Abstract

We demonstrate that a phase difference between terahertz signals coupled to the gate and source and gate and drain terminals of a field effect transistor (a TeraFET) induces a plasmon-assisted DC current, which is dramatically enhanced in the vicinity of plasmonic resonances. We describe a TeraFET operation with identical radiation amplitudes at the source and drain antennas but with a phase-shift-induced asymmetry. In this regime, the TeraFET operates as a tunable resonant polarization-sensitive plasmonic spectrometer, operating in the sub-terahertz and terahertz ranges of frequencies. We also propose an effective scheme of a phase-sensitive homodyne detector operating in this phase-asymmetry mode, which allows for a dramatic enhancement of the response. These regimes can be implemented in different materials systems, including silicon. The p-diamond TeraFETs could support operation in the 200 to 600 GHz atmospheric windows, which is especially important for beyond 5G communication systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

The TeraFETs [1,2] – the devices converting the impinging terahertz (THz) radiation into a dc current by using the excitation of overdamped or resonant plasma oscillations have been implemented in Si [3,4], GaAs [5,6], GaN [7], graphene [8], and other materials systems. The TeraFETs are now being commercialized as tunable and fast detectors of sub-THz and THz radiation. The underlying physical mechanism proposed in Refs [1,2] is based on the rectification of plasmonic oscillations enabled by the device nonlinearity and the asymmetry of the setup. The latter determines the direction of the dc current response (or the sign of the induced dc voltage). One of the possible ways to introduce the asymmetry is to impose different boundary conditions on the source and drain of the device. In particular, when the source-gate input is excited by a signal with amplitude Ua, while the drain current is fixed the generated open circuit dc voltage is

VUa2
Such drain boundary condition implicitly implies that the external circuit is connected to the drain via an antenna or a contact pad with an infinite inductive impedance. Special “plasmonic stub” structures [13] might help implement such a boundary condition. Another option is to use identical antennas but apply signals with the different amplitudes Ua and Ub at the source and drain, respectively. For such a setup, the induced dc current is proportional to the difference of the squared voltages at the source and drain (assuming that these signals have the same phase) [9]
VUa2Ub2.
Importantly, a strong asymmetry can be also induced by the phase shift between the THz signals at the source and drain. For equal amplitudes of signals on the source and drain Ua=Ub nonzero phase shift θ between signals induces the dc voltage [10–12]
VUa2sinθ.
In [10–12], the circularly-polarized radiation was used to induce such a phase shift. Remarkably, this shift depends very weakly on L/λ (here L is the channel length and λ is the THz radiation wavelength) and remains finite even in the limit of a homogeneous field. In this limit, the phase shift is simply given by geometrical angle ±θ[see Fig. 1(a)] with the sign being determined by the clockwise or counterclockwise helicity.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 TeraFET Spectrometer principle of operation: (a) phase shift induced by asymmetric antennas and circularly polarized radiation (b) nonzero incident angle of incoming radiation

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Another possibility is to use the identical antennas and linearly polarized radiation but change the angle between incoming radiation and the plane of the device, see Fig. 1b. For such a setup, the phase shift θ depends on Leff/λ, where Leff is determined by the source and drain antenna design and separation. For simplicity, we assume Leff<<λ. In contrast, as we will show below, the plasmonic-related dependence of the response is governed by the parameter L/λpl, where λpl is the wavelength of the plasma wave. In particular, in the most interesting resonant regime, L/λpl1, while the parameter Leff/λ is, by assumption, much smaller than 1 and does not change essentially within the width of the plasmonic resonances. This allows one to neglect dependence of θ (as well as Ua which is usually taken as phenomenological parameters of the model [2]) on Leff/λ and, consequently, on the radiation frequency, focusing on plasmonic-related effects.

Based on this physical idea, we show below that a single transistor can be used as spectrometer of the THz or sub-THz radiation. The presented results reveal the new physics of the TeraFET spectrometer and provide the design, characterization and parameter extraction tools for the new generation of the phase sensitive THz interferometers/spectrometers.

