Abstract

A tunable metamaterial absorber is proposed in the terahertz regime. The amplitude and center frequency of the absorber can be tuned independently. Owing to the effective combination of graphene and strontium titanate (STO) in one metamaterial structure, the tunable properties of the amplitude and center frequency are implemented. The amplitude can be tuned by adjusting the chemical potential of graphene sheet, and center frequency can get a shift through temperature changes in the STO material. In a full-wave numerical simulation, the amplitude of the absorber can be tuned from approximately 100% to 35% with a fixed center frequency when chemical potential varies from 0.7 eV to 0.0 eV. The center frequency of the absorber can shift from 0.43 THz to 0.3 THz when temperature changes from 400 K to 200 K. The complex surface impedance of the graphene and permittivity of STO material in this research range are thoroughly examined, and the independently tunable mechanism of the absorber is explored by elucidating the electric field distribution. The influence of the oblique incidence of electromagnetic wave to the absorber is studied. The absorber can be scalable to the infrared and visible frequencies and demonstrates promising application on tunable sensors, filters, and photovoltaic devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

The development of metamaterial perfect absorbers (MPAs) is based on metamaterials, but the disadvantage of high loss in metamaterials becomes a major advantage in MPAs. MPAs have attracted notable attention for its promising application in imaging, sensors, and solar harvesting [1–5]. The first MPAs were proposed and demonstrated at microwave frequency by Landy et al. in 2008; they achieved near-unity absorption through perfect impedance matching in free space by manipulating the permittivity and permeability of the metamaterial absorber independently [6]. Consequently, several MPA structures have been proposed [5,7–10]; however, the practical application of MPAs remains limited because the absorption spectra of absorbers would be fixed once the structures of the absorbers are fabricated. Therefore, designing a robust tunable absorber is essential.

For the development of dynamically tunable metamaterial absorbers, several methods through which the amplitude and center frequency of an absorber can be tuned in various ways have been proposed [11–15]. Graphene, an active material with wonderful electromagnetic properties, is often used to tune absorber amplitude [7,16–18]. X. Zhang et al. used an H-shaped all-silicon optical tunable metamaterial absorber to tune the center frequency of an absorber; they demonstrated that resonance frequency presents a blue shift after pump beam excitation [12]. A metamaterial consist of metallic split-ring resonators with embedded semiconductor InSb was reported, which enables the tuning of resonance frequency in the terahertz regime by changing the temperature of the semiconductor [19]. Center frequency can be tuned by utilizing strontium titanate (STO) as substrate or film, whose permittivity is temperature-dependent, as demonstrated by R. Singh et al and Y. Jiao [20,21]. Although tunable absorbers have been extensively studied, only the amplitude or center frequency of the absorbers can be tuned in a single structure. A metamaterial absorber with independently tunable amplitude and center frequency has never been reported.

On the basis of previous work, a thermally and electrically tunable absorber is introduced and used in independently tuning amplitude and center frequency with the used of graphene and STO combination as one structure in the terahertz regime. In the proposed absorber, the amplitude tunable characteristic is achieved by adjusting the chemical potential of graphene sheet from 0.0 eV to 0.7 eV, and center frequency is tuned by changing the temperature of STO material from 400 K to 200 K. The results of full-wave numerical simulation show that the amplitude of the absorber can be tuned from approximately 100% to 35% with a fixed center frequency and center frequency can shift from 0.43 THz to 0.3 THz at nearly 100% peak absorption. The complex surface impedance of graphene and permittivity of the STO material are calculated in detail, and the tunable mechanism is explored by examining electric field distributions under different temperatures and chemical potentials.

