Abstract

We present a high-accuracy fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) sensor capable of simultaneously measuring the temperature and gas refractive-index (RI). The sensor consists of a silicon F-P cavity for temperature sensing and a glass F-P cavity with a side groove for gas RI sensing. Two F-P cavities are simply fabricated and connected in series by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) techniques. The hybrid F-P sensor produces a superposition of signals. Changes in temperature and RI can be separated and detected by a fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the wavelength-tracing method. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivities of the proposed sensor are 80.7 pm/°C from 10 °C to 60 °C and over 1535.8 nm/RIU in the gas RI range of 1.0000248–1.0007681. Furthermore, the gas RI measurement reaches a high accuracy of ± 7.6 × 10−6 RIU, owing to the temperature compensation. In addition, the measured precisions of the temperature and gas RI are 1.07 × 10−3 °C and 2.73 × 10−8 RIU, respectively.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Accurate measurement of the gas refractive-index (RI) [1–5] and temperature are critical for theoretical and practical requirements in biochemical analysis, high-energy physics and laser systems [6–8]. Various types of fiber-optic sensors have been proposed and used for temperature and RI sensing, such as all-silica structure fabricated by etching and fusion splicing [9–15], arc-discharge technique [16], milling technique [17], and fiber tip with micropolymer layer [18–22]. Among them, the sensors based on dual Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavities have attracted intensive studies benefit from their compact size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and high sensitivity. The highest resolutions of these sensors are 10−3 °C for temperature and 5 × 10−9 RIU for RI [9,10].

Wang et al. [16] fabricated an in-fiber ellipsoidal cavity by splicing a single-mode fiber (SMF) and a photonic crystal fiber with an arc-discharge technique. The RI was determined by analyzing the fast Fourier transform (FFT) amplitude ratio, and a precision of ± 7.71 × 10−4 RIU was obtained. The sensor also enabled the simultaneous measurement of temperature by tracking the wavelength shift with a sensitivity of 15 pm/°C. André et al. [17] milled F-P cavities in optical fiber microtips to form a solid silica cavity and a gap cavity by using a focused ion beam. The reflective signal was demultiplexed based on FFT. Then, the researchers were able to measure the temperature and refractive index simultaneously. The sensor presented sensitivities of −15.8 pm/°C and −1316 nm/RIU and a precision of ± 5.1 × 10−4 RIU.

The temperature-sensitive materials of the above two sensors were both silica, and thus the temperature sensitivity was limited by its low thermo-optic coefficient. Zhang et al. [20] proposed an end-of-fiber polydimethylsiloxane cap-based fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) that could also be used for the simultaneous measurement of RI and temperature. The RI sensitivity of the interferometer was −240.425 dB/RIU by an extinction ratio measurement in the RI range of 1.3625–1.4150 with a precision of ± 5.29 × 10−4 RIU. The temperature sensitivity of the sensor reached 385.46 pm/°C. However, the sensor was not suitable for gas RI sensing since the extinction ratio might be very low under a gas environment.

In this paper, we propose novel fiber-optic dual FPIs for simultaneous and highly accurate gas RI and temperature measurement. The sensor head is fabricated by employing microelectromechanical system (MEMS) techniques. A silicon F-P cavity and a glass F-P cavity with a side groove are serially connected for temperature and gas RI sensing, respectively. The temperature and RI can be determined simultaneously by tracing the interference wavelength shift separated from the superposed reflection spectra. With the relative high-temperature sensitivity of the silicon cavity, the temperature cross-sensitivity caused by the thermal expansion of glass can be overcome to reach a high RI measurement accuracy after temperature compensation.

The experimental results show that the gas RI measurement accuracy can reach ± 7.6 × 10−6 RIU, and the measured precisions of the temperature and gas RI are 1.07 × 10−3 °C and 2.73 × 10−8 RIU, respectively. In addition, MEMS techniques provide a way toward mass production and greatly increase the yield compared with manual production.

2. Sensor fabrication and operating principle

2.1 Structure and fabrication of the sensor

A schematic diagram of the proposed hybrid optical F-P sensor is illustrated in Fig. 1(a). The sensing head is formed by three layers that connect sequentially. A Pyrex glass layer with structures is sandwiched between the top and bottom silicon layers. The fabrication steps are as follows. First, we use spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) technology [23] to machine the structure of the through hole and groove arrays in a Pyrex glass wafer (BOROFLOAT 33) with 500 ± 20-μm thickness, as shown in Fig. 2(a). The radius of the hole is 2500 μm, and the width of the groove is 200 μm.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of proposed sensor structure. (b) F-P cavity interference model of proposed sensor.

