Abstract

We report III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with buried tunnel junction (BTJ) contacts. To form the BTJs, GaN TJ contacts were etched away outside the aperture followed by n-GaN regrowth for current spreading. Under pulsed operation, a BTJ VCSEL with a 14 µm diameter aperture showed a lasing wavelength of 430 nm, a threshold current of ∼20 mA (12 kA/cm2), and a maximum output power of 2.8 mW. Under CW operation, an 8 µm aperture VCSEL showed a differential efficiency of 11% and a peak output power of ∼0.72 mW.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been studied because of many advantages, such as low threshold current, small device size, high-speed modulation, and circular beam profile with small divergence angle [13]. GaN-based VCSELs have great potential for applications that require wavelengths from ultraviolet to green, including optical communications, sensors, projectors, and displays [35]. However, the device performance is limited by many challenges, such as fabricating highly reflective mirrors, achieving vertical and lateral carrier confinement, and obtaining efficient lateral current spreading [6]. Several groups have demonstrated various structures to improve the maximum output power through increasing lateral optical confinement and reducing internal loss [714]. For example, to reduce optical loss caused by transparent conductive oxide (TCO), a GaN tunnel junction (TJ) contact and an n-GaN current spreading layer has been employed [12,15,16]. Thus far, GaN-based TJ VCSELs have only been demonstrated with an ion implanted current aperture design, which can lead to additional optical loss when the mode overlaps with the ion implanted area [9]. In the GaAs-based material system, oxide apertures have led to a leap in VCSEL performance but are difficult to apply to GaN-based VCSELs [3,17].

Buried tunnel junctions (BTJs) are a promising alternative for defining current apertures and have been demonstrated in InP- and GaAs-based VCSELs [1,3] and in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) [1820]. A BTJ can be achieved by selectively etching the highly doped n++- and p++-type layers outside the aperture and then covering the remaining p-type layer with a lightly doped n-type material in the next epitaxial growth. Therefore, a blocking pn-junction layer can be formed outside the BTJ, while within the BTJ area the p++n++-junction has a low resistance due to tunnel effects. Applying an equal bias to both the BTJ and the blocking layer results in an effective lateral current confinement to the BTJ region [3]. Moreover, the n-type layer regrowth can be performed so that the thickness difference due to the etching of the TJ outer region is maintained up to the upper epitaxial layer. This difference can enhance lateral optical confinement when the resonance wavelength inside the BTJ region is longer than the outside [3,21,22]. In addition, BTJ structures do not sacrifice thermal conductivity unlike other aperture designs that use thermally resistive materials such as dielectric, oxide, and air-gap apertures [3,11,23]. Despite those benefits, it has not previously been demonstrated for GaN-based VCSELs because of difficulties to form effective TJ contacts.

In this letter, we report the first GaN-based VCSELs with BTJ current apertures. BTJs were formed by etching the TJ contacts outside of apertures followed by n-GaN regrowth for current spreading. A 14 µm BTJ VCSEL showed a maximum output power of 2.8 mW at a lasing wavelength of 430 nm under pulsed operation, and an 8 µm BTJ VCSEL showed a peak output power of 0.72 mW with a differential efficiency of 11% under continuous-wave (CW) operation. High current confinement was maintained to over 8 volts.