We will also discuss the homodyne detection scheme [14] enabled by the phase asymmetry. In this scheme, a strong local oscillator signal with the amplitude Ulocal symmetrically excites the source and drain with respect to the gate, while the incoming radiation with the amplitude UsignalUlocal  induces the phase-shifted (by the phase θ) signals on opposite sides of the channel. We will show that the dc response in this case reads

VUlocalUsignal[A(1cosθ)+Bsinθ],
where coefficients A and B have qualitatively different frequency dependencies.

2. TeraFET spectrometer principle of operation

Figure 1 showing the TeraFET spectrometer structure illustrates its principle of operation. A THz radiation impinging on the FET couples to the two antennas at the opposite sides of the channel. The asymmetry is caused by the phase shift θ between these antennas. This shift depends on the polarization of the radiation and the geometry of the setup. For a circular polarization, θ is nonzero provided that antennas configuration is asymmetric with respect to direction from the source to drain. For a linear polarization, the finite phase shift θSinφappears for a nonzero incidence angle φ (the proportionality coefficient in this equation depends on the geometry detail). This phase shift enters the boundary conditions for the electron fluid in the transistor channel

{U(0)=Ug+Uacos(ωt),U(L)=Ug+Uacos(ωt+θ).

Here U(0) and U(L)are the voltages at the source and drain of the channel, respectively, Uais the THz inducted voltage amplitude, Ug is the gate-to-channel voltage swing (counted from the threshold voltage) and ωis the round frequency of the impinging THz radiation. The 2D electron fluid in the device channel is described by the standard hydrodynamic equations

vt+vvx+γv=emUx,
Ut+(Uv)x=0.
Here v is the velocity of the fluid, U is the local value of the gate-to-channel voltage swing. related to the electron concentration in the channel:
ns=CU/e,
γis the inverse momentum relaxation time, The solution of Eqs. (6)-(8) with the boundary conditions given by Eq. (5) is obtained using the same approach as in [2,12]
V=βωUa2sinθ4Ug|sin(kL)|2ω2+γ2,
Here β=8sinh(ΓLs)sin(ΩLs), k=(Ω+iΓ)/s, and
Ω=ω4+ω2γ22+ω22,Γ=ω4+ω2γ22ω22.
Here k is the wave vector, ω is frequency, Ωis the plasma frequency, Γ is the effective damping rate, s=eUg/mis the plasma wave velocity, e is the electron charge, and m is the effective mass. In the resonant regimeωγ,s/Lγthese equations simplify
Ωω,Γγ2,ΩΓ,
and one finds a sharply-peaked response at the resonant frequencies ωN=πNs/L:
V4δωγ(1)N4Ug(δω2+γ2/4)Ua2sinθ,
where δω=ωωNωN. We notice an asymmetric form of the resonances,V(δω)=V(δω), in contrast to the symmetric resonances obtained under the open drain boundary conditions [2].

Both in the resonant and non-resonant case, Eq. (9) shows a periodic variation with frequency. In particular, the response exactly turns to zero for Ω=ΩN=πsN/Ldue to factor sin(ΩL/s) in the coefficient β. These results enable the application of a TeraFET as a spectrometer. This spectrometer operates as follows. At each frequency, the gate-to-source voltage should be adjusted till the response is zero at every incidence angle. This yields the values of the frequency satisfying the following condition

ωN4+ωN2γ22+ωN22=πsLN.
Here N = 1, 2, 3…. From Eq. (13), we find dependence of ωN on the gate voltage
ωN=(πsNL)2(πsNL)2+γ24=eπ2N2UgmL2eπ2N2UgmL2+γ24{Ug,forUgUγNUg,forUgUγN,
whereUγN=mL2γ2/4eπ2N2. Hence, with increasing the gate voltage, all frequencies ωN shift to higher values. The dependence of ωN on the gate voltage qualitatively changes from the linear dependence in the non-resonant case (a small gate voltage,ωNγ) to the square route dependence in the resonant case (a large gate voltage, ωNγ).