2. Design and simulation

The designed metamaterial absorber is illustrated in Fig. 1. Figure 1(b) shows the four-layer unit cell of the metamaterial absorber. The structure from bottom to top is the metallic background layer, the dielectric layer of polymer dielectric layer, the strontium titanate (STO) material, and the patterned graphene layer. Figure 1(a) shows the top view of the unit cell. The length (py) and width (px) of the rectangle are 96 and 48 µm, respectively. The long axis (b) of the elliptical graphene pattern is 60 µm, and the short axis (a) is 30 µm. The schematic view is provided in Fig. 1(c). The terahertz wave is incident along the z-axis. In this structure, the background layer is made of gold with conductivity of 4.07×107S/m, thickness (m) of 0.2 µm. A low loss TOPAS polymer is selected as one of the dielectric layer with permittivity (ε) of 2.35, and thickness (h1) 26 µm. Graphene and STO materials (h2 = 2 µm) have been thoroughly studied and accurately modeled by using calculated parameters.

 

Fig. 1 Independently tunable metamaterials absorber for amplitude and frequency with graphene and STO layer. (a) Top view of the unit cell. (b) Schematic representation and geometrical characters of the unit cell. (c) Schematic representation of the proposed absorber, which consist of a graphene sheet, two dielectric layers and one metallic background layer, with the terahertz wave along the z-axis. The geometrical parameters are given.

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In graphene materials, electrical conductivity is composed of intraband and interband contributions, which are expressed asσgra=σintra+σinter. In the terahertz range, the contribution of the interband σintermay be negligible compared with the intraband because of the photo energyωEF,EFkBT. Here, the intraband contribution can be calculated through the following equation [22]:

σgraσintra(ω,μc,Γ,T)=je2π2(ωj2Γ)0(fd(E,μc,T)Efd(E,μc,T)E)EdE,
where fd(E,μc,T)=(e(Eμc/kBT)+1)1is the Fermi-Dirac distribution, kBis the Boltzmann’s constant, is the reduced Plank’s constant,ω is the radian frequency, e is the charge of an electron, E is energy, μcis the chemical potential, Γ is the phenomenological scattering rate, T is the absolute temperature, Γ=2τ1, and τis the electron-phonon relaxation time.

In STO materials, complex relative permittivity is temperature dependent and can be expressed as follows [23,24]:

εw=ε+fω02ω2iωγ,
whereε is high-frequency bulk permittivity,ε9.6,f is a temperature-independent oscillator strength with a value of f=2.3×106cm2, ω is the angular frequency, ω0 is soft mode frequency according to the Cochran law, γ is a soft mode damping parameter and can be fitted by an empirical linear dependence, and ω0and γcan be calculated using the two equations, respectively.
ω0(T)[cm-1]=31.2(T42.5)γ(T)[cm-1]=3.3+0.094T,
whereTis temperature (K), ω0(T) and γ(T) are temperature dependent parameters. Therefore, STO material owns temperature-dependent relative permittivity.

In the modeling and simulation, the CST software based on the finite integration algorithm is used with the frequency range set from 0.1 THz to 0.8 THz. At boundary conditions, shown in Fig. 1, the x-axis and y-axis are along the length and width of the rectangle structure, respectively, and are both set as a unit cell boundary. The two sides of z-axis are Floquet ports (18 modes), where terahertz wave vector occurs along the z-axis from top to bottom. For the characterization of the single-layer graphene material, an equivalent 2D surface impedance layer is adopted for modeling, which is built from a closed-elliptic curve extruding to the surface. Besides, initial conditions of the simulation are set as follows: 0.7 eV chemical potential, 0.1 ps relation time, and 400 K absolute temperature.

The designed MPAs can be treated as an effective medium because the structure size is considerably smaller than the wavelength of the incident terahertz wave [25]. In the microwave studio, reflection and transmission are obtained from S parameters, where R(ω)=|S11|2 and T(ω)=|S21|2, and the absorption A(ω)can be calculated by

A(ω)=1R(ω)T(ω)=1|S11|2|S21|2,
In general, transmission value is equal to zero because the metallic background plate of the absorber is thicker compared to the incident terahertz wave skin depth.

3. Results and discussion

To study the absorption spectrum of the metamaterial absorber, a full-wave numerical simulation is performed. Under initial conditions, reflection and absorption spectrum under normal incidence are represented in Fig. 2. A deep at 0.43 THz in the reflection curve marked as blue is observed, whereas the corresponding near-unity absorption spectrum is marked as red.

 

Fig. 2 Reflection and absorption spectra of the absorber under initial conditions.