2. Experimental methods

Figure 1 shows the epitaxial structure of a fabricated flip-chip nonpolar VCSEL with a BTJ contact. The nonpolar device would be expected to have good electron-hole wave function overlap even with a thick quantum well (QW) without quantum-confined Stark effect [16,2426] and to give smooth surface morphology after substrate removal using photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching [27]. The main epitaxial structure with an active 28 nm single QW ending with p++-GaN was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a bulk nonpolar m-plane GaN substrate with an intentional -1˚ miscut in the c-direction, as described in Table 1. This structure was designed to place a null of a cavity mode at the highly doped TJ contacts to reduce internal loss, which is similar as the previously reported paper [15]. The doping concentrations and thicknesses in Table 1 were calculated based on secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement on test structures, but it might differ due to variation of MOCVD growth and Mg clustering effect [28]. After the first growth, the surface of p++-GaN was treated with buffered HF for 5 min to reduce a Mg-rich film. This cleaning was followed by 10 nm n++-GaN regrowth to form TJ contacts [15,29]. After the second growth, the surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), which showed a root mean square (RMS) value of 2 nm and ridge-like surface features along the a-direction as shown in Fig. 2(a). Then, ∼40 nm GaN, including p++- and n++-GaN layers, outside of the apertures was etched to form a current blocking layer by reactive ion etching (RIE) with Cl2 gas. Next, Al ion implantation (dose: 1015 cm−3, energy: 10 keV) was performed to protect the active layer during PEC undercut etching [30,31], to prevent sidewall leakage, and to reduce current leakage passing through the lightly doped pn-junction at high voltages [32]. As shown in Fig. 1, the implantation was kept 8 µm away from the BTJ apertures to avoid optical loss caused by mode overlap with the implanted GaN layer. Next, n-type GaN layers starting with lightly doped n-GaN were regrown by MOCVD for current spreading while forming a current blocking layer outside TJ contacts. A mesa etch was then performed by RIE followed by deposition of a 17 period Ta2O5/SiO2 distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). After Ti/Au metal contact deposition, flip-chip bonding was carried out on a sapphire carrier coated with Ti/Ni/Au/In. The GaN substrate was then removed by PEC etching of a sacrificial MQW (3 × InGaN/GaN). Then, Ti/Au was deposited after RIE etching with SiCl4 gas for 5 sec to improve n-contact [33]. Finally, a 12 period Ta2O5/SiO2 DBR with a Ta2O5 spacer was deposited next to n-GaN. As shown in Fig. 2(b), it was observed that the thickness difference from aperture etching remained after the n-GaN regrowth and propagated through the bottom DBR.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic of a flip-chip buried tunnel junction (BTJ) VCSEL with dual dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs).

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 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) A surface roughness measured after n++-GaN regrowth and (b) a cross-section image of a BTJ VCSEL taken using a focused ion beam (FIB). The RMS roughness was ∼2 nm.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Epitaxial structure grown on m-plane GaN substrate for BTJ VCSELs. (EBL: electron blocking layer, UID: unintentionally doped, SQW: single quantum well, MQW: multiple quantum well)

3. Results and discussion

The light-current-voltage (LIV) characteristics of a 14 µm BTJ VCSEL were analyzed under pulsed operation with a pulse width of 500 ns and a duty cycle of 0.5% at room temperature, as demonstrated in Fig. 3. The threshold current density (Jth) and voltage (Vth) were 12 kA/cm2 and 9.8 V, respectively. The device was measured up to a current of 100 mA which gave an output power (Pmax) of 2.8 mW at 66 kA/cm2. The differential efficiency (ηd) was 2.8% at a current density of 12 kA/cm2. Pmax and ηd were higher than previously reported GaN-based TJ VCSELs with Al ion implanted apertures [11,15,16]. We believe that the major improvement was achieved by reducing the optical loss caused by Al ion implantation and increasing lateral optical confinement. Nevertheless, the threshold current density was somewhat similar to VCSELs with ion implanted apertures [15,16]. This may be because the lasing wavelength of 430 nm was misaligned by ∼20 nm with the peak wavelength of spontaneous emission at ∼410 nm. We believe that other longitudinal modes shorter than the lasing wavelength did not appear due to high optical losses caused by absorption from the GaN [34] and scattering [16].

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. LIV characteristics of a 14 µm diameter aperture VCSEL measured under pulsed operation up to a current of 100 mA. An inset shows the spontaneous emission (dashed line) and lasing (solid line) spectra measured before and after the VCSEL processing, respectively.

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Figure 4 shows near-field images of lasing VCSELs with various aperture sizes taken by a microscope camera. Fundamental transverse mode operation was not observed in any of devices. The relative refractive index difference (Δneff/neff) is calculated to be ∼4% (Δneff/neff ≈ Δλ/λ), where Δλ is the difference in resonance wavelength outside and inside the BTJ region [3,7,21,22]. Thus, this high index difference is likely to cause a strong index guiding which can support high order modes. However, the lasing modes generally did not follow typical linearly-polarized (LP) modes of a circular aperture design but were probably dictated by rough surface morphology as shown in Fig. 2(a) [7,11]. A smooth surface and well calculated etch depth to control the refractive index step will be needed for fundamental mode lasing.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Near field images of various BTJ VCSELs taken under pulsed operation. All images were aligned in the same crystallographic direction.

