device Technologies (CEDT) for their support with the reactive sputtering system, Dr. John Luxat, Dr. Zhilin Peng and Connor Wong for assistance with FIB-SEM imaging in the Centre for Advanced Nuclear Systems (CANS) Post Irradiation Examination Hot Cell Facility and the use of the Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy (CCEM), as well as Dr. Lukas Chrostowski from the University of British Columbia (UBC), Dr. Jessica Zhang from CMC Microsystems and Dawson Bonneville from the CEDT and Bradley Research Group for technical training and support through the SiEPIC program.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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39. J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, A. Ortega-Moñux, J.-M. Fédéli, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. Durán-Valdeiglesias, P. Cheben, Í. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, “Controlling leakage losses in subwavelength grating silicon metamaterial waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(15), 3443 (2016). [CrossRef]  

40. P. Jean, A. Gervais, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Slow Light in Subwavelength Grating Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(2), 1–8 (2020). [CrossRef]  

41. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987). [CrossRef]  

42. R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015). [CrossRef]  

43. R. J. Bojko, J. Li, L. He, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and Y. Aida, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Nanotechnol. Microelectron.: Mater., Process., Meas., Phenom. 29(6), 06F309 (2011). [CrossRef]  

44. L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design: From Devices to Systems (Cambridge University Press, 2015).

45. H. C. Frankis, K.M. Kiani, D.B. Bonneville, C. Zhang, S. Norris, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, N.D. Bassim, A.P. Knights, and J.D.B. Bradley, “Low-loss TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguides for application in photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12529–12540 (2019). [CrossRef]  

46. N. Li, M. Xin, Z. Su, E. S. Magden, N. Singh, J. Notaros, E. Timurdogan, P. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “A Silicon Photonic Data Link with a Monolithic Erbium-Doped Laser,” Sci. Rep. 10(1), 1114 (2020). [CrossRef]  

47. E. S. Magden, N. Li, P. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G.S. Petrich, G. Leake, D.D. Coolbaugh, E.P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L.A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017). [CrossRef]  

48. J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Interference effect in scattering loss of high-index-contrast planar waveguides caused by boundary reflections,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1479–1481 (2008). [CrossRef]  

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    [Crossref]
  46. N. Li, M. Xin, Z. Su, E. S. Magden, N. Singh, J. Notaros, E. Timurdogan, P. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “A Silicon Photonic Data Link with a Monolithic Erbium-Doped Laser,” Sci. Rep. 10(1), 1114 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  47. E. S. Magden, N. Li, P. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G.S. Petrich, G. Leake, D.D. Coolbaugh, E.P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L.A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
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  48. J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Interference effect in scattering loss of high-index-contrast planar waveguides caused by boundary reflections,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1479–1481 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2020 (4)

H. C. Frankis, H. M. Mbonde, D. B. Bonneville, C. Zhang, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Erbium-doped TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguide amplifiers with 5 dB net gain,” Photonics Res. 8(2), 127–134 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. M. Mbonde, H. C. Frankis, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Enhanced nonlinearity and engineered anomalous dispersion in TeO2-coated Si3N4 Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 12(2), 1–10 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Jean, A. Gervais, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Slow Light in Subwavelength Grating Waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(2), 1–8 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Li, M. Xin, Z. Su, E. S. Magden, N. Singh, J. Notaros, E. Timurdogan, P. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “A Silicon Photonic Data Link with a Monolithic Erbium-Doped Laser,” Sci. Rep. 10(1), 1114 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (4)

2018 (5)

D. M. Kita, J. Michon, S. G. Johnson, and J. Hu, “Are slot and sub-wavelength grating waveguides better than strip waveguides for sensing?” Optica 5(9), 1046–1054 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. F. Jarschel, M. C. M. M. Souza, R. B. Merlo, and N. C. Frateschi, “Loss compensation in microring-based Si photonics devices via Er3+ doped claddings,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. C. Frankis, D. Su, D. B. Bonneville, and J. D. B. Bradley, “A tellurium oxide microcavity resonator sensor integrated on-chip with a silicon waveguide,” Sensors 18(11), 4061 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, X. Xu, C. J. Chung, H. Dalir, H. Yan, K. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Jia, and R. T. Chen, “High-speed modulator based on electro-optic polymer infiltrated subwavelength grating waveguide ring resonator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(6), 1700300 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (4)

2015 (4)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

R. J. Bojko, J. Li, L. He, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and Y. Aida, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Nanotechnol. Microelectron.: Mater., Process., Meas., Phenom. 29(6), 06F309 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and D. Christodoulides, “Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 46(10), 104602 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon - challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kenyon, “Erbium in silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(12), R65–R84 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, W. R. Headley, and C. E. J. Png, “Silicon photonics: the early years,” Proc. SPIE 5730, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. T. Reed, “The optical age of silicon,” Nature 427(6975), 595–596 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. J. Kenyon, “Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 26(4-5), 225–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2(3), 466–475 (1956).