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 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Image of through hole and groove array in Pyrex glass wafer. (b) Image of individual sensing chip.

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Next, the bottom silicon layer, a double-sided polished silicon wafer with 300 ± 10-μm thickness, is connected to the structured Pyrex glass wafer by anodic bonding. Then, the top silicon layer, a single-sided polished silicon wafer with ∼50-μm thickness, is connected to the other side of the structured Pyrex glass wafer in the same way. After that, the bonded wafer consisting of three layers is diced to hundreds of independent sensing heads, as shown in Fig. 2(b). Finally, the side of the bottom silicon layer is connected to an SMF that is fixed by a glass ferrule.

The axial through hole in the Pyrex glass layer constructs a gas cavity, and the groove enables the gas to flow freely into the cavity. The polished surfaces of the silicon layer serve as natural ideal partial reflectors with 30.5% reflectivity in a 1550-nm wavelength band [24], but the reflectivity of the unpolished surface is greatly reduced. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the light injects into the SMF and is reflected between the outside (R1) and inside (R2) surfaces of the bottom silicon layer and the inside (R3) surface of the top silicon layer.

2.2 Operating principle of the sensor

The hybrid fiber optic sensor contains three cavities: silicon cavity, gas cavity, and a long cavity. The silicon cavity formed between R1 and R2 is named FP1 with a cavity length of L1. The gas cavity formed between R2 and R3 is named FP2 with a cavity length of L2. The long cavity formed between R1 and R3 is a combination of FP1 and FP2 with a cavity length of L1 + L2. The reflected beam can be regarded as a two-wave interference model, and the total intensity can be expressed as

I(λ)=I1+I2+I32I1I2cos(ϕ1)2I2I3cos(ϕ2)+2I1I3cos(ϕ1+ϕ2),
where I1, I2, and I3 are the optical intensities of three reflected lights, and ϕ1 and ϕ2 are the propagation phase shifts in FP1 and FP2, respectively, which can be described as
ϕ1=4πnsiL1λ,ϕ2=4πngasL2λ,
where nsi and ngas are the RI of silicon and ambient gas, respectively, and λ is the wavelength of the light source. The spectra of the MEMS F-P sensor compounds three cosine components with different frequencies, which result from the three F-P cavities. The phase shift ϕ1 in FP1 is temperature sensitive because of the high thermo-optic effect of silicon as well as the thermal expansion effect of silicon. The phase shift ϕ2 in FP2 is dependent on gas RI since gas flows into the cavity as the propagation medium, but ϕ2 is also affected by temperature because of the thermal expansion effect of Pyrex glass.

When we extract the interference spectra corresponding to FP1 from the superposition reflection spectra by a filter, the phase shift of FP1 can be given as a function of temperature t according to Eq. (2). That is,

ϕ1=4πnsi0L10λi0=4πnsi(t)L1(t)λi=2iπ,
wherensi(t)=nsi0+nTΔt, L1(t)=L10(1+αsiΔt), λi=λi0+Δλi, and Δt=tt0. t0 is the initial temperature, nsi0 is the initial RI of silicon under t0, L10 is the initial cavity length of FP1 under t0, λi0 is the initial wavelength of the i-th-order interference peak under t0, λi is the wavelength of the i-th-order interference peak corresponding to different conditions, Δλi is the wavelength shift of the i-th-order interference peak, and nT and αsi are the thermo-optic coefficient and the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon, respectively. As a consequence, the temperature sensitivity St of FP1 can be approximately deduced as

St=ΔλiΔt=αsiλi0+nT/nsi0λi0.

Similarly, when we extract the interference spectra corresponding to FP2 from the superposition reflection spectra by another filter, the phase shift of FP2 can be given as function of gas RI ngas and temperature t, that is,

ϕ2=4πngas0L20λj0=4πngasL2(t)λj=2jπ,
where ngas=ngas0+Δn, L2(t)=L20(1+αgΔt), λj=λj0+Δλj, ngas0 is the initial RI of gas, L20 is the initial cavity length of FP2 under t0, λj0 is the initial wavelength of the j-th-order interference peak under t0 and ngas0, λj is the wavelength of the j-th-order interference peak corresponding to different conditions, Δλj is the wavelength shift of the j-th-order interference peak, and αg is the thermal expansion coefficient of Pyrex glass. According to Eq. (5), gas RI sensitivity Sn of FP2 at a constant temperature t0 can be deduced as

Sn=ΔλjΔn=λj0ngas0.

Also according to Eq. (5), when gas RI remains unchanged, the temperature cross-sensitivity Stc of FP2 can be deduced as

Stc=ΔλjΔt=λj0αg.