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First, examining the tunable characteristics of the absorber is the focus of the study. The tunable property of the center frequency is achieved by employing the active STO material, whose permittivity is temperature dependent. The active material is simulated by calculating the temperature-dependent permittivity of STO material. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the frequency range of the study is from 0.1 THz to 0.8 THz. This range is consistent with the range of the absorption spectrum. The real part of the permittivity of the STO material is represented by different color curves as temperature changes. In these curves, the permittivity of STO material increases sharply at low temperatures. The value increases from 216 to 479 when the temperature is reduced from 400 K to 200 K with a step-width of 50 K. Figure 3(b) shows the relationship between STO material loss, temperature, and frequency. STO material loss increases with rising frequency but decreases with increasing temperature.

 

Fig. 3 Permittivity of STO material as a function of temperature and frequency. (a) Real part of permittivity. (b) Lossestanδ.

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When the calculated permittivity of STO material is applied to the simulation, the center frequency tuning spectrum of the absorber can be obtained by changing the temperature of STO material. As shown in Fig. 4, the center frequency shifts from 0.43 THz to 0.3 THz when temperature changes from 400 K to 200 K, which are marked as red and cyan curves, respectively. The peak absorption rate is maintained above 99% when the frequency shifts.

 

Fig. 4 Center frequency tunable spectra by changing the temperature from 400 K to 200 K.

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The phase of the reflected wave as a function of frequency and temperature is plotted in Fig. 5, and the phases under different temperatures are marked by curves with diverse colors. It can be seen clearly that the phase changes obviously with different temperatures, the frequency point of phase reversal increases from 0.3 THz to 0.43 THz when the temperature varies from 200 K to 400 K. The phase change phenomenon agrees well with the phenomenon of frequency offset in Fig. 4.

 

Fig. 5 Phase of the reflected wave as a function of temperature from 200 K to 400K.

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The superior electromagnetic properties of graphene material are utilized for the application of the amplitude tunable characteristics of the absorber. The surface complex impedance of graphene sheet is largely related to its chemical potential, which can be adjusted through the application of a bias voltage. The wide range of Fermi energy of graphene sheet could be modulated by ion-gel top gating method [16,26,27]. Here, the complex surface impedance is presented because the equivalent 2D surface impedance model is adopted to simulate graphene, and the complex surface impedance of graphene under different temperatures and chemical potentials are calculated respectively. Firstly, the complex impedance of graphene sheet changing with different chemical potentialsμcis represented. As shown in Fig. 6(a) and 6(b), the real part and imaginary part of the complex surface impedance are plotted separately. Both the real part and imaginary part decreases sharply when the chemical potential increases from 0.0 eV to 0.7 eV, where maximum of the real part decreases from 1880 Ω to 120 Ω and the imaginary part changes from 110 Ω to 4 Ω. In the frequency ranging from 0.1 THz to 0.8 THz, the frequency increase shows minimal effect on the real part of complex surface impedance, while the values of imaginary part decrease significantly with increasing frequencies. Secondly, the relationship between the complex surface impedance and absolute temperature is illustrated in Fig. 6(c) and 6(d). It can be seen from Fig. 6(c), the real part of complex surface impedance doubles when the temperature is reduced from 400 K to 200 K, which is represented by the green and black dotted lines, respectively. However, at a fixed temperature, the value is almost constant. As depicted in Fig. 6(d), the maximum of imaginary part increases from 110 Ω to 208 Ω when the temperature varies from 400K to 200K, and the values also decrease with a higher frequency. It is worth to note that the effect of temperature on the surface impedance of graphene sheet is very weak when the chemical potential is high.

 

Fig. 6 Complex impedance of graphene as a function of frequency under different chemical potentials and temperatures. (a) Real part with different chemical potential. (b) Imaginary part with different chemical potential, (c) Real part with different temperatures. (d) Imaginary part with different temperatures.

