Abstract

Chiral metamirror is one of the recently developed metadevices which can reflect designated circularly polarized waves, mimicking the exoskeleton of iridescent green beetles. Here, an optically transparent metamirror that can absorb microwave chiral photons in a broadband spectrum is demonstrated. A coupled mode theory is adopted to reveal the underlying physics for the improved bandwidth performance. Excellent agreements have been observed between numerical and experimental results, indicating a bandwidth for chiral absorption as high as 2.37 GHz. The optical transparence of the resistive patterns and substrate make the designed metamirrors suitable as microwave coatings in front of optical devices, which may find potential applications in cascaded optical systems working for both microwave and optical signals.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Enhancing the absorption of light is of significant importance due to its wide applications in radar cross section reduction [1], photovoltaics [2,3], light detection [4,5], biosensing [6], thermal imaging [7], light emission [8,9], and so forth. The recent rise of metamaterials opens new opportunities to tailor the electric and magnetic responses in subwavelength meta-atoms, leading to ultrathin perfect absorbers from radio to optical frequencies [10,11]. Since its first demonstration [12]. metamaterial-based absorption has been realized by either metallic or dielectric resonators and harvest the incident light over a broad band [13]. Various methods have been investigated to explore wideband absorption, including multiple resonances [14,15]. stacked multilayers [16], lumped elements [17], and nanocomposite structures [18]. Polarization sensitive and insensitive absorbers can be achieved by utilizing isotropic and anisotropic inclusions, respectively.

More recently, chiral metamirror comprised of chiral meta-atoms expands the functionality of metamaterial absorber. Compared with ordinary absorbers, chiral metamirror absorbs specific chiral photons and reflect back those with an opposite handedness. The design principle for chiral absorption is simultaneously breaking the required rotational and mirror symmetries, by using twisted structures [19] or asymmetric metasurfaces [2023]]. The spin-selective absorption of chiral metamirrors provides an extra degree of freedom to design chiroptical devices [21,2426]. For instance, ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that distinguishes circular polarized light can be achieved, by combining chiral plasmonic nanostructures with hot electron injection [27]. By introducing gradient phase discontinuities, chiral beam deflector is capable of anomalously reflecting specific chiral photons while totally absorbing other spin states [28,29]. Independent meta-hologram for one circular polarization has also been developed based on chiral building blocks, providing multiplexing holograms with reduced polarization cross-talk [30]. So far, narrow bandwidth is the major limitation of the metamirror-based chiral absorption. Despite efforts have been spent to improve the bandwidth [31], the physical mechanism of chiral interactions is complicated and chiral absorbers with broadband performance are still urgently needed.

At the same time, optically transparent metamaterials have also attracted intense interest due to its promising electronic applications in scenarios where large light transmittance is required. The routes for optically transparent absorbers include using transparent spacer and resistive films like graphene, Indium tin oxide (ITO) or other conducting oxides [3235]. Compared with traditional metamaterials, optically transparent metamaterials become more promising for advanced electromagnetic devices with both microwave and visible functionalities.

In this paper, we report on a strategy to design optically transparent chiral metamirrors with high-efficiency chiral absorption over a wide microwave band. ITO film with moderate surface resistance is selected as the material for chiral meta-atoms, in order to increase the dissipation rate of a chiral resonator. A coherent coupled mode theory is employed to reveal the underlying mechanism of broadband chiral absorption. By using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol terephthalate (PET) substrates, the fabricated metamirror shows high transparence for visible light. Experimental measurement agrees well with the numerical calculations, showing a single resonant peak in reflection. The bandwidth of the proposed metamirror is as high as 2.37 GHz, nearly 7 times as high as that in copper-based structures.

2. Coupled mode analysis for chiral absorption

We start with the physical mechanism and design principle of chiral metamirror. As we know, typical reflective metamirrors are comprised of periodic meta-atoms upon a metallic substrate, separated by a dielectric spacer. The incident field is absorbed or reradiated while interacting with meta-atoms at the interface. For a planar meta-atom array as depicted in Fig.  1(a), we assume the meta-atoms are illuminated by two coherent waves, with one as the incidence the other as the reflected one from the metallic plane. An equivalent resonance model, as shown in Fig.  1(b), is capable to analyze its scattering properties together with symmetry considerations. $\vec{q} = {[{{q_x},{q_y}} ]^T}$represents the complex oscillation amplitude for different modes. Input fields are described by the amplitude $\vec{a} = {[{{a_{1x}},{a_{2x}},{a_{1y}},{a_{2y}}} ]^T}$, where ${\vec{a}_1} = {[{{a_{1x}},{a_{1y}}} ]^T}$ and ${\vec{a}_2} = {[{{a_{2x}},{a_{2y}}} ]^T}$ indicate those incident waves from the top and the bottom, respectively. The output fields are written as $\vec{b} = {[{{b_{1x}},{b_{2x}},{b_{1y}},{b_{2y}}} ]^T}$, with ${\vec{b}_1} = {[{{b_{1x}},{b_{1y}}} ]^T}$and ${\vec{b}_2} = {[{{b_{2x}},{b_{2y}}} ]^T}$for the waves propagating in + z and -z directions, respectively. The subscripts ‘x’ and ‘y’ represent two linear polarizations. The coupled mode theory (CMT) [3638] can be adopted to describe the wave behavior of this system. The coupled equations are expressed by