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Next, an 8 µm BTJ VCSEL was measured under CW operation as shown in Fig. 5. The device started to lase at a Jth of 10 kA/cm2 and a Vth of 7.2 V which rolled over at a current density of 25 kA/cm2 at a voltage of 8.2 V. The device lased up to a Pmax of 0.72 mW with a ηd of 11%, which were higher than those previously demonstrated for TJ VCSELs using ion implanted apertures (a Pmax of 0.14 mW with a ηd of 1.1%) [35]. This improved performance is likely due to lower optical loss outside the aperture than the ion implant aperture design. However, this device with TJ contacts completely grown by MOCVD showed a turn on voltage (Von) of ∼4.2 V with a differential resistivity (ρd) of 6.67×10−5 Ω·cm2 after lasing, which is higher than VCSELs employing MOCVD/molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) hybrid TJ growth (a Von of ∠ 4 V and a ρd of ∼1×10−5 Ω·cm2) [16,35]. The resistance of the TJ contacts might be higher due to the p++-GaN deactivation during the n++-GaN MOCVD regrowth [15]. This high operating voltage leads to increased device temperature and limits the maximum output power. The TJ contacts can be improved using lateral activation for the p++-GaN layer when the sidewall is exposed to air after the aperture etching step [36]. However, a method preventing the p++-GaN layer from being deactivated during the next regrowth step must be considered. In addition, a thicker n-GaN layer especially on the p-side may improve current spreading and thermal dissipation, but it may cause multiple longitudinal modes by reducing the mode spacing [35].

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. LIV characteristics of an 8 µm diameter aperture VCSEL measured under CW operation.

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To analyze the breakdown voltage of the pn-junction current blocking layer, test structures without TJ contacts and DBRs were processed along with the BTJ VCSELs as illustrated in the inset in Fig. 6. The p++/n++-GaN layer in the test structure was etched off during the aperture etch step. As shown in Fig. 6, the current started flowing through the current blocking layer at ∼8 V under CW operation which was slightly lower than the voltage when the power rolled over in Fig. 5. If a leakage current outside the aperture begins to flow, it would decrease injection efficiency which would degrade the ηd and accelerate heating by extra input current. Given that other 8 µm devices also rolled over at a voltage of 8.2∼8.9 V, the device performance might be limited by the leakage through the current blocking layers. Although the measured current leakage (e.g. 0.002 kA/cm2 at 8.5 V) in the test structure seems insignificant for device performance, it might differ in the BTJ VCSELs because of operational and structural differences, such as the variation of the current blocking layers, different operating temperatures, and the presence of the DBRs. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effect of leakage current outside BTJ area especially for different temperatures. To improve reliability and the maximum output power of devices, it will be desirable to increase the breakdown voltage of the pn-junction. The early breakdown of the current blocking layer may be due to dry etch damage and residues before n-GaN regrowth, which can be improved by reducing the severity of the dry etching condition and using surface treatments before regrowth. Additionally, the breakdown voltage can be increased by using lower doped and wider bandgap materials for pn-junction.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. IV characteristics of a test structure without TJ contacts and DBRs under CW operation. The test structure is illustrated as an inset in the IV curve. The diameter of the current blocking pn-junction was 26 µm and the outer area to the edge of the mesa was implanted with Al ions.

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4. Conclusion

In summary, we have demonstrated GaN-based nonpolar VCSELs with BTJ current apertures lasing at a wavelength of 430 nm. A 14 µm BTJ VCSEL lased up to a Pmax of 2.8 mW under pulsed operation which was higher than reported TJ VCSELs with ion implant apertures. We suggest that higher lateral confinement and lower optical loss compared to the ion implanted apertures lead to dramatic improvement in output power. The high order modes in near field images also suggests that a strong index-guiding occurred by a thickness difference between inside and outside the BTJ area. Finally, an 8 µm BTJ VCSEL showed a Pmax of 0.73 mW at a voltage of 8.2 V, which might be limited by current leakage through the current blocking layer and a thermal effect.

Funding

Solid State Lighting and Energy Electronics Center, University of California Santa Barbara.

Acknowledgments

A portion of this work was carried out in the UCSB nanofabrication facility, the UCSB Materials Research Laboratory (MRL), which is supported by the NSF MRSEC program (NSF DMR 1720256), and the California Nano System Institute’s (CNSIs) Center for Scientific Computing at UCSB.