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The amplitude tunable spectrum of the absorber can be obtained by using the calculation results of surface complex impedance. As shown in Fig. 7, the absorption amplitude of the absorber significantly changes when the chemical potential of graphene sheet is adjusted from 0.7 eV to 0.0 eV, and the absorption spectra are represented in various colors of the curves. The amplitude of absorption can be tuned from approximately 100% (marked as red, 0.7 eV) to 35% (marked as black, 0.0 eV), whereas center frequency is nearly unchanged.

 

Fig. 7 Amplitude tunable spectra under different chemical potentials.

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The tunable mechanism is further explored by investigating the electric field distributions of the structure under different temperatures and chemical potentials. The center frequency of the absorber can be tuned by regulating the temperature. As shown in Fig. 8, the temperature is changed from 400 K to 200 K with a step-width 50 K, and the corresponding electric field distributions at different peak frequency points (0.43 THz, 0.4 THz, 0.37 THz, 0.34 THz and 0.3 THz) are provided one by one from left to right. Clearly, the electric field distributions are mainly concentrated at the upper and lower ends of the graphene pattern in all five frequencies or temperatures. This is mainly due to the excitation of vertical field of incident terahertz wave, and the resonance mode in the structure is not changed with different temperatures. Here, the graphene pattern layer functions as a conductor that works like an electric dipole absorbing the incident electric field.

 

Fig. 8 Electric distribution of the peak frequency under different temperatures.

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Then, the electric distribution of the absorber at the resonant frequency of 0.43 THz under different chemical potential of graphene is illustrated, where temperature is set at 400 K. As shown in Fig. 9, the resonance gradually weakens when graphene chemical potential decreases from 0.7 eV to 0.0 eV due to the increase in the complex surface impedance of graphene. This result is consistent with the above discussions on graphene. Comparing Fig. 8 and Fig. 9, it can be found that the chemical potential of graphene owns a greater effect on the resonance than temperatures, which agrees well with the theoretical study of graphene complex impedance above.

 

Fig. 9 Electric distribution under different chemical potentials of graphene sheet, with the absolute temperature of 400 K at resonant frequency of 0.43 THz.

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The absorption spectra under oblique incidence in TE and TM modes are examined, which are shown as absorption contour maps in Fig. 10. Seemingly, the absorber sustains over 75% peak absorption when the incident angle is below 70° in both TE and TM modes, as depicted in Fig. 10(a) and 10(b), respectively. However, as the oblique incident angle increases, center frequency remains nearly unchanged in TE, whereas a blue shift from 0.43 THz to 0.55 THz occurs in TM mode. These results are mainly due to the changes in zero-reflection conditions under oblique incidences, the reflection coefficients for the TE and TM modes vary with the incident angels independently [28].

 

Fig. 10 Absorption contour map of the absorber as a function of frequency and incident angles from 0° to 80°with a step-width of 10°. (a) For TE mode. (b) For TM mode.

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4. Conclusion

We designed and demonstrated an active tunable metamaterial absorber in the terahertz regime, whose amplitude and center frequency can be independently tuned based on graphene and STO material layers. Through a detailed study of active materials, the complex surface impedance of graphene under different chemical potentials and the permittivity of STO material under different temperatures were evaluated and used in the calculations. According to the full-wave numerical simulation, the absorber has an approximate 100% peak absorption at 0.43 THz, primary temperature of 400K, and chemical potential of 0.7 eV. On the tunable characteristics of the absorber, absorber center frequency can be tuned from 0.43 THz to 0.3 THz by changing the temperature from 400 K to 200 K, and peak absorption can be maintained above 99%. The amplitude of the absorber can be tuned from around 100% to 35% by adjusting the chemical potential of graphene from 0.0 eV to 0.7 eV, and the center frequencies is kept nearly unchanged. The tunable mechanism is explored by examining the electric field distribution of the structure at respective peak frequencies and different graphene chemical potentials. The proposed absorber can be scalable to infrared and visible frequencies and has promising applications in imaging, sensors, and solar harvesting.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (51777023); and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF) (2017M620411).