Adam, T. N.

Aers, G.C.

Agazzi, L.

Aida, Y.

R. J. Bojko, J. Li, L. He, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and Y. Aida, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Nanotechnol. Microelectron.: Mater., Process., Meas., Phenom. 29(6), 06F309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Anopchenko, A.

Atwater, H. A.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ay, F.

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. J. Bojko, J. Li, L. He, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and Y. Aida, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Nanotechnol. Microelectron.: Mater., Process., Meas., Phenom. 29(6), 06F309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bassim, N.D.

Benedikovic, D.

Berciano, M.

D. González-Andrade, C. Lafforgue, E. Durán-Valdeiglesias, X. Le Roux, M. Berciano, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, A. V. Velasco, P. Cheben, L. Vivien, and C. Alonso-Ramos, “Polarization- and wavelength-agnostic nanophotonic beam splitter,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 3604 (2019).
[Crossref]

Berencen, Y.

Bock, P. J.

Boeuf, F.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R. J.

R. J. Bojko, J. Li, L. He, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and Y. Aida, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Nanotechnol. Microelectron.: Mater., Process., Meas., Phenom. 29(6), 06F309 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bonneville, D. B.

H. C. Frankis, H. M. Mbonde, D. B. Bonneville, C. Zhang, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Erbium-doped TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguide amplifiers with 5 dB net gain,” Photonics Res. 8(2), 127–134 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. C. Frankis, D. Su, D. B. Bonneville, and J. D. B. Bradley, “A tellurium oxide microcavity resonator sensor integrated on-chip with a silicon waveguide,” Sensors 18(11), 4061 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bonneville, D.B.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bradley, J. D. B.

H. M. Mbonde, H. C. Frankis, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Enhanced nonlinearity and engineered anomalous dispersion in TeO2-coated Si3N4 Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 12(2), 1–10 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. C. Frankis, H. M. Mbonde, D. B. Bonneville, C. Zhang, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Erbium-doped TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguide amplifiers with 5 dB net gain,” Photonics Res. 8(2), 127–134 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Li, M. Xin, Z. Su, E. S. Magden, N. Singh, J. Notaros, E. Timurdogan, P. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “A Silicon Photonic Data Link with a Monolithic Erbium-Doped Laser,” Sci. Rep. 10(1), 1114 (2020).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kiani, H. C. Frankis, H. M. Mbonde, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, A. P. Knights, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Thulium-doped tellurium oxide waveguide amplifier with 7.6 dB net gain on a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 44(23), 5788–5791 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. C. Frankis, K. M. Kiani, D. Su, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, and J. D. B. Bradley, “High-Q tellurium-oxide-coated silicon nitride microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 44(1), 118–121 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. C. Frankis, D. Su, D. B. Bonneville, and J. D. B. Bradley, “A tellurium oxide microcavity resonator sensor integrated on-chip with a silicon waveguide,” Sensors 18(11), 4061 (2018).
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E. S. Magden, N. Li, P. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G.S. Petrich, G. Leake, D.D. Coolbaugh, E.P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L.A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
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Z. Su, N. Li, E. S. Magden, M. Byrd, P. Purnawirman, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-compact and low-threshold thulium microcavity laser monolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41(24), 5708–5711 (2016).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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D. González-Andrade, C. Lafforgue, E. Durán-Valdeiglesias, X. Le Roux, M. Berciano, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, A. V. Velasco, P. Cheben, L. Vivien, and C. Alonso-Ramos, “Polarization- and wavelength-agnostic nanophotonic beam splitter,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 3604 (2019).
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C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
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P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G.C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T.J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Í. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
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D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and D. Christodoulides, “Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 46(10), 104602 (2007).
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P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
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Z. Pan, X. Xu, C. J. Chung, H. Dalir, H. Yan, K. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Jia, and R. T. Chen, “High-speed modulator based on electro-optic polymer infiltrated subwavelength grating waveguide ring resonator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(6), 1700300 (2018).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, A. Ortega-Moñux, J.-M. Fédéli, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. Durán-Valdeiglesias, P. Cheben, Í. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, “Controlling leakage losses in subwavelength grating silicon metamaterial waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(15), 3443 (2016).
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H. M. Mbonde, H. C. Frankis, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Enhanced nonlinearity and engineered anomalous dispersion in TeO2-coated Si3N4 Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 12(2), 1–10 (2020).
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H. C. Frankis, H. M. Mbonde, D. B. Bonneville, C. Zhang, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Erbium-doped TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguide amplifiers with 5 dB net gain,” Photonics Res. 8(2), 127–134 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. C. Frankis, K. M. Kiani, D. Su, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, and J. D. B. Bradley, “High-Q tellurium-oxide-coated silicon nitride microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 44(1), 118–121 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. C. Frankis, K.M. Kiani, D.B. Bonneville, C. Zhang, S. Norris, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, N.D. Bassim, A.P. Knights, and J.D.B. Bradley, “Low-loss TeO2-coated Si3N4 waveguides for application in photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12529–12540 (2019).
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K. M. Kiani, H. C. Frankis, H. M. Mbonde, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, A. P. Knights, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Thulium-doped tellurium oxide waveguide amplifier with 7.6 dB net gain on a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 44(23), 5788–5791 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. C. Frankis, D. Su, D. B. Bonneville, and J. D. B. Bradley, “A tellurium oxide microcavity resonator sensor integrated on-chip with a silicon waveguide,” Sensors 18(11), 4061 (2018).
[Crossref]