For a monochromatic signal with a frequency ω, one can tune ωN to be equal to ω by changing the gate voltage. This allows to measure ω. For a more general case of the radiation with a spectrum broadened around ω¯ within a certain interval Δω with the wave amplitude given by Ua(ω), the dc response can have found by replacing in Eq. (9) UaUa(ω) and integrating over ω. Tuning the resonant frequency ωN to cover the interval ω¯±Δω by the gate voltage allows to extract the spectral density |Ua(ω)|2.

3. Homodyne detector operation scheme

Let us now assume that. in addition to the phase-shifted signal of the incoming radiation, we apply a strong fully symmetric signal of a local oscillator. This situation can be modeled by the following boundary conditions (see Fig. 2)

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Homodyne detector operation scheme

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{U(0)=Ulocalcosωt+Usignalcosωt,U(L)=Ulocalcosωt+Usignalcos(ωt+θ).

These equations can be rewritten in the form used in Ref [12].

U(0)=Uacosωt,U(L)=Ubcos(ωt+θ˜),
where parameters Ua,Ub and θ˜ can be found from the following equations Ua=Ulocal+Usignal,Ubeiθ˜=Ulocal+Usignaleiθ, From these equations, we find that in the presence of the local oscillator, the phase asymmetry of the incoming signal induces an effective asymmetry of the amplitudes. For UlocalUsignal, we findUa2Ub22UlocalUsignal(1cosθ). We also find UaUbsinθ˜UlocalUsignalsinθ. The calculations analogous to [2,12] yield
{A=ω[(1+γΩΓω)sinh2(ΓLs)(1γΓωΩ)sin2(ΩLs)]2Ug|sin(kL)|2ω2+γ2,B=2ωUg|sin(kL)|2ω2+γ2sinh(ΓLs)sin(ΩLs).
In the resonant regimeωγ,s/Lγ, we find from Eqs. (4) and (17)
VUlocalUsignal2Ug(3γ2/4δω2)(1cosθ)+2(1)Nγδωsinθ(δω2+γ2/4).
As seen, there are two contributions to the response having qualitatively different frequency dependencies in vicinity of plasmonic resonances: the symmetric term, which is proportional to (1cosθ) and the asymmetric term, which is proportional to sinθ. For δω response remains finite. Extracting value of response at δω=,we get
V(δω)V()=UlocalUsignal2UgF(δωγ)
where function
F(x)=1cosθ+2(1)Nxsinθx2+1/4
is plotted in Fig. 3.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Resonant dependence of dimensionless response on the radiation frequency [Eq. (20)] for fundamental plasmonic frequency (N = 1) at different θ (θ/π=0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5) increasing from bottom to the top at negative x.

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As seen from the above calculations, the response depends on the damping rate γ. In particular, in the resonant regime, the asymmetric part of the response, taken at fixed δω, turns to zero for γ0 [see Eqs. (12) and (18)]. On the other hand, resonant response can be written as a dimensionless function of dimensionless parameter δω/γ [see Eqs. (19) and (20)] This means that the amplitude of the resonant response does not depend on γ, which yields additional tool for analyzing the experimental results and comparing them with the theory. In particular, extracting from static I-V curves dependence of γ on temperature T, one can measure the response for different temperatures and plot it as a function of δω/γ(T). The plotted curves for different temperatures should coincide.

4. Calculation of response for various materials

Next, we present the response calculations for different materials. Figures 4-8 show the calculation results for p-diamond FETs, Si NMOS, AlGaN/GaN and InGaAs/InP HEMTs, respectively, for the channel lengths of 25 nm, 65 nm, and 130 nm. We present in these figures the normalized response R=VUg/Ua2sinθ. Table 1 lists the parameters used in the calculation. Scattering rates in the table are taken for room temperature.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Diamond TeraFET normalized response for Ug = 0.1 V and L = 130 nm (a) L = 65 nm (b) and L = 25nm (c).

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Silicon TeraFET normalized response for 130 nm (a), 65 nm (b) and 25nm (c) channel lengths and Ug = 0.1 V.