$$\boldsymbol{\Omega }\vec{q} = \textbf{K}\vec{a},{\textbf{K}^T}\vec{q} + \textbf{C}\vec{a} = \vec{b},$$
where
$$\boldsymbol{\Omega } = \left( {\begin{array}{cc} { - j{\delta_x} - ({\gamma_x^s + \gamma_x^d} )}&{j\kappa }\\ {j\kappa }&{ - j{\delta_y} - ({\gamma_y^s + \gamma_y^d} )} \end{array}} \right),$$
$$\textbf{K} = \left( {\begin{array}{cc} {\begin{array}{cc} {\sqrt {\gamma_x^s} }&{\sqrt {\gamma_x^s} }\\ 0&0 \end{array}}&{\begin{array}{cc} 0&0\\ {\sqrt {\gamma_y^s} }&{\sqrt {\gamma_y^s} } \end{array}} \end{array}} \right),$$
$$\textbf{C} = \left( {\begin{array}{cc} {{\sigma_1}}&\textbf{0}\\ \textbf{0}&{{\sigma_1}} \end{array}} \right),{\sigma _1} = \left( {\begin{array}{cc} 0&1\\ 1&0 \end{array}} \right),$$

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Coupled mode analysis of coherent illumination on a metasurface. (a) Schematic illustration of a general metasurface under coherent inputs ${\overrightarrow a _1}$ and ${\overrightarrow a _2}$, generating output waves ${\overrightarrow b _1}$ and ${\overrightarrow b _2}$. (b) The equivalent single-port resonator model with the input $\overrightarrow a $ and the output $\overrightarrow b $. $\gamma _{x,y}^s$ is radiative scattering rate, $\gamma _{x,y}^d$ is the dissipation rate, and is the near-field coupling. (c) Calculated reflection spectra for different resonant parameters. Red curves: $\gamma _x^s$ = 0.06 GHz, $\gamma _y^s$ = 3.5 GHz, $\gamma _y^d$=$2\gamma _x^d$ = 0.2 GHz, $\kappa$ = 0.4 GHz. Blue curves: $\gamma _x^s$ = 0.06 GHz, $\gamma _y^s$ = 3.5 GHz, $\gamma _x^d$=$2\gamma _y^d$ = 1 GHz, $\kappa$ = 0.4 GHz. Black curves: $\gamma _x^s$ = 0.6 GHz, $\gamma _y^s$ = 5 GHz, $\gamma _x^d$=$2\gamma _y^d$ = 1 GHz, $\kappa$ = 1.2 GHz. Solid and dashed curves represent ${R_{ +{-} }}$ and ${R_{ -{+} }}$, respect$\kappa $ively.

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where $\gamma _\mu ^s$ ($\mu \in \{{x,y} \}$) is the radiative scattering rate, $\gamma _\mu ^d$ the dissipation rate, ${\delta _\mu } = f - {f_\mu }$ the frequency detuning, ${f_\mu }$ the resonant frequency, and $\kappa$ the near-field coupling for each mode. K describes the coupling between the input (output) fields and the resonant system, C indicates the direct coupling between the input and output fields. From Eq. (1), we can derive the scattering matrix (defined by $\textbf{S}\overrightarrow a = \overrightarrow b $) that relates the input and output fields