References

1. Q. Liang, W. Yu, W. Zhao, T. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Tao, “Numerical study of the meta-nanopyramid array as efficient solar energy absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1187–1196 (2013). [CrossRef]  

2. X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. J. Y. Suen, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, and X. Liu, “All-dielectric metasurface absorbers for uncooled terahertz imaging,” Optica 4(6), 601–604 (2017). [CrossRef]  

6. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019). [CrossRef]  

8. W. Chen, R. Chen, Y. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Broadband metamaterial absorber with an in-band metasurface function,” Opt. Lett. 44(5), 1076–1079 (2019). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019). [CrossRef]  

10. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. L. Ye, Y. Chen, G. Cai, N. Liu, J. Zhu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband absorber with periodically sinusoidally-patterned graphene layer in terahertz range,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11223–11232 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019). [CrossRef]  

13. J. Schalch, G. Duan, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterial perfect absorber with continuously tunable air spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 61113 (2018). [CrossRef]  

14. H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015). [CrossRef]  

15. Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. X. Huang, W. He, F. Yang, J. Ran, B. Gao, and W. L. Zhang, “Polarization-independent and angle-insensitive broadband absorber with a target-patterned graphene layer in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Express 26(20), 25558–25566 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011). [CrossRef]  

20. Y. Zhao, B. Li, C. Lan, K. Bi, and Z. Qu, “Tunable silicon-based all-dielectric metamaterials with strontium titanate thin film in terahertz range,” Opt. Express 25(18), 22158–22163 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. R. Singh, A. K. Azad, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single-crystal substrates,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1230–1232 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. P. Kužel and F. Kadlec, “Tunable structures and modulators for THz light,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 197–214 (2008). [CrossRef]  

24. H. Nĕmec, P. Kuzel, L. Duvillaret, A. Pashkin, M. Dressel, and M. T. Sebastian, “Highly tunable photonic crystal filter for the terahertz range,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 549–551 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002). [CrossRef]  

26. Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015). [CrossRef]  

27. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, “Analysis of metamaterial absorber in normal and oblique incidence by using interference theory,” AIP Adv. 3(10), 102118 (2013). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. Q. Liang, W. Yu, W. Zhao, T. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Tao, “Numerical study of the meta-nanopyramid array as efficient solar energy absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1187–1196 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Y. Suen, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, and X. Liu, “All-dielectric metasurface absorbers for uncooled terahertz imaging,” Optica 4(6), 601–604 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Chen, R. Chen, Y. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Broadband metamaterial absorber with an in-band metasurface function,” Opt. Lett. 44(5), 1076–1079 (2019).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Ye, Y. Chen, G. Cai, N. Liu, J. Zhu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband absorber with periodically sinusoidally-patterned graphene layer in terahertz range,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11223–11232 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Schalch, G. Duan, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterial perfect absorber with continuously tunable air spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 61113 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. X. Huang, W. He, F. Yang, J. Ran, B. Gao, and W. L. Zhang, “Polarization-independent and angle-insensitive broadband absorber with a target-patterned graphene layer in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Express 26(20), 25558–25566 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Zhao, B. Li, C. Lan, K. Bi, and Z. Qu, “Tunable silicon-based all-dielectric metamaterials with strontium titanate thin film in terahertz range,” Opt. Express 25(18), 22158–22163 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. Singh, A. K. Azad, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single-crystal substrates,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1230–1232 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. P. Kužel and F. Kadlec, “Tunable structures and modulators for THz light,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 197–214 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Nĕmec, P. Kuzel, L. Duvillaret, A. Pashkin, M. Dressel, and M. T. Sebastian, “Highly tunable photonic crystal filter for the terahertz range,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 549–551 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
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  27. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, “Analysis of metamaterial absorber in normal and oblique incidence by using interference theory,” AIP Adv. 3(10), 102118 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2019 (4)

H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, R. Chen, Y. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Broadband metamaterial absorber with an in-band metasurface function,” Opt. Lett. 44(5), 1076–1079 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

2017 (3)

2015 (2)

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Q. Liang, W. Yu, W. Zhao, T. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Tao, “Numerical study of the meta-nanopyramid array as efficient solar energy absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1187–1196 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, “Analysis of metamaterial absorber in normal and oblique incidence by using interference theory,” AIP Adv. 3(10), 102118 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single-crystal substrates,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1230–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kužel and F. Kadlec, “Tunable structures and modulators for THz light,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 197–214 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anderson, S.