Note that the sensitivities are constants when we determine the initial wavelengths λi0, λj0, and the initial RIs of silicon nsi0 and gas ngas0. When we adopt the following parameters: αsi=2.6×106K−1, nT=1.86×104K−1, and αg=3.26×106K−1 [25,26], the sensitivities are estimated to beSt=87.0pm/°C, Sn=1550.5nm/RIU, Stc=5.1pm/°C (withλi0=1547.9nm, λj0=1550.5nm, nsi0=3.47, and ngas0=1 in accordance with the experimental data).

According to Eqs. (4) and (5), when t0=0°C, the temperature t and gas RI ngas can be measured and calculated as

t=(λiλi0)/St,
ngas=λj/B(t),
where B(t)=2L2(t)/j. λi, λj are the measurement values, λi0, St, B(t) are the characteristic parameters which only related with the structure of sensor.

It can be seen from Eqs. (8) and (9) that the proposed sensor may be able to measure the temperature and gas RI simultaneously by tracking the interference peak wavelength λi and λj from two independent interference spectra. Furthermore, a high-sensitivity temperature measurement can be used to eliminate the temperature cross-influence and help to achieve a high-accuracy gas RI measurement.

2.3 Demodulation method of the superposition reflection spectra

To demodulate the superposition reflection spectra, we combine the FFT and wavelength-tracing method. We first use the cubic spline interpolation method to ensure equal frequency sampling intervalsδv, and then adopt the FFT to convert the reflection spectra from the wavelength domain to the frequency domain. After that two proper band-pass filters are used to retrieve the interference spectra corresponding to the distinctive frequency component of FP1 and FP2, respectively. Hence, the wavelength shifts of the two interference spectra can be traced separately. In order to avoid the phase ambiguity issue of the wavelength-tracing method, we first obtain the rough optical path difference (OPD) of each F-P cavity, given asΔ=2k/Nδv, where N refers to the sample point number of the FFT, k refers to the abscissa corresponding to the peak of the frequency component [27]. After that, we calculate the interference order of a certain interference peak wavelength λm as m=Δ/λm, where m is the interference order. This method ensures that the traced wavelength is always under the same interference order, and combines the advantages of high-precision measurement and large measured range.

3. Experiment result and discussion

3.1 Experimental setup

The experimental setup for the temperature and air RI measurement is shown in Fig. 3. Through a circulator, we directed the output of a superluminescent diode (SLD) light source into the sensor head. After that, an optical spectrum analyzer (YOKOGAWA AQ 6370) received the reflected signal from the sensor. We put the proposed sensor at the mean time in an air-pressure chamber. We chose a high-accuracy controller that allowed us to adjust the pressure precisely within 0.02 kPa. A dryer was connected before the air compressor. The chamber was placed in a thermostat with a precision of 0.5 °C.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Experimental setup for measurement of temperature and pressure-induced RI changes.

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3.2 Sensor characteristic

The recorded reflection spectra at room temperature and the atmospheric pressure are shown in Fig. 4(a), and the subfigure shows the magnified observation result. Figure 4(b) shows the FFT result. We can see three distinguishable frequency peaks marked separately as peaks 1, 2, and 3, which correspond to the cavities of FP2, FP1, and the long cavity, respectively. Figures 4(c) and 4(d) show the independent interference spectra corresponding to FP1 and FP2 after filtering, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Reflection spectra of proposed sensor under room temperature and atmospheric pressure. (b) Spatial frequency spectra of output reflection spectra. (c) Independent interference spectra corresponding to FP1 by filter2. (d) Independent interference spectra corresponding to FP2 by filter1.

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In order to demonstrate the characteristics of the silicon cavity FP1 and the glass cavity FP2, we changed the temperature from 10 °C to 60 °C in steps of 5 °C under 100 kPa and then traced the peak wavelength λi of FP1 and λj of FP2, respectively.

3.2.1 Characteristic of FP1

Figure 5(a) shows the extracted interference spectra corresponding to FP1. With an increase in temperature, the peaks of the interference pattern gradually shifted toward longer wavelengths. The relationship between the temperature and peak wavelength is shown in Fig. 5(b). The variation of the wavelength with temperature is linear, and the temperature sensitivityStof the proposed sensor is 80.7 pm/°C, which is in good agreement with the design value of 87.0 pm/°C. Therefore, temperature t can be calculated as the function

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) Interference spectra of FP1 corresponding to temperature changes from 25 °C to 30 °C. (b) Temperature response of silicon cavity.

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t=λi1547.9380.0807.