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References

  • View by:

  1. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012).
  2. F. Koyama, “Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics,” Opt. Rev. 21(6), 893–904 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Michalzik, VCSELs : Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Springer, 2013).
  4. C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.
  7. N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 82(1), 012502 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors,” Appl. Sci. 9(3), 416 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Dorsaz, H.-J. Bühlmann, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Selective oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in III–nitride devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072102 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes using tunnel junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 739–743 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. S.-R. Jeon, C. S. Oh, J.-W. Yang, G. M. Yang, and B.-S. Yoo, “GaN tunnel junction as a current aperture in a blue surface-emitting light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1933–1935 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 607–616 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of Nonpolar GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092104 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Hansen, L. F. Chen, S. H. Lim, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Mg-rich precipitates in the p -type doping of InGaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2469–2471 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. O. Kucheyev, J. S. Williams, and S. J. Pearton, “Ion implantation into GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng., R 33(2-3), 51–108 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. C. Chi, F. W. Ostermayer, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Ion beam damage-induced masking for photoelectrochemical etching of III-V semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(11), 4012–4014 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. T. Ping, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, and I. Adesida, “The effects of reactive ion etching-induced damage on the characteristics of ohmic contacts to n-Type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 261–265 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. I. Pankove, H. P. Maruska, and J. E. Berkeyheiser, “Optical Absorption of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(5), 197–199 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  35. C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.
  36. Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 82(1), 012502 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors,” Appl. Sci. 9(3), 416 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (4)

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

F. Koyama, “Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics,” Opt. Rev. 21(6), 893–904 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of Nonpolar GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Dorsaz, H.-J. Bühlmann, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Selective oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in III–nitride devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072102 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes using tunnel junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 739–743 (2002).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Jeon, C. S. Oh, J.-W. Yang, G. M. Yang, and B.-S. Yoo, “GaN tunnel junction as a current aperture in a blue surface-emitting light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1933–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Hansen, L. F. Chen, S. H. Lim, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Mg-rich precipitates in the p -type doping of InGaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2469–2471 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. O. Kucheyev, J. S. Williams, and S. J. Pearton, “Ion implantation into GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng., R 33(2-3), 51–108 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. T. Ping, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, and I. Adesida, “The effects of reactive ion etching-induced damage on the characteristics of ohmic contacts to n-Type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 607–616 (1996).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

G. C. Chi, F. W. Ostermayer, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Ion beam damage-induced masking for photoelectrochemical etching of III-V semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(11), 4012–4014 (1986).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

J. I. Pankove, H. P. Maruska, and J. E. Berkeyheiser, “Optical Absorption of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(5), 197–199 (1970).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

A. T. Ping, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, and I. Adesida, “The effects of reactive ion etching-induced damage on the characteristics of ohmic contacts to n-Type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Akagi, T.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors,” Appl. Sci. 9(3), 416 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 82(1), 012502 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alhassan, A. I.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baydar, S.

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

Becerra, D. L.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bengtsson, J.

Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.

Berkeyheiser, J. E.

J. I. Pankove, H. P. Maruska, and J. E. Berkeyheiser, “Optical Absorption of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(5), 197–199 (1970).
[Crossref]

Bohm, G.

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bühlmann, H.-J.

J. Dorsaz, H.-J. Bühlmann, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Selective oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in III–nitride devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Calciati, M.

Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.

Carlin, J.-F.

J. Dorsaz, H.-J. Bühlmann, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Selective oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in III–nitride devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. F.

M. Hansen, L. F. Chen, S. H. Lim, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Mg-rich precipitates in the p -type doping of InGaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2469–2471 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

A. T. Ping, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, and I. Adesida, “The effects of reactive ion etching-induced damage on the characteristics of ohmic contacts to n-Type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chi, G. C.

G. C. Chi, F. W. Ostermayer, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Ion beam damage-induced masking for photoelectrochemical etching of III-V semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(11), 4012–4014 (1986).
[Crossref]

Cho, M. S.

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes using tunnel junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 739–743 (2002).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K. D.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 607–616 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. A.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012).

Corzine, S. W.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 607–616 (1996).
[Crossref]

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012).

Cozzan, C.

Cummings, K. D.

G. C. Chi, F. W. Ostermayer, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Ion beam damage-induced masking for photoelectrochemical etching of III-V semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(11), 4012–4014 (1986).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of Nonpolar GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092104 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Hansen, L. F. Chen, S. H. Lim, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Mg-rich precipitates in the p -type doping of InGaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2469–2471 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

Dorsaz, J.

J. Dorsaz, H.-J. Bühlmann, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Selective oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in III–nitride devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D.

C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of Nonpolar GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Forman, C. A.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

Fujii, K.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fujito, K.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

Furuta, T.