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 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 AlGaN/GaN TeraFET normalized response for 130 nm (a), 65 nm (b) and 25nm (c) channel lengths and Ug = 0.1 V

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 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 InGaAs/GaAs TeraFET normalized response for 130 nm (a), 65 nm (b) and 25nm (c) channel lengths and Ug = 0.1 V.

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 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Normalized response for different values of the gate voltage (Vg = 0.1 V, 0.2 V and 0.3 V) for 250 nm p-diamond (a) and 130 nm silicon (b) FETs.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Materials parameters

As seen from Fig. 4, the p-diamond FETs should enable room temperature spectroscopy in the sub-THz range. Other materials systems also offer unique capabilities for THz spectroscopy. We also see that the responses for all these materials strongly depend on frequency even for the parameters corresponding to room temperature. In Fig. 8, we show that increasing the gate voltage shifts nodes of the response to higher values in agreement with Eq. (14). Compared to a conventional TeraFET detector, the approach based on the phase induced asymmetry is much easier to control because it eliminates the issues related to the frequency dependent input, output, and load impedances, since it could be realized using identical antennas at the source and drain of a TeraFET. Even silicon TeraFETs seem to be a reasonable option, which allows to interface the TeraFET with inexpensive standard VLSI processing and data acquisition hardware. The results for p-diamond [diamond] confirm a big potential of this material for applications in the 240-320 GHz and 500 to 600 GHz atmospheric windows (the potential frequency ranges for beyond 5G).

For the resonant homodyne regime of operation the response is given by Eqs. (19) and (20) where the values ofγ for different materials are given in Table 1 for room temperature.

5. Conclusions

To conclude, we developed a theory of the phase-asymmetry-induced dc photoresponse in the FET subjected to THz radiation. We found that the response has sharp resonant peaks in vicinity of the plasmonic resonances. The peaks have an asymmetric shape as a function of frequency. We also discussed the homodyne operation with the response being drastically increased by using a strong local oscillator signal. In this case, the response contains two terms with symmetric and asymmetric frequency dependencies. We present detailed calculations of the response for different materials with different mobilities and find sufficiently relaxed conditions for realization of the resonant response. The results of this work can be used for developing compact, tunable spectrometers of the THz radiation.

Funding

U.S. Army Research Laboratory through the Collaborative Research Alliance for Multi-Scale Modeling of Electronic Materials; Office of Naval Research; Foundation for the Advancement of Theoretical Physics “BASIS”; and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (17-02-00217).

References

1. M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996). [CrossRef]  

3. W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004). [CrossRef]  

4. R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006). [CrossRef]  

5. W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002). [CrossRef]  

6. F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006). [CrossRef]  

7. A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006). [CrossRef]  

8. T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(9), 94006 (2014). [CrossRef]  

9. D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

10. C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012). [CrossRef]  

11. K. S. Romanov and M. I. Dyakonov, “Theory of helicity-sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153502 (2013). [CrossRef]  

12. I. V. Gorbenko, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic Helicity-Driven Detector of Terahertz Radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett., 1800464 (2018). [CrossRef]  

13. G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, and M. Shur, “Plasmons in ballistic nanostructures with stubs: transmission line approach” https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.00682, (2018).

14. S. Rumyantsev, X. Liu, V. Kachorovskii, and M. Shur, “Homodyne Phase Sensitive Terahertz Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 121105 (2017). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(9), 94006 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).
  10. C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. S. Romanov and M. I. Dyakonov, “Theory of helicity-sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153502 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. I. V. Gorbenko, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic Helicity-Driven Detector of Terahertz Radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett., 1800464 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, and M. Shur, “Plasmons in ballistic nanostructures with stubs: transmission line approach” https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.00682 , (2018).
  14. S. Rumyantsev, X. Liu, V. Kachorovskii, and M. Shur, “Homodyne Phase Sensitive Terahertz Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 121105 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

S. Rumyantsev, X. Liu, V. Kachorovskii, and M. Shur, “Homodyne Phase Sensitive Terahertz Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 121105 (2017).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(9), 94006 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. S. Romanov and M. I. Dyakonov, “Theory of helicity-sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153502 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

2006 (3)

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boeuf, F.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bollaert, S.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boubanga, S.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boubanga Tombet, S.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brunel, L. C.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cappy, A.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coquillat, D.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Drexler, C.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dyakonov, M.