$$\textbf{S} = \textbf{C} + {\textbf{K}^T}{\boldsymbol{\Omega }^{ - 1}}\textbf{K}.$$
To enhance the interaction between input fields and meta-atoms, we introduce identical phases for the forward and backward inputs by setting ${\overrightarrow a _1} = {\overrightarrow a _2}$. Such a condition will guarantee the antinode of the standing wave at the meta-atom plane, and thus results in a maximum coupling. Consequently, the output fields propagating in the + z direction can be calculated by
$$\left( {\begin{array}{c} {{b_{1x}}}\\ {{b_{1y}}} \end{array}} \right) = \left( {\begin{array}{cc} {{S_{11}} + {S_{12}}}&{{S_{13}} + {S_{14}}}\\ {{S_{31}} + {S_{32}}}&{{S_{33}} + {S_{34}}} \end{array}} \right)\left( {\begin{array}{c} {{a_{1x}}}\\ {{a_{1y}}} \end{array}} \right) = \textbf{R}\left( {\begin{array}{c} {{a_{1x}}}\\ {{a_{1y}}} \end{array}} \right),$$
R is the linear reflection matrix of the target metamirror, and can be expressed in terms of CMT parameters
$$\textbf{R} = \left( {\begin{array}{cc} {1 + \frac{2}{{\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]}}[{ - j{\delta_y} - ({\gamma_y^s + \gamma_y^d} )} ]\gamma_x^s}&{\frac{2}{{\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]}}\left( { - j\kappa \sqrt {\gamma_x^s\gamma_y^s} } \right)}\\ {\frac{2}{{\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]}}\left( { - j\kappa \sqrt {\gamma_x^s\gamma_y^s} } \right)}&{1 + \frac{2}{{\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]}}[{ - j{\delta_x} - ({\gamma_x^s + \gamma_x^d} )} ]\gamma_y^s} \end{array}} \right),$$
with $\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]= [{j{\delta_x} + ({\gamma_x^s + \gamma_x^d} )} ][{j{\delta_y} + ({\gamma_y^s + \gamma_y^d} )} ]+ {\kappa ^2}$. By transforming it from Cartesian coordinates to the circular base, [25] we can obtain the reflection coefficients for circular polarizations
$${R_{ +{+} }} = 1 - \frac{{[{j{\delta_y} + ({\gamma_y^s + \gamma_y^d} )} ]\gamma _x^s + [{j{\delta_x} + ({\gamma_x^s + \gamma_x^d} )} ]\gamma _y^s}}{{\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]}},$$
$${R_{ +{-} }} = \frac{{ - 2\kappa \sqrt {\gamma _x^s\gamma _y^s} + ({\gamma_x^d\gamma_y^s - \gamma_y^d\gamma_x^s} )+ j({{\delta_x}\gamma_y^s - {\delta_y}\gamma_x^s} )}}{{\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]}},$$
$${R_{ -{+} }} = \frac{{2\kappa \sqrt {\gamma _x^s\gamma _y^s} + ({\gamma_x^d\gamma_y^s - \gamma_y^d\gamma_x^s} )+ j({{\delta_x}\gamma_y^s - {\delta_y}\gamma_x^s} )}}{{\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]}},$$
$${R_{ -{-} }} = 1 - \frac{{[{j{\delta_y} + ({\gamma_y^s + \gamma_y^d} )} ]\gamma _x^s + [{j{\delta_x} + ({\gamma_x^s + \gamma_x^d} )} ]\gamma _y^s}}{{\textrm{Det}[\boldsymbol{\Omega } ]}}.$$
Here, the subscripts ‘+’ and ‘-’ represent circular base of ${[{1, + j} ]^T}$and ${[{1, - j} ]^T}$, respectively. The coordinate-independent co-polarized reflection coefficients (rRR, rLL) and the cross-polarized reflection coefficients (rLR, rRL) can be calculated from above reflection matrix [19,31].

From above equations, we can find that a large frequency detuning can be achieved by increasing $\gamma _\mu ^d$, $\gamma _\mu ^s$ and $\kappa$, so as to improve the bandwidth performance of chiral absorption. To validate this concept, we investigate several parameter combinations, as demonstrated in Fig.  1(c). The resonant frequency is set to fx = fy = 10 GHz. In the first case (red curves), the CMT parameters are selected as $[{\gamma_x^s,\gamma_y^s,\gamma_x^d,\gamma_y^d,\kappa } ]$= [0.06, 3.5, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4] GHz. The corresponding metamirror shows a narrowband chiral absorption mode because of the low dissipation rates. In the second case (blue curves), the dissipation rates are increased to $[{\gamma_x^d,\gamma_y^d} ]$ = [1,0.5] GHz while keeping other parameters unchanged. At this point, the bandwidth of the resonant mode becomes large yet the efficiency of the chiral absorption declines. In the third case (black curves), larger radiative scattering rates and stronger coupling effect are adopted, with the new values of $[{\gamma_x^s,\gamma_y^s} ]$ as [0.6, 5.0] GHz and $\kappa$as 1.2 GHz. Consequently, the circular dichroism grows again over a broadband frequency range. Therefore, significant increase on the radiative scattering rates, the dissipation rates, and the coupling strength is greatly helpful for building broadband and highly efficient chiral metamirrors.

3. Designer broadband chiral metamirror

Following the theoretical analysis presented above, we next design a broadband chiral metamirror. Since the key point is to design meta-atoms with large dissipation rates, we choose a highly lossy conductive material, such as ITO, instead of copper. Compared with copper, ITO film has larger resistance and shows transparency to the visible light, serving as an ideal platform for broadband and optically transparent metamirrors. Two optimized devices and their electromagnetic performance are illustrated in Fig.  2. The first metamirror is comprised of copper-based meta-atoms, as shown in Fig.  2(a). Each unit cell is a cubic with the lattice constant of 8.8 mm and its total thickness is 2.9 mm. The dimensions of the asymmetric split-ring resonator are l = 5.5 mm, k = 2.91 mm, w = 1 mm, g = 1 mm. Copper is selected as the conductive material with the conductivity of 5×107 S/m and its thickness dCu = 0.105 mm. The thickness of FR4 spacer is 2.7 mm, with the relative permittivity of 4.2 and the loss tangent of 0.025, copper background is located at the bottom.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Designer chiral metamirrors. (a) A unit cell of the copper-based metamirror. (b,c) The corresponding absorption and reflection spectra. (d) The designer ITO metamirror. (e,f) The corresponding absorption and reflection spectra.