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fuutagawa, N.

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goano, M.

Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.

Grandjean, N.

M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Dorsaz, H.-J. Bühlmann, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Selective oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in III–nitride devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gustavsson, J.

Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.

Hadley, G. R.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 607–616 (1996).
[Crossref]

Haglund, Å.

Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.

Hamaguchi, T.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hansen, M.

M. Hansen, L. F. Chen, S. H. Lim, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Mg-rich precipitates in the p -type doping of InGaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2469–2471 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hardy, M. T.

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harriott, L. R.

G. C. Chi, F. W. Ostermayer, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Ion beam damage-induced masking for photoelectrochemical etching of III-V semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(11), 4012–4014 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hashemi, E.

Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.

Hayashi, N.

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, W.

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

Holder, C.

C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of Nonpolar GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, P. S.

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ilegems, M.

J. Dorsaz, H.-J. Bühlmann, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Selective oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in III–nitride devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ito, M.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 82(1), 012502 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Iwayama, S.

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Izumi, S.

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S.-R.

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes using tunnel junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 739–743 (2002).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Jeon, C. S. Oh, J.-W. Yang, G. M. Yang, and B.-S. Yoo, “GaN tunnel junction as a current aperture in a blue surface-emitting light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1933–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kaga, M.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 82(1), 012502 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kearns, J.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kearns, J. A.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

Kelchner, K. M.

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

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D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
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T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
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C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480 (2017).
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C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
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S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
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C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
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J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
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J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
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C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

Leonard, J. T.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
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S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
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J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
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J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

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K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
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C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
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J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

Martin, D.

M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
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J. I. Pankove, H. P. Maruska, and J. E. Berkeyheiser, “Optical Absorption of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(5), 197–199 (1970).
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N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
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J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
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A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mitomo, J.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
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Morita, T.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

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D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Murayama, M.

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, H.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of Nonpolar GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092104 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

Narui, H.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ogimoto, J.

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Oh, C. S.

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[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ohara, M.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ohta, H.

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ooi, B. S.

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[Crossref]

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J. I. Pankove, H. P. Maruska, and J. E. Berkeyheiser, “Optical Absorption of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(5), 197–199 (1970).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

S. O. Kucheyev, J. S. Williams, and S. J. Pearton, “Ion implantation into GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng., R 33(2-3), 51–108 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ping, A. T.

A. T. Ping, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, and I. Adesida, “The effects of reactive ion etching-induced damage on the characteristics of ohmic contacts to n-Type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rajan, S.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ronneberg, E.

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rosskopf, J.

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

Saito, M.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Saito, T.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors,” Appl. Sci. 9(3), 416 (2019).
[Crossref]

Satou, S.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. C.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scott, J. W.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 607–616 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shau, R.

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, C.

Speck, J. S.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of Nonpolar GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092104 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Hansen, L. F. Chen, S. H. Lim, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Mg-rich precipitates in the p -type doping of InGaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2469–2471 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stattin, M.

Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 82(1), 012502 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors,” Appl. Sci. 9(3), 416 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tamboli, A. C.

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors,” Appl. Sci. 9(3), 416 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, M.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tazawa, K.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors,” Appl. Sci. 9(3), 416 (2019).
[Crossref]

Warren, M. E.

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 607–616 (1996).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, H.

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. S.

S. O. Kucheyev, J. S. Williams, and S. J. Pearton, “Ion implantation into GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng., R 33(2-3), 51–108 (2001).
[Crossref]

Windhorn, K.

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wong, M. S.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yagi, K.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, K.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. M.

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes using tunnel junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 739–743 (2002).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Jeon, C. S. Oh, J.-W. Yang, G. M. Yang, and B.-S. Yoo, “GaN tunnel junction as a current aperture in a blue surface-emitting light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1933–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. W.

A. T. Ping, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, and I. Adesida, “The effects of reactive ion etching-induced damage on the characteristics of ohmic contacts to n-Type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-W.

S.-R. Jeon, C. S. Oh, J.-W. Yang, G. M. Yang, and B.-S. Yoo, “GaN tunnel junction as a current aperture in a blue surface-emitting light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1933–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B. P.

J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoo, B.-S.

S.-R. Jeon, C. S. Oh, J.-W. Yang, G. M. Yang, and B.-S. Yoo, “GaN tunnel junction as a current aperture in a blue surface-emitting light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1933–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
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J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
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C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

Yu, M.-A.