3.2.2 Characteristic of FP2

Edlén equation for the RI of air [28] gives an accurate way to calculate the air RI from temperature and pressure:

nair=1+2.8437×109P1+0.003661t,
where nair and P are the RI and absolute pressure (Pa) of air, respectively. The equation shows a linear relationship between n and P at a given temperature. Since we altered the temperature from 10 °C to 60 °C at 100 kPa, the calculation air RI decreased from 1.00027433 to 1.00023316.

Figure 6(a) shows the extracted interference spectra corresponding to FP2. It can be seen that the peaks of the interference pattern still shifted toward longer wavelengths with a decrease in RI, which is caused by the temperature-cross sensing. We can calculate the parameter B(t) as B(t)=λj/ngas according to Eq. (9). The relationship between measurement results of B(t) and temperature are shown in Fig. 6(b). A linear response and sensitivity of 5.48 pm/°C was found, which agrees with the design value of 5.1 pm/°C.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a) Interference spectra of FP2 corresponding to temperature changes from 10 °C to 60 °C. (b) Relationship between B(t) and temperature.

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B(t)=0.00548t+1550.3962

Therefore, gas RI ngas can be calculated as Eq. (13).

ngas=λj0.00548t+1550.3962

The temperature-cross sensitivity St-n on the RI measurement can be deduced from Eq. (13) as

Stn=dngasdt=ngast+282919.
It can be further expressed as
Stn=ngas282919,
since t (ranges from 10 °C to 60 °C) is rather small that can be ignored. ngas is approximated as 1, thus the temperature-cross sensitivity is Stn=3.53×106RIU/ °C.

Therefore the proposed sensor can be used to measure the temperature and RI simultaneously, and the temperature cross-sensitivity on RI measurement can be compensated by the temperature measurement owing to the silicon cavity.

3.3 Test results and discussion

The RI measurement accuracy of the proposed sensor was tested experimentally. We altered the pressure from 10 kPa to 280 kPa in steps of 10 kPa at 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, corresponding to the air RI changing from 1.0000248 to 1.0007681. We traced the interference peak wavelength λi and λj from two independent interference spectra. The relationships between λi, λj and pressure P are shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8(a), respectively. Figure 8(b) shows the relationship between the wavelength shift and corresponding gas RI change, which exhibits excellent linearity. The RI sensitivities are all around 1540 nm/RIU, as shown in Table 1.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Wavelength shift of FP1 in response to pressure increasing at different temperatures.

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 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 (a) Wavelength shift of FP2 in response to pressure increasing at different temperatures. (b) Wavelength shift in response to gas RI increasing at different temperatures.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Measurement results of pressure-induced gas RI response of FP2.

We substituted the measured value of λi into Eq. (10) to determine the current temperature t, and then substituted t and λj into Eq. (13) to determine the air RI. We take the difference between the RI measured result and the theoretical value (according to Eq. (11)) as measurement accuracy [29]. The measurement differences are within ± 7.6 × 10−6 RIU, as shown in Fig. 9, indicating an RI accuracy of ± 7.6 × 10−6 RIU.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Gas RI measurement error after temperature compensation.

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From the discussion above, we successfully measured the temperature and air RI simultaneously with the help of the dual-cavity structure, and eliminated the temperature cross-influence on the RI measurement.

The precisions of the proposed sensor were also evaluated experimentally. We placed the sensor at a room temperature of 25 °C and 100 kPa for 1 h and sampled at intervals of 30 s. As shown in Fig. 10, it was found that the standard deviations of wavelength variation corresponding to λi and λj were ∼0.029 pm and ~0.014 pm, respectively, which resulted in a temperature precision (corresponding to a three-time standard deviation) of 1.07 × 10−3 °C at a temperature sensitivity of 80.7 pm/°C and the RI precision of 2.73 × 10−8 RIU at an RI sensitivity of 1540 nm/RIU.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 Variation of wavelength measured at 25 °C and 100 kPa for 1 h. (a) Variation corresponding to FP1. (b) Variation corresponding to FP2.