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyakonov, M. I.

K. S. Romanov and M. I. Dyakonov, “Theory of helicity-sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dyakonova, N.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

El Fatimy, A.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Elkhatib, T.

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

Fareed, Q.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gallon, C.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ganichev, S. D.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaquiere, C.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gavrilenko, V.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gorbenko, I. V.

I. V. Gorbenko, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic Helicity-Driven Detector of Terahertz Radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett., 1800464 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kachorovskii, V.

S. Rumyantsev, X. Liu, V. Kachorovskii, and M. Shur, “Homodyne Phase Sensitive Terahertz Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 121105 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kachorovskii, V. Yu.

I. V. Gorbenko, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic Helicity-Driven Detector of Terahertz Radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett., 1800464 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kachorovskii, V.Yu.

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

Karch, J.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Karpierz, K.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Klimenko, O.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Knap, W.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lifshits, M. B.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

S. Rumyantsev, X. Liu, V. Kachorovskii, and M. Shur, “Homodyne Phase Sensitive Terahertz Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 121105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, J. Q.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lusakowski, J.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maude, D.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maude, D. K.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meziani, Y.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meziani, Y. M.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mityagin, Yu.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muraviev, A.

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

Olbrich, P.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Orlov, M.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Otsuji, T.

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(9), 94006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pala, N.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Popov, V.

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(9), 94006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roelens, Y.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Romanov, K. S.

K. S. Romanov and M. I. Dyakonov, “Theory of helicity-sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rumyantsev, S.

S. Rumyantsev, X. Liu, V. Kachorovskii, and M. Shur, “Homodyne Phase Sensitive Terahertz Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 121105 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ryzhii, V.

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(9), 94006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Salama, K.

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

Saylor, C. A.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schafberger, M.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seliuta, D.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shchepetov, A.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

S. Rumyantsev, X. Liu, V. Kachorovskii, and M. Shur, “Homodyne Phase Sensitive Terahertz Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 121105 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shur, M. S.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. V. Gorbenko, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic Helicity-Driven Detector of Terahertz Radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett., 1800464 (2018).
[Crossref]

Simin, G.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

Skotnicki, T.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tauk, R.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Teppe, F.

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Theron, D.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tiberj, A.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Torres, J.

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Valusis, G.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Veksler, D.

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

Veksler, D. B.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: Responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Teppe, M. Orlov, A. El Fatimy, A. Tiberj, W. Knap, J. Torres, V. Gavrilenko, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, and S. Bollaert, “Room temperature tunable detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in nanometer InGaAs transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 222109 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. S. Romanov and M. I. Dyakonov, “Theory of helicity-sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153502 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Rumyantsev, X. Liu, V. Kachorovskii, and M. Shur, “Homodyne Phase Sensitive Terahertz Spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 121105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, X. Hu, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquiere, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342–1343 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Q. Lu, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. A. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant Detection of Terahertz Radiation in Field Effect Transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Drexler, N. Dyakonova, P. Olbrich, J. Karch, M. Schafberger, K. Karpierz, Yu. Mityagin, M. B. Lifshits, F. Teppe, O. Klimenko, Y. M. Meziani, W. Knap, and S. D. Ganichev, “Helicity sensitive terahertz radiation detection by field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 124504 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Otsuji, V. Popov, and V. Ryzhii, “Active graphene plasmonics for terahertz device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(9), 94006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid State Electron. (1)

D. Veksler, A. Muraviev, V.Yu. Kachorovskii, T. Elkhatib, K. Salama, X.-C. Zhang, and M. Shur, “Imaging of field-effect transistors by focused terahertz radiation,” Solid State Electron. 53, 571–573 (2009).