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P. F. Jarschel, M. C. M. M. Souza, R. B. Merlo, and N. C. Frateschi, “Loss compensation in microring-based Si photonics devices via Er3+ doped claddings,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–12 (2018).
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D. González-Andrade, C. Lafforgue, E. Durán-Valdeiglesias, X. Le Roux, M. Berciano, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, A. V. Velasco, P. Cheben, L. Vivien, and C. Alonso-Ramos, “Polarization- and wavelength-agnostic nanophotonic beam splitter,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 3604 (2019).
[Crossref]

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R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, “Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 445(1), 118–126 (2003).
[Crossref]

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P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
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J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, A. Ortega-Moñux, J.-M. Fédéli, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. Durán-Valdeiglesias, P. Cheben, Í. Molina-Fernández, and R. Halir, “Controlling leakage losses in subwavelength grating silicon metamaterial waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(15), 3443 (2016).
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R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Í. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
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R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G.C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T.J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, Í. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Interference effect in scattering loss of high-index-contrast planar waveguides caused by boundary reflections,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1479–1481 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and D. Christodoulides, “Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 46(10), 104602 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref]

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P. F. Jarschel, M. C. M. M. Souza, R. B. Merlo, and N. C. Frateschi, “Loss compensation in microring-based Si photonics devices via Er3+ doped claddings,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–12 (2018).
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Z. Pan, X. Xu, C. J. Chung, H. Dalir, H. Yan, K. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Jia, and R. T. Chen, “High-speed modulator based on electro-optic polymer infiltrated subwavelength grating waveguide ring resonator,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(6), 1700300 (2018).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G.C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T.J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) 3D FDTD simulated photonic bandstructure of proposed device. Inset depicts top view index profile at half waveguide height of simulated unit cell with length Λ (black dashed box). Top view Bloch mode intensity distribution profile for periodicities and wavenumbers (b) Λ = 300 nm & k = 0.33 and (c) Λ = 360 nm & k = 0.47 at λ = 1480 nm. Yellow and green star on the first order band show the location of (b) and (c), respectively. Grey and yellow shaded areas correspond to a continuum of unguided modes above the SiO2 lightline (in black) and the photonic bandgap, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. 3D FDTD simulated (a) dispersion relation, (b) Bloch mode effective index and (c) group index for the TeO2-coated SWG waveguide with WSWG = 450 nm, Λ = 360 nm and δ = 0.5. The red, green and blue lines correspond to TeO2 cladding thicknesses of 90, 100 and 110 nm, respectively. The black dotted line in (b) corresponds to the Bragg condition at Λ = 360 nm. Shaded areas represent slow light regions where ng > 10 for each case.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Top view schematic of fabricated SWG device with silicon wire (solid) and SWG (striped) waveguides sections. Dark dotted lines indicate the locations of the SEM images of the fabricated b) uncoated and c) 105 nm-thick TeO2-coated mode converter-SWG transitions, d) TeO2-coated SWG waveguide (side view), and e) uncoated and f) TeO2-coated SWG waveguides (angled view). Image in d) was taken 52° to the surface normal while all others were taken 45° to the surface normal.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Measured insertion loss of SWG waveguides with 3 µm-thick SiO2 cladding and 100 nm-thick TeO2 cladding, with WSWG = 450 nm, Λ = 360 nm and δ = 0.5 and varying SWG waveguide lengths (LSWG) indicated in legend. (b) Measured propagation loss at λ = 1630 nm and λ = 1480 nm for the SiO2-clad and TeO2-clad waveguides, respectively.

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