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Finally, we investigated the temperature and RI repeatability of the proposed sensor. We placed the sensor at atmospheric and altered temperature increased from 10 °C to 60°C and then decreased to 10 °C for 2 cycles. The response of FP1 is shown in Fig. 11(a), from which we can see that the sensor exhibits a good temperature repeatability. The maximum deviation between the measured wavelength λi and the four-time averaged wavelength was ± 17.2 pm. Thus, the sensor has a repeatability of ± 0.21 °C at a temperature sensitivity of 80.7 pm/°C.

 figure: Fig. 11

Fig. 11 (a) Variation of wavelength corresponding to FP1 measured at different temperatures for 2 cycles. (b) Variation of wavelength corresponding to FP2 measured at different pressures for 2 cycles

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We placed the sensor at 25 °C and altered pressure increased from 10 kPa to 280 kPa and then decreased to 10 kPa for 2 cycles. The response of FP2 is shown in Fig. 11(b). The sensor also exhibits a good RI repeatability. The maximum deviation between the measured wavelength λj and the four-time averaged wavelength was ± 10.4 pm. Thus, the sensor has a repeatability of ± 6.75 × 10−6 RIU at a RI sensitivity of 1540 nm/RIU.

Table 2 compares the previously proposed optical fiber RI FPI in terms of precision and repeatability. Such test results indicate high precision and repeatability of the proposed sensor. Therefore, this sensor can be used for high-precision gas concentration analysis applications. We also expect that the sensor has potential in liquid RI measurements.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of the proposed fiber-optic F-P sensors in terms of the precision and repeatability

4. Conclusion

A hybrid FPI was proposed and demonstrated for simultaneous gas RI and temperature sensing in this paper. The sensor consisted of a silicon-glass-silicon structure fabricated by MEMS techniques that provide the possibility of batch production. The principle of the sensor was theoretically analyzed. The characteristics of the two F-P cavities were verified and calibrated experimentally. The temperature sensitivity of our proposed sensor was 80.7 pm/°C, and the gas RI sensitivity was higher than 1535.8 nm/RIU. The experiment demonstrated that the temperature and gas RI can be simultaneously determined by using FFT and tracing the wavelength shift from the extracted interference spectra. The silicon cavity played an important role in compensating the temperature cross-sensitivity of a glass cavity, which contributed to a high gas RI accuracy of ± 7.6 × 10−6 RIU. Test results showed the precisions of the proposed sensor were 1.07 × 10−3 °C and 2.73 × 10−8 RIU. The high sensitivity and high gas RI measurement accuracy of the device make it promising for high-precision gas concentration analysis applications.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61735011).

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References

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  1. R. Wang, P. Huang, J. He, and X. Qiao, “Gas refractometer based on a side-open fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 56(1), 50–54 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. H. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and X. G. Qiao, “Fringe visibility enhanced Fabry-Perot interferometer and its application as gas refractometer,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 234, 498–502 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Quan, J. Tian, and Y. Yao, “Ultra-high sensitivity Fabry-Perot interferometer gas refractive index fiber sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4891–4894 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. Wang and X. Qiao, “Gas refractometer based on optical fiber extrinsic fabry-perot interferometer with open cavity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 245–248 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 118(2), 177–182 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. Pevec and D. Donlagic, “Miniature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot refractive index sensor for gas sensing with a resolution of 5×10-9 RIU,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23868–23882 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. Pevec and D. Donlagic, “High resolution, all-fiber, micro-machined sensor for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16241–16253 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Pevec and D. Donlagic, “Multiparameter fiber-optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity, pressure, refractive index, and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–14 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Y. Choi, G. Mudhana, K. S. Park, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Cross-talk free and ultra-compact fiber optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and refractive index,” Opt. Express 18(1), 141–149 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. F. Shi, C. Zhao, B. Xu, Y. Li, and D. N. Wang, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature base on three-beam interferometric fiber-optic,” in Proceedings of Optoelectronics Global Conference (2015), pp. 1–3.
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Wang and X. Qiao, “Hybrid optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Opt. 53(32), 7724–7728 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. T. Wang and M. Wang, “Fabry-pérot fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on an in-fiber ellipsoidal cavity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1733–1736 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. M. André, S. C. Warren-Smith, M. Becker, J. Dellith, M. Rothhardt, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, M. B. Marques, H. Bartelt, and O. Frazão, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and refractive index using focused ion beam milled Fabry-Perot cavities in optical fiber micro-tips,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14053–14065 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. D. Pechstedt, “Fibre optical sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure, temperature and refractive index,” Proc. SPIE 9157, 91570I (2014).
  20. X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. areH. Bae, D. Yun, H. Liu, D. A. Olson, and M. Yu, “Hybrid miniature fabry-perot sensor with dual optical cavities for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(8), 1585–1593 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. Wu, W. Huang, G. Y. Wang, J. Y. Fu, and Y. Y. Chen, “In-line fiber fabry-perot refractive index tip sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and spectrum differential integration method,” Opt. Commun. 313(4), 270–275 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Wüthrich, K. Fujisaki, P. Couthy, L. A. Hof, and H. Bleuler, “Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) in microfactory,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), S276–S280 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(3), 561–658 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, L. C. Xu, and M. Han, “Refractive index measurement using photonic crystal fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1593–1598 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “An updated edlén equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 30(3), 155–162 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  29. ISO 5725–1, “Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. Part 1: General principles and definitions,” International Standards Organization, (1994).
  30. Z. L. Ran, Y. J. Rao, W. J. Liu, X. Liao, and K. S. Chiang, “Laser-micromachined Fabry-Perot optical fiber tip sensor for high-resolution temperature-independent measurement of refractive index,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2252–2263 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. R. Zhao, X. G. Huang, W. X. He, and J. H. Chen, “High-resolution and temperature-insensitive fiber optic refractive index sensor based on fresnel reflection modulated by fabry-perot interference,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(19), 2799–2803 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. Liu and S. Qu, “Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity fabricated by femtosecond laser-induced water breakdown for refractive index sensing,” Appl. Opt. 53(3), 469–474 (2014).
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2018 (1)