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The second metamirror is designed with ITO resonators, as shown in Fig.  2(d). Compared with copper, ITO not only has bigger impedance but also has excellent optical transparency. The lattice constant is 9.4 mm and the total thickness H = 3.9 mm. It consists of two ITO-PET film layers and a PMMA layer between them. The surface impedance of ITO-PET film layers is 5Ω/sq and the permittivity of PET is 3, the thickness of ITO-PET layer dPET = 0.175mm. The thickness of the PMMA spacer dPMMA = 3.6 mm and its permeability is 2.25. The geometry parameters of the ITO resonator are l1=8.4 mm, k1 = 4.7 mm, w1 = 1.0 mm, g1 = 2.0 mm.

In order to show the different absorption and reflection spectra of the two chiral metamirrors, we have performed a full-band simulation by using CST Microwave Studio. Chiral metamirror has different responses to left-handed (LCP) and right-handed circularly polarized (RCP) waves. Circular dichroism (CD) has been calculated to describe the chiral performance (CD = ALCP – ARCP), where ALCP(RCP) refers the absorption of LCP (RCP) waves. Usually, metamirrors can have a good performance of manipulating polarized wave when CD is larger than 0.5, so we define the bandwidth (BW) as the frequency range where CD is larger than 0.5. As shown in Fig.  2(b), the BW of the copper-based chiral metamirror is about 0.327 GHz, with the maximum absorption reaching 99.7%. Meanwhile, the absorption of RCP waves is pretty low, and it is suppressed lower than 20% in a fairly wide band. In the Fig.  2(c), we can see that for the RCP incidence, the metallic metamirror has a good reflection ability and the ratio of polarization conversion is high. As shown in Fig.  2(e), the BW of the ITO chiral metamirror is about 2.37 GHz, which is much larger than that of the metallic one. The maximum absorption of LCP waves approaches nearly 100%. Meanwhile, the absorption of RCP waves is kept less than 30% over a wide frequency range. In Fig.  2(f), we can see that under RCP incidence, the ITO metamirror has low absorption, reflecting back the waves without changing the handedness. Compared with the copper-based metamirror, ITO metamirror has a broader chiral band 7 times as large as that of a copper-based one. It means that the utilization of high impedance materials is capable of increasing the bandwidth of metamirrors.

We have employed a particle swarm optimization to fit the coupled mode parameters. As shown in Fig.  3, the fitted curves match well with the simulation results. According to the CMT model, we calculated the parameters of two metamirrors, as shown in the Table  1. From the table, we can find that ITO metamirror has larger radiative scattering rates, dissipation rates and near-field coupling, in consistence with previous prediction. In our design, copper is selected as the conductive material with the conductivity of 5×107 S/m and the thickness 0.105 mm. The square resistance of copper sheet is thus 1.64×10−4 Ω/sq. As a comparison, ITO has a large square resistance of 5 Ω/sq. This is the main reason why ITO chiral metamirror has a wider bandwidth than the copper-based one. It indicates that CMT model provides a promising way to improve the bandwidth of the metamirror. Furthermore, ITO film also could provide good optical transparency. In Fig.  4, we have plotted the time-dependent Ez field distributions of two metamirrors at the plane 0.01 mm below the top layer of each metamirror. The monitor frequency is 10.096 GHz, T is one period of time. For the copper metamirror, the Ez field strength under LCP incidence is stronger than that under RCP incidence. This mode behavior is consistent with the chiral absorption performance, that is, LCP waves are dissipated more efficiently by the induced conducting current in the meta-atoms. Interestingly, the ASRR creates an asymmetric electric dipolar resonance and an asymmetric quadrupole resonance under RCP and LCP incidences, respectively. For the ITO metamirror, the Ez fields of two resonant modes have smaller magnitude discrepancies, indicating smaller CD maximum yet broader bandwidth performance. The LCP mode still behaves as an asymmetric quadrupole resonance.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Comparison between coupled mode predictions and simulation results. (a) reflection spectra for copper-based metamirror. (b) reflection spectra for ITO metamirror.