Other (2)

I. V. Gorbenko, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and M. S. Shur, “Plasmonic Helicity-Driven Detector of Terahertz Radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett., 1800464 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, and M. Shur, “Plasmons in ballistic nanostructures with stubs: transmission line approach” https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.00682 , (2018).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 TeraFET Spectrometer principle of operation: (a) phase shift induced by asymmetric antennas and circularly polarized radiation (b) nonzero incident angle of incoming radiation
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Homodyne detector operation scheme
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Resonant dependence of dimensionless response on the radiation frequency [Eq. (20)] for fundamental plasmonic frequency (N = 1) at different θ ( θ / π = 0.1 , 0.2 , 0.3 , 0.4 , 0.5 ) increasing from bottom to the top at negative x.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Diamond TeraFET normalized response for Ug = 0.1 V and L = 130 nm (a) L = 65 nm (b) and L = 25nm (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Silicon TeraFET normalized response for 130 nm (a), 65 nm (b) and 25nm (c) channel lengths and Ug = 0.1 V.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 AlGaN/GaN TeraFET normalized response for 130 nm (a), 65 nm (b) and 25nm (c) channel lengths and Ug = 0.1 V
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 InGaAs/GaAs TeraFET normalized response for 130 nm (a), 65 nm (b) and 25nm (c) channel lengths and Ug = 0.1 V.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Normalized response for different values of the gate voltage (Vg = 0.1 V, 0.2 V and 0.3 V) for 250 nm p-diamond (a) and 130 nm silicon (b) FETs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Materials parameters

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V U a 2
V U a 2 U b 2 .
V U a 2 sin θ .
V U local U signal [ A ( 1 cos θ ) + B s i n θ ] ,
{ U ( 0 ) = U g + U a cos ( ω t ) , U ( L ) = U g + U a cos ( ω t + θ ) .
v t + v v x + γ v = e m U x ,
U t + ( U v ) x = 0.
n s = C U / e ,
V = β ω U a 2 sin θ 4 U g | sin ( k L ) | 2 ω 2 + γ 2 ,
Ω = ω 4 + ω 2 γ 2 2 + ω 2 2 , Γ = ω 4 + ω 2 γ 2 2 ω 2 2 .
Ω ω , Γ γ 2 , Ω Γ ,
V 4 δ ω γ ( 1 ) N 4 U g ( δ ω 2 + γ 2 / 4 ) U a 2 sin θ ,
ω N 4 + ω N 2 γ 2 2 + ω N 2 2 = π s L N .
ω N = ( π s N L ) 2 ( π s N L ) 2 + γ 2 4 = e π 2 N 2 U g m L 2 e π 2 N 2 U g m L 2 + γ 2 4 { U g , for U g U γ N U g , for U g U γ N ,
{ U ( 0 ) = U l o c a l cos ω t + U s i g n a l cos ω t , U ( L ) = U l o c a l cos ω t + U s i g n a l cos ( ω t + θ ) .
U ( 0 ) = U a cos ω t , U ( L ) = U b cos ( ω t + θ ˜ ) ,
{ A = ω [ ( 1 + γ Ω Γ ω ) s i n h 2 ( Γ L s ) ( 1 γ Γ ω Ω ) s i n 2 ( Ω L s ) ] 2 U g | s i n ( k L ) | 2 ω 2 + γ 2 , B = 2 ω U g | s i n ( k L ) | 2 ω 2 + γ 2 s i n h ( Γ L s ) s i n ( Ω L s ) .
V U l o c a l U s i g n a l 2 U g ( 3 γ 2 / 4 δ ω 2 ) ( 1 cos θ ) + 2 ( 1 ) N γ δ ω sin θ ( δ ω 2 + γ 2 / 4 ) .
V ( δ ω ) V ( ) = U l o c a l U s i g n a l 2 U g F ( δ ω γ )
F ( x ) = 1 cos θ + 2 ( 1 ) N x s i n θ x 2 + 1 / 4

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