2017 (4)

R. Wang, P. Huang, J. He, and X. Qiao, “Gas refractometer based on a side-open fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 56(1), 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Pevec and D. Donlagic, “Multiparameter fiber-optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity, pressure, refractive index, and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

M. Quan, J. Tian, and Y. Yao, “Ultra-high sensitivity Fabry-Perot interferometer gas refractive index fiber sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4891–4894 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang and X. Qiao, “Gas refractometer based on optical fiber extrinsic fabry-perot interferometer with open cavity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 245–248 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

S. Pevec and D. Donlagic, “High resolution, all-fiber, micro-machined sensor for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16241–16253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. D. Pechstedt, “Fibre optical sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure, temperature and refractive index,” Proc. SPIE 9157, 91570I (2014).

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

areH. Bae, D. Yun, H. Liu, D. A. Olson, and M. Yu, “Hybrid miniature fabry-perot sensor with dual optical cavities for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(8), 1585–1593 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, W. Huang, G. Y. Wang, J. Y. Fu, and Y. Y. Chen, “In-line fiber fabry-perot refractive index tip sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and spectrum differential integration method,” Opt. Commun. 313(4), 270–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Wang and X. Qiao, “Hybrid optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Opt. 53(32), 7724–7728 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu and S. Qu, “Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity fabricated by femtosecond laser-induced water breakdown for refractive index sensing,” Appl. Opt. 53(3), 469–474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

T. Wang and M. Wang, “Fabry-pérot fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on an in-fiber ellipsoidal cavity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1733–1736 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

R. Wüthrich, K. Fujisaki, P. Couthy, L. A. Hof, and H. Bleuler, “Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) in microfactory,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), S276–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “An updated edlén equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 30(3), 155–162 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(3), 561–658 (1980).
[Crossref]

Adnet, A.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[Crossref]

André, R. M.

Bae, H.

Bartelt, H.

Becker, M.

Biegert, J.

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “An updated edlén equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 30(3), 155–162 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bleuler, H.

R. Wüthrich, K. Fujisaki, P. Couthy, L. A. Hof, and H. Bleuler, “Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) in microfactory,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), S276–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bremer, K.

K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. H.

Chen, Q.-D.

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. Y.

D. Wu, W. Huang, G. Y. Wang, J. Y. Fu, and Y. Y. Chen, “In-line fiber fabry-perot refractive index tip sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and spectrum differential integration method,” Opt. Commun. 313(4), 270–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

Couthy, P.

R. Wüthrich, K. Fujisaki, P. Couthy, L. A. Hof, and H. Bleuler, “Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) in microfactory,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), S276–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dellith, J.

Deng, M.

Deng, Y. L.

X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Donlagic, D.

Downs, M. J.

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “An updated edlén equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 30(3), 155–162 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fang, G.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Franco, M.

Frazão, O.

Fu, J. Y.

D. Wu, W. Huang, G. Y. Wang, J. Y. Fu, and Y. Y. Chen, “In-line fiber fabry-perot refractive index tip sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and spectrum differential integration method,” Opt. Commun. 313(4), 270–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujisaki, K.

R. Wüthrich, K. Fujisaki, P. Couthy, L. A. Hof, and H. Bleuler, “Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) in microfactory,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), S276–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geng, Y. F.

X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grover, C. P.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[Crossref]

Han, M.

He, J.

He, W. X.

Hof, L. A.

R. Wüthrich, K. Fujisaki, P. Couthy, L. A. Hof, and H. Bleuler, “Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) in microfactory,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), S276–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hong, Y.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, P.

Huang, W.