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 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Time-dependent Ez field distributions of two metamirrors under circular polarization illuminations. (a) Copper-based metamirror. (b) ITO-based metamirror. The frequency is 10.096 GHz, the electric field is calculated at the plane 0.01 mm below the top layer of each metamirror.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. CMT parameters of two kinds of metamirror (unit: GHz)

In order to verify our results experimentally, based on the laser etching process, we made an ITO chiral metamirror with the dimension of 200 mm × 200 mm, consisting of 400 cells. The experimental setup includes an Agilent vector network analyzer and two broadband microwave antennas. Microwave absorbing foams were placed around the sample to reduce the scattering at the edge of the measuring platform. As shown in Fig.  5(a), our antennas are linearly polarized one, so we need change the experimental results into circular basis and obtain the cicular reflection matrix. The photograph of a fabricated sample in Fig.  5(b) shows that the metamirror is highly transparent to the visible light. We have used a UV-2450 spectrophotometer to measure the visible transmission spectra of two homogeneous samples: one PMMA slab with a single-layer ITO film and another PMMA slab with ITO films on both sides. The measured results of these two samples can describe the optical transparency performance of two regions of the metamirror: the region without meta-atoms and the region with meta-atoms. The results are plotted as the red and blue curves in Fig.  5(c). Then the transmission spectrum of the ITO metamirror is calculated by considering the filling ratio of two structures. The black curve in Fig.  5(c) shows that the transmittance of the ITO metamirror is more than 50% in the wavelength range of 400 nm -700 nm. It implies that the ITO metamirror can be used not only in the microwave range, but also compatible with optical devices.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Experimental verification. (a) Schematic of the measurement setup with linear antennas. (b) The photograph of the fabricated sample with high optical transparency and its partial enlarged detail (the inset), with a logo of Shandong University located at the bottom. (c) The transmittance spectra from 400 nm to 700 nm of three ITO structures. Red curve: a homogeneous ITO/PET/PMMA slab. Blue curve: a homogenous ITO/PET/PMMA/PET/ITO slab. Black curve: the ITO metamirror. (d) Measured absorption spectra. (e) Measured reflection coefficients.

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The measured absorption and reflection spectra are illustrated in Fig.  5(d) and 5(e). The bandwidth of circular dichorism is about 2.51 GHz. For LCP waves, the absorption is higher than 70% from 8 GHz to 11 GHz. For RCP waves, however, the absorption rate is kept less than 30%, and the metamirror provides a large ratio of reflected RCP to LCP waves over a wide bandwidth. At specific frequencies, the absorption of the sample to LCP waves is slightly smaller than the simulation. However, the experimental results are still in good agreement with the simulation.

In practical applications, angular sensitivity is an important feature. We further investigate the performance of the metamirror at different angles. Figure  6(a) shows the absorption spectra of the chiral metamirror at the 20° incidence. Here, the red curves represent the absorption spectra for LCP waves, while the blue curves correspond to the RCP counterparts. The BW of the metamirror is still quite wide when the angle of incidence is 20°, which is about 2.47 GHz, with the maximum absorption reaching 99.5%. As shown in Fig.  6(b), when the angle of incidence increases from 20° to 40°, the BW is narrower than before, which is about 1.5 GHz. but the contrast between LCP waves and RCP waves still remains high with the maximum absorption is 93%. We can see that it still has a broadband characteristic when the incidence angle is 40°. The measured results are shown in Fig.  6(c) and Fig.  6(d) respectively, due to the inaccurate fabrication of the sample, there are some differences between the measured absorption spectra and the simulation one, but it shows that the ITO metamirror still has a good circular polarization control effect when the waves income at oblique angles.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Optical responses of the chiral metamirror at oblique incidences. Simulated absorption spectra at (a) θ = 20°, and (b) θ = 40°. Measured results for (c) θ = 20°, and (d) θ = 40°.

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4. Conclusion

In summary, we have proposed a coherent coupled mode theory to study the chiral absorption of metamirrors. The established model reveals the underlying mechanism for the bandwidth performance and provides a guidance in the design of broadband chiral metamirrors. As an experimental verification, a chiral metamirror composed of ITO meta-atoms, PMMA and PET spacers has been demonstrated in the microwave region, with much boarder bandwidth of chiral absorption. Furthermore, the designer metamirror is highly transparent to visible light and could be suitable in cascading with optical devices. Our study may provide a theoretical guidance to the design of broadband metamirrors, and open up an alternative way towards microwave chiral devices with optical transparency.