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes using tunnel junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 739–743 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (4)

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of Nonpolar GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092104 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kelchner, R. M. Farrell, Y.-D. Lin, P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Pure Blue AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092103 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

M. Hansen, L. F. Chen, S. H. Lim, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Mg-rich precipitates in the p -type doping of InGaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2469–2471 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
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J. I. Pankove, H. P. Maruska, and J. E. Berkeyheiser, “Optical Absorption of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(5), 197–199 (1970).
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M. Malinverni, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN based micro light emitting diodes featuring a buried GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051107 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Jeon, C. S. Oh, J.-W. Yang, G. M. Yang, and B.-S. Yoo, “GaN tunnel junction as a current aperture in a blue surface-emitting light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1933–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
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J. Dorsaz, H.-J. Bühlmann, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Selective oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in III–nitride devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 072102 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, L. Megalini, S. Lee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-Power GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with AlInN/GaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors,” Appl. Sci. 9(3), 416 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. R. Hadley, K. L. Lear, M. E. Warren, K. D. Choquette, J. W. Scott, and S. W. Corzine, “Comprehensive numerical modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 607–616 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes using tunnel junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 739–743 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Ortsiefer, S. Baydar, K. Windhorn, G. Bohm, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, E. Ronneberg, W. Hofmann, and M.-C. Amann, “2.5-mW single-mode operation of 1.55-um buried tunnel junction VCSELs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1596–1598 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. C. Chi, F. W. Ostermayer, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Ion beam damage-induced masking for photoelectrochemical etching of III-V semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(11), 4012–4014 (1986).
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J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, S. Rajan, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Smooth Top-Down Photoelectrochemical Etching of m-Plane GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(1), H47 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

A. T. Ping, Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, M. A. Khan, and I. Adesida, “The effects of reactive ion etching-induced damage on the characteristics of ohmic contacts to n-Type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 27(4), 261–265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K.-C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, J. Mitomo, S. Satou, N. Fuutagawa, and H. Narui, “Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 122101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral Hydrogen Diffusion at p-GaN Layers in Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes with Tunnel Junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng., R (1)

S. O. Kucheyev, J. S. Williams, and S. J. Pearton, “Ion implantation into GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng., R 33(2-3), 51–108 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

F. Koyama, “Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics,” Opt. Rev. 21(6), 893–904 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (2)

N. Hayashi, J. Ogimoto, K. Matsui, T. Furuta, T. Akagi, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “A GaN-Based VCSEL with a Convex Structure for Optical Guiding,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700648 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 82(1), 012502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Hamaguchi, M. Tanaka, J. Mitomo, H. Nakajima, M. Ito, M. Ohara, N. Kobayashi, K. Fujii, H. Watanabe, S. Satou, R. Koda, and H. Narui, “Lateral optical confinement of GaN-based VCSEL using an atomically smooth monolithic curved mirror,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10350 (2018).
[Crossref]

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R. Michalzik, VCSELs : Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Springer, 2013).

Å. Haglund, E. Hashemi, J. Bengtsson, J. Gustavsson, M. Stattin, M. Calciati, and M. Goano, “Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs,” in K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, and R. Michalzik, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), Vol. 9892, 98920Y.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanović, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012).

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIII, J.-I. Chyi, H. Morkoç, and H. Fujioka, eds. (SPIE, 2018), Vol. 10532, p. 83.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of a flip-chip buried tunnel junction (BTJ) VCSEL with dual dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) A surface roughness measured after n++-GaN regrowth and (b) a cross-section image of a BTJ VCSEL taken using a focused ion beam (FIB). The RMS roughness was ∼2 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. LIV characteristics of a 14 µm diameter aperture VCSEL measured under pulsed operation up to a current of 100 mA. An inset shows the spontaneous emission (dashed line) and lasing (solid line) spectra measured before and after the VCSEL processing, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Near field images of various BTJ VCSELs taken under pulsed operation. All images were aligned in the same crystallographic direction.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. LIV characteristics of an 8 µm diameter aperture VCSEL measured under CW operation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. IV characteristics of a test structure without TJ contacts and DBRs under CW operation. The test structure is illustrated as an inset in the IV curve. The diameter of the current blocking pn-junction was 26 µm and the outer area to the edge of the mesa was implanted with Al ions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Epitaxial structure grown on m-plane GaN substrate for BTJ VCSELs. (EBL: electron blocking layer, UID: unintentionally doped, SQW: single quantum well, MQW: multiple quantum well)

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