D. Wu, W. Huang, G. Y. Wang, J. Y. Fu, and Y. Y. Chen, “In-line fiber fabry-perot refractive index tip sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and spectrum differential integration method,” Opt. Commun. 313(4), 270–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. G.

Jia, P.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Latifi, H.

Lee, B. H.

Leen, G.

K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Levorato, S.

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lewis, E.

K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(3), 561–658 (1980).
[Crossref]

Li, X. J.

X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

F. Shi, C. Zhao, B. Xu, Y. Li, and D. N. Wang, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature base on three-beam interferometric fiber-optic,” in Proceedings of Optoelectronics Global Conference (2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Liang, T.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liao, X.

Liu, H.

Liu, J.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. J.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z. W.

R. H. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and X. G. Qiao, “Fringe visibility enhanced Fabry-Perot interferometer and its application as gas refractometer,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 234, 498–502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lochmann, S.

K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marques, M. B.

Menon, G.

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mudhana, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Olson, D. A.

Paek, U. C.

Park, K. S.

Pechstedt, R. D.

R. D. Pechstedt, “Fibre optical sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure, temperature and refractive index,” Proc. SPIE 9157, 91570I (2014).

Pevec, S.

Polak, J.

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.

Qiao, X. G.

R. H. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and X. G. Qiao, “Fringe visibility enhanced Fabry-Perot interferometer and its application as gas refractometer,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 234, 498–502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z.

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qu, S.

Quan, M.

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Reinsch, T.

K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992).
[Crossref]

Roth, B.

K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rothhardt, M.

Shi, F.

F. Shi, C. Zhao, B. Xu, Y. Li, and D. N. Wang, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature base on three-beam interferometric fiber-optic,” in Proceedings of Optoelectronics Global Conference (2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Steiger, L.

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sulc, M.

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, F. G.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.-B.

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, Q.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, X. L.

X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. P.

Tessarotto, F.

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Torre, S. D.

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. N.

F. Shi, C. Zhao, B. Xu, Y. Li, and D. N. Wang, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature base on three-beam interferometric fiber-optic,” in Proceedings of Optoelectronics Global Conference (2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Wang, G. Y.

D. Wu, W. Huang, G. Y. Wang, J. Y. Fu, and Y. Y. Chen, “In-line fiber fabry-perot refractive index tip sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and spectrum differential integration method,” Opt. Commun. 313(4), 270–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

T. Wang and M. Wang, “Fabry-pérot fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on an in-fiber ellipsoidal cavity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1733–1736 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Wang, R. H.

R. H. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and X. G. Qiao, “Fringe visibility enhanced Fabry-Perot interferometer and its application as gas refractometer,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 234, 498–502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Wang and M. Wang, “Fabry-pérot fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on an in-fiber ellipsoidal cavity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1733–1736 (2012).
[Crossref]

Warren-Smith, S. C.

Wu, D.

D. Wu, W. Huang, G. Y. Wang, J. Y. Fu, and Y. Y. Chen, “In-line fiber fabry-perot refractive index tip sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and spectrum differential integration method,” Opt. Commun. 313(4), 270–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wüthrich, R.

R. Wüthrich, K. Fujisaki, P. Couthy, L. A. Hof, and H. Bleuler, “Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) in microfactory,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), S276–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiao, G. Z.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

F. Shi, C. Zhao, B. Xu, Y. Li, and D. N. Wang, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature base on three-beam interferometric fiber-optic,” in Proceedings of Optoelectronics Global Conference (2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Xu, L. C.

Xue, C.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xue, Y.

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, R.

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

Yin, J.

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yin, Z.

X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Yu, Y. S.

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yun, D.

Zhang, W.

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. Y.

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

F. Shi, C. Zhao, B. Xu, Y. Li, and D. N. Wang, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature base on three-beam interferometric fiber-optic,” in Proceedings of Optoelectronics Global Conference (2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Zhao, J. R.

Zhu, C. C.

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T.

Zibaii, M. I.

Zou, S.