Funding

National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFB2200703); National Natural Science Foundation of China (61801267, 61801268); Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2018QF001); Fundamental Research Fund of Shandong University (2017TB0014); Young Scholars Program of Shandong University.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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25. Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27(41), 412001 (2016). [CrossRef]  

26. Z. Li, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Strong circular dichroism in chiral plasmonic metasurfaces optimized by micro-genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 27(20), 28313–28323 (2019). [CrossRef]  

27. W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015). [CrossRef]  

28. L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017). [CrossRef]  

29. Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Spin-controlled wavefront shaping with plasmonic chiral geometric metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 84 (2018). [CrossRef]  

30. Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018). [CrossRef]  

31. L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017). [CrossRef]  

32. T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014). [CrossRef]  

33. C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017). [CrossRef]  

34. J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018). [CrossRef]  

35. S. Zhong, L. Wu, T. Liu, J. Huang, W. Jiang, and Y. Ma, “Transparent transmission-selective radar-infrared bi-stealth structure,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16466–16476 (2018). [CrossRef]  

36. M. Kang and Y. D. Chong, “Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface,” Phys. Rev. A 92(4), 043826 (2015). [CrossRef]  

37. S. Fan, W. Suh, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Temporal coupled-mode theory for the Fano resonance in optical resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(3), 569–572 (2003). [CrossRef]  

38. M. Kang, J. Chen, and Y. Chong, “Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 94(3), 033834 (2016). [CrossRef]  

References

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  5. F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
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  6. D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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  8. J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
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  9. M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
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  11. P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
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  12. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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  13. C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
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  14. W. Ma, Y. Wen, and X. Yu, “Broadband metamaterial absorber at mid-infrared using multiplexed cross resonators,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30724–30730 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Ding, J. Dai, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Jin, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39445 (2016).
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  16. F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. Wang, H. Jia, K. Yao, W. Cai, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Circular dichroism metamirrors with near-perfect extinction,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2096–2101 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. E. Plum and N. I. Zheludev, “Chiral mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221901 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “3D Janus plasmonic helical nanoapertures for polarization-encrypted data storage,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 45 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Chen, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Chiral metamaterials of plasmonic slanted nanoapertures with symmetry breaking,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 520–527 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  25. Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27(41), 412001 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. Z. Li, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Strong circular dichroism in chiral plasmonic metasurfaces optimized by micro-genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 27(20), 28313–28323 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Spin-controlled wavefront shaping with plasmonic chiral geometric metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 84 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  30. Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  31. L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. Zhong, L. Wu, T. Liu, J. Huang, W. Jiang, and Y. Ma, “Transparent transmission-selective radar-infrared bi-stealth structure,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16466–16476 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Kang and Y. D. Chong, “Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface,” Phys. Rev. A 92(4), 043826 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. Fan, W. Suh, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Temporal coupled-mode theory for the Fano resonance in optical resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(3), 569–572 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. Kang, J. Chen, and Y. Chong, “Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 94(3), 033834 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2019 (4)

P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “3D Janus plasmonic helical nanoapertures for polarization-encrypted data storage,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 45 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Strong circular dichroism in chiral plasmonic metasurfaces optimized by micro-genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 27(20), 28313–28323 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Spin-controlled wavefront shaping with plasmonic chiral geometric metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 84 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Chiral metamaterials of plasmonic slanted nanoapertures with symmetry breaking,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 520–527 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Zhong, L. Wu, T. Liu, J. Huang, W. Jiang, and Y. Ma, “Transparent transmission-selective radar-infrared bi-stealth structure,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16466–16476 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Z. Wang, H. Jia, K. Yao, W. Cai, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Circular dichroism metamirrors with near-perfect extinction,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2096–2101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27(41), 412001 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Polman, M. Knight, E. C. Garnett, B. Ehrler, and W. C. Sinke, “Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges,” Science 352(6283), aad4424 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, J. Dai, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Jin, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39445 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kang, J. Chen, and Y. Chong, “Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 94(3), 033834 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Kang and Y. D. Chong, “Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface,” Phys. Rev. A 92(4), 043826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Plum and N. I. Zheludev, “Chiral mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221901 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

W. Ma, Y. Wen, and X. Yu, “Broadband metamaterial absorber at mid-infrared using multiplexed cross resonators,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30724–30730 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3664–3670 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Abdelaziz, R.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bernardi, M.

M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3664–3670 (2013).
[Crossref]

Besteiro, L. V.

P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, J. Dai, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Jin, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

Z. Wang, H. Jia, K. Yao, W. Cai, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Circular dichroism metamirrors with near-perfect extinction,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2096–2101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chakravadhanula, V. S. K.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, K. Yao, W. Cai, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Circular dichroism metamirrors with near-perfect extinction,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2096–2101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

M. Kang, J. Chen, and Y. Chong, “Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 94(3), 033834 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “3D Janus plasmonic helical nanoapertures for polarization-encrypted data storage,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 45 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Chiral metamaterials of plasmonic slanted nanoapertures with symmetry breaking,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 520–527 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Spin-controlled wavefront shaping with plasmonic chiral geometric metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 84 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, J. Dai, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Jin, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, F.

Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27(41), 412001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chong, Y.

M. Kang, J. Chen, and Y. Chong, “Chiral exceptional points in metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 94(3), 033834 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chong, Y. D.

M. Kang and Y. D. Chong, “Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface,” Phys. Rev. A 92(4), 043826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coppens, Z. J.

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Czaplewski, D. A.

Dai, J.

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F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
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C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
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C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
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Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “3D Janus plasmonic helical nanoapertures for polarization-encrypted data storage,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 45 (2019).
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A. Polman, M. Knight, E. C. Garnett, B. Ehrler, and W. C. Sinke, “Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges,” Science 352(6283), aad4424 (2016).
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F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
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M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
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W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
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M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3664–3670 (2013).
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T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
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M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
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Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
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L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
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F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
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M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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Huang, W.

C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
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P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
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T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
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Jin, Y.

F. Ding, J. Dai, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Jin, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39445 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

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L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
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M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knight, M.

A. Polman, M. Knight, E. C. Garnett, B. Ehrler, and W. C. Sinke, “Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges,” Science 352(6283), aad4424 (2016).
[Crossref]

Knight, M. W.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref]

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E. F. Knott, J. F. Schaeffer, and M. T. Tulley, Radar cross section (SciTech Publishing, 2004).

Ko, C.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Limaj, O.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

Liu, X. L.

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27(41), 412001 (2016).
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Z. Wang, H. Jia, K. Yao, W. Cai, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Circular dichroism metamirrors with near-perfect extinction,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2096–2101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

Ma, Y.

Maturi, R.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

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M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref]

Niu, C.

C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
[Crossref]

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M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref]

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C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Palummo, M.

M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3664–3670 (2013).
[Crossref]

Plum, E.

Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
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E. Plum and N. I. Zheludev, “Chiral mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221901 (2015).
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Polman, A.

A. Polman, M. Knight, E. C. Garnett, B. Ehrler, and W. C. Sinke, “Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges,” Science 352(6283), aad4424 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pruneri, V.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ra’di, Y.

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramanathan, S.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ran, L.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rodrigo, D.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rosenmann, D.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schaeffer, J. F.

E. F. Knott, J. F. Schaeffer, and M. T. Tulley, Radar cross section (SciTech Publishing, 2004).

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J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y. J.

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sinke, W. C.

A. Polman, M. Knight, E. C. Garnett, B. Ehrler, and W. C. Sinke, “Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges,” Science 352(6283), aad4424 (2016).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect Metamaterial Absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

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M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
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Tan, H. H.

P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
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J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
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M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
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Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
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E. F. Knott, J. F. Schaeffer, and M. T. Tulley, Radar cross section (SciTech Publishing, 2004).

Valentine, J.

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
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Wang, H.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
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Wang, W.

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
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Wang, Z.

C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27(41), 412001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, K. Yao, W. Cai, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Circular dichroism metamirrors with near-perfect extinction,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2096–2101 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watts, C. M.

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, Y.

Wiederrecht, G. P.

P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
[Crossref]

Winsor, T.

Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27(41), 412001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.

Xu, K.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “3D Janus plasmonic helical nanoapertures for polarization-encrypted data storage,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 45 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Strong circular dichroism in chiral plasmonic metasurfaces optimized by micro-genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 27(20), 28313–28323 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Chiral metamaterials of plasmonic slanted nanoapertures with symmetry breaking,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 520–527 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Spin-controlled wavefront shaping with plasmonic chiral geometric metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 84 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yao, K.

Z. Wang, H. Jia, K. Yao, W. Cai, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Circular dichroism metamirrors with near-perfect extinction,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2096–2101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ye, D.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, W.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

Youn, H.

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Zaporojtchenko, V.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum and N. I. Zheludev, “Chiral mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, B.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhong, S.

Zhu, J.

F. Ding, J. Dai, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Jin, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39445 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

Z. Wang, H. Jia, K. Yao, W. Cai, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Circular dichroism metamirrors with near-perfect extinction,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2096–2101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5410–5414 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. Wang, “Broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800995 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

E. Plum and N. I. Zheludev, “Chiral mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221901 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Niu, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Huang, and X. Li, “Spatially dispersive dichroism in bianisotropic metamirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(26), 261102 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “An optically transparent metasurface for broadband microwave antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 073504 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, Y. Liu, and H. Chen, “Chiral metamirrors for broadband spin-selective absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(23), 231103 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, and E. Li, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (3)

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Spin-controlled wavefront shaping with plasmonic chiral geometric metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 84 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. Plum, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Reflective chiral meta-holography: multiplexing holograms for circularly polarized waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 25 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “3D Janus plasmonic helical nanoapertures for polarization-encrypted data storage,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 45 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

Y. Chen, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Chiral metamaterials of plasmonic slanted nanoapertures with symmetry breaking,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 520–527 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Bernardi, M. Palummo, and J. C. Grossman, “Extraordinary sunlight absorption and one nanometer thick photovoltaics using two-dimensional monolayer materials,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3664–3670 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared Perfect Absorber and Its Application As Plasmonic Sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27(41), 412001 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8379 (2015).
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Phys. Rev. A (2)

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Phys. Rev. Appl. (2)