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

X. L. Tan, Y. F. Geng, X. J. Li, Y. L. Deng, Z. Yin, and R. Gao, “UV-curable polymer microhemisphere-based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(4), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Pevec and D. Donlagic, “Multiparameter fiber-optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity, pressure, refractive index, and temperature,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

T. Wang and M. Wang, “Fabry-pérot fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on an in-fiber ellipsoidal cavity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1733–1736 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Wang and X. Qiao, “Gas refractometer based on optical fiber extrinsic fabry-perot interferometer with open cavity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 245–248 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, C. Chen, R. Yang, Y. Xue, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Miniature end-capped fiber sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 7–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yin, T. Liu, J. Jiang, K. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Qin, and S. Zou, “Batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot sensor for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2070–2073 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

R. Wüthrich, K. Fujisaki, P. Couthy, L. A. Hof, and H. Bleuler, “Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) in microfactory,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), S276–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(3), 561–658 (1980).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “An updated edlén equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 30(3), 155–162 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

S. D. Torre, S. Levorato, G. Menon, J. Polak, L. Steiger, M. Sulc, and F. Tessarotto, “A study of the rich gas refractive index,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 639(1), 271–273 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Wu, W. Huang, G. Y. Wang, J. Y. Fu, and Y. Y. Chen, “In-line fiber fabry-perot refractive index tip sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and spectrum differential integration method,” Opt. Commun. 313(4), 270–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. D. Pechstedt, “Fibre optical sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure, temperature and refractive index,” Proc. SPIE 9157, 91570I (2014).

Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. (2)

K. Bremer, T. Reinsch, G. Leen, B. Roth, S. Lochmann, and E. Lewis, “Pressure, temperature and refractive index determination of fluids using a single fibre optic point sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 256, 84–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 118(2), 177–182 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. (2)

P. Jia, G. Fang, T. Liang, Y. Hong, Q. Tan, X. Chen, W. Liu, C. Xue, J. Liu, W. Zhang, and J. Xiong, “Temperature-compensated fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometric gas refractive-index sensor based on hollow silica tube for high-temperature application,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 244, 226–232 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. H. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and X. G. Qiao, “Fringe visibility enhanced Fabry-Perot interferometer and its application as gas refractometer,” Sensor. Actuat. B-Chem. 234, 498–502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. Shi, C. Zhao, B. Xu, Y. Li, and D. N. Wang, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature base on three-beam interferometric fiber-optic,” in Proceedings of Optoelectronics Global Conference (2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

ISO 5725–1, “Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. Part 1: General principles and definitions,” International Standards Organization, (1994).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of proposed sensor structure. (b) F-P cavity interference model of proposed sensor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Image of through hole and groove array in Pyrex glass wafer. (b) Image of individual sensing chip.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for measurement of temperature and pressure-induced RI changes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Reflection spectra of proposed sensor under room temperature and atmospheric pressure. (b) Spatial frequency spectra of output reflection spectra. (c) Independent interference spectra corresponding to FP1 by filter2. (d) Independent interference spectra corresponding to FP2 by filter1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Interference spectra of FP1 corresponding to temperature changes from 25 °C to 30 °C. (b) Temperature response of silicon cavity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Interference spectra of FP2 corresponding to temperature changes from 10 °C to 60 °C. (b) Relationship between B(t) and temperature.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Wavelength shift of FP1 in response to pressure increasing at different temperatures.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Wavelength shift of FP2 in response to pressure increasing at different temperatures. (b) Wavelength shift in response to gas RI increasing at different temperatures.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Gas RI measurement error after temperature compensation.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Variation of wavelength measured at 25 °C and 100 kPa for 1 h. (a) Variation corresponding to FP1. (b) Variation corresponding to FP2.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Variation of wavelength corresponding to FP1 measured at different temperatures for 2 cycles. (b) Variation of wavelength corresponding to FP2 measured at different pressures for 2 cycles

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measurement results of pressure-induced gas RI response of FP2.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the proposed fiber-optic F-P sensors in terms of the precision and repeatability

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(λ)= I 1 + I 2 + I 3 2 I 1 I 2 cos( ϕ 1 )2 I 2 I 3 cos( ϕ 2 )+2 I 1 I 3 cos( ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 ),
ϕ 1 = 4π n si L 1 λ , ϕ 2 = 4π n gas L 2 λ ,
ϕ 1 = 4π n si0 L 10 λ i0 = 4π n si (t) L 1 (t) λ i =2iπ,
S t = Δ λ i Δt = α si λ i0 + n T / n si0 λ i0 .
ϕ 2 = 4π n gas0 L 20 λ j0 = 4π n gas L 2 (t) λ j =2jπ,
S n = Δ λ j Δn = λ j0 n gas0 .
S tc = Δ λ j Δt = λ j0 α g .
t=( λ i λ i0 )/ S t ,
n gas = λ j /B(t),
t= λ i 1547.938 0.0807 .
n air =1+ 2.8437× 10 9 P 1+0.003661t ,
B(t)=0.00548t+1550.3962
n gas = λ j 0.00548t+1550.3962
S tn = d n gas dt = n gas t+282919 .
S tn = n gas 282919 ,

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