C. Niu, Z. Wang, J. Zhao, L. Du, N. Liu, Y. Liu, and X. Li, “Photonic Heterostructures for Spin-Flipped Beam Splitting,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(4), 044009 (2019).
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Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
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D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband Dispersion Control of a Metamaterial Surface for Perfectly-Matched-Layer-Like Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

F. Ding, J. Dai, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Jin, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39445 (2016).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. De Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Coupled mode analysis of coherent illumination on a metasurface. (a) Schematic illustration of a general metasurface under coherent inputs ${\overrightarrow a _1}$ and ${\overrightarrow a _2}$, generating output waves ${\overrightarrow b _1}$ and ${\overrightarrow b _2}$. (b) The equivalent single-port resonator model with the input $\overrightarrow a $ and the output $\overrightarrow b $. $\gamma _{x,y}^s$ is radiative scattering rate, $\gamma _{x,y}^d$ is the dissipation rate, and is the near-field coupling. (c) Calculated reflection spectra for different resonant parameters. Red curves: $\gamma _x^s$ = 0.06 GHz, $\gamma _y^s$ = 3.5 GHz, $\gamma _y^d$=$2\gamma _x^d$ = 0.2 GHz, $\kappa$ = 0.4 GHz. Blue curves: $\gamma _x^s$ = 0.06 GHz, $\gamma _y^s$ = 3.5 GHz, $\gamma _x^d$=$2\gamma _y^d$ = 1 GHz, $\kappa$ = 0.4 GHz. Black curves: $\gamma _x^s$ = 0.6 GHz, $\gamma _y^s$ = 5 GHz, $\gamma _x^d$=$2\gamma _y^d$ = 1 GHz, $\kappa$ = 1.2 GHz. Solid and dashed curves represent ${R_{ +{-} }}$ and ${R_{ -{+} }}$, respect$\kappa $ively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Designer chiral metamirrors. (a) A unit cell of the copper-based metamirror. (b,c) The corresponding absorption and reflection spectra. (d) The designer ITO metamirror. (e,f) The corresponding absorption and reflection spectra.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison between coupled mode predictions and simulation results. (a) reflection spectra for copper-based metamirror. (b) reflection spectra for ITO metamirror.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Time-dependent Ez field distributions of two metamirrors under circular polarization illuminations. (a) Copper-based metamirror. (b) ITO-based metamirror. The frequency is 10.096 GHz, the electric field is calculated at the plane 0.01 mm below the top layer of each metamirror.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental verification. (a) Schematic of the measurement setup with linear antennas. (b) The photograph of the fabricated sample with high optical transparency and its partial enlarged detail (the inset), with a logo of Shandong University located at the bottom. (c) The transmittance spectra from 400 nm to 700 nm of three ITO structures. Red curve: a homogeneous ITO/PET/PMMA slab. Blue curve: a homogenous ITO/PET/PMMA/PET/ITO slab. Black curve: the ITO metamirror. (d) Measured absorption spectra. (e) Measured reflection coefficients.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Optical responses of the chiral metamirror at oblique incidences. Simulated absorption spectra at (a) θ = 20°, and (b) θ = 40°. Measured results for (c) θ = 20°, and (d) θ = 40°.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. CMT parameters of two kinds of metamirror (unit: GHz)

Equations (11)

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Ω q = K a , K T q + C a = b ,
Ω = ( j δ x ( γ x s + γ x d ) j κ j κ j δ y ( γ y s + γ y d ) ) ,
K = ( γ x s γ x s 0 0 0 0 γ y s γ y s ) ,
C = ( σ 1 0 0 σ 1 ) , σ 1 = ( 0 1 1 0 ) ,
S = C + K T Ω 1 K .
( b 1 x b 1 y ) = ( S 11 + S 12 S 13 + S 14 S 31 + S 32 S 33 + S 34 ) ( a 1 x a 1 y ) = R ( a 1 x a 1 y ) ,
R = ( 1 + 2 Det [ Ω ] [ j δ y ( γ y s + γ y d ) ] γ x s 2 Det [ Ω ] ( j κ γ x s γ y s ) 2 Det [ Ω ] ( j κ γ x s γ y s ) 1 + 2 Det [ Ω ] [ j δ x ( γ x s + γ x d ) ] γ y s ) ,
R + + = 1 [ j δ y + ( γ y s + γ y d ) ] γ x s + [ j δ x + ( γ x s + γ x d ) ] γ y s Det [ Ω ] ,
R + = 2 κ γ x s γ y s + ( γ x d γ y s γ y d γ x s ) + j ( δ x γ y s δ y γ x s ) Det [ Ω ] ,
R + = 2 κ γ x s γ y s + ( γ x d γ y s γ y d γ x s ) + j ( δ x γ y s δ y γ x s ) Det [ Ω ] ,
R = 1 [ j δ y + ( γ y s + γ y d ) ] γ x s + [ j δ x + ( γ x s + γ x d ) ] γ y s Det [ Ω ] .

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