A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Schalch, G. Duan, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterial perfect absorber with continuously tunable air spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 61113 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

Banar, B.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, K.

Boudouris, B. W.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butun, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, G.

Chen, C.

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

Chen, R.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, R. Chen, Y. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Broadband metamaterial absorber with an in-band metasurface function,” Opt. Lett. 44(5), 1076–1079 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, “Analysis of metamaterial absorber in normal and oblique incidence by using interference theory,” AIP Adv. 3(10), 102118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, C. G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cremin, K.

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

Crommie, M. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, K.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dressel, M.

Duan, G.

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Schalch, G. Duan, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterial perfect absorber with continuously tunable air spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 61113 (2018).
[Crossref]

Duvillaret, L.

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, B.

Geng, B.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, W.

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horng, J.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Huang, Y.

T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, “Analysis of metamaterial absorber in normal and oblique incidence by using interference theory,” AIP Adv. 3(10), 102118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ji, C.

H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jia, Q. X.

Jokerst, N. M.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadlec, F.

P. Kužel and F. Kadlec, “Tunable structures and modulators for THz light,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 197–214 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. T.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kocer, H.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuzel, P.

Kužel, P.

P. Kužel and F. Kadlec, “Tunable structures and modulators for THz light,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 197–214 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lan, C.

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, A.

A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

Li, H.

H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, X.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, Q.

Liang, X.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

L. Ye, Y. Chen, G. Cai, N. Liu, J. Zhu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband absorber with periodically sinusoidally-patterned graphene layer in terahertz range,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11223–11232 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q. H.

Liu, X.

J. Y. Suen, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, and X. Liu, “All-dielectric metasurface absorbers for uncooled terahertz imaging,” Optica 4(6), 601–604 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louie, S. G.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Markoš, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin, M.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, Z.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Min, B.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemec, H.

Padilla, W. J.

J. Y. Suen, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, and X. Liu, “All-dielectric metasurface absorbers for uncooled terahertz imaging,” Optica 4(6), 601–604 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C. H.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pashkin, A.

Qin, M.

H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
[Crossref]

Qu, Z.

Ran, J.

Ren, Y.

H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schalch, J.

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Schalch, G. Duan, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterial perfect absorber with continuously tunable air spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 61113 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sebastian, M. T.

Segalman, R. A.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Song, Z.

Soukoulis, C. M.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suen, J. Y.

Tao, S.

Taylor, A. J.

Tian, Z.

J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tongay, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakil, A.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wanghuang, T.

T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, “Analysis of metamaterial absorber in normal and oblique incidence by using interference theory,” AIP Adv. 3(10), 102118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, G.

T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, “Analysis of metamaterial absorber in normal and oblique incidence by using interference theory,” AIP Adv. 3(10), 102118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

Ye, L.

Yin, X.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, W.

Zettl, A.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. L.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Schalch, G. Duan, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterial perfect absorber with continuously tunable air spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 61113 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, W.

Zhao, X.

A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Schalch, G. Duan, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterial perfect absorber with continuously tunable air spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 61113 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, L.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, J.

ACS Photonics (1)

X. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Schalch, G. Duan, K. Cremin, J. Zhang, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically Modulated Ultra-Broadband All-Silicon Metamaterial Terahertz Absorbers,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 830–837 (2019).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. Li, X. Zhao, G. Duan, S. Anderson, and X. Zhang, “Diatom Frustule‐Inspired Metamaterial Absorbers: The Effect of Hierarchical Pattern Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(22), 1970151 (2019).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

T. Wanghuang, W. Chen, Y. Huang, and G. Wen, “Analysis of metamaterial absorber in normal and oblique incidence by using interference theory,” AIP Adv. 3(10), 102118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Schalch, G. Duan, X. Zhao, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterial perfect absorber with continuously tunable air spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(6), 61113 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. R. Phys. (1)

P. Kužel and F. Kadlec, “Tunable structures and modulators for THz light,” C. R. Phys. 9(2), 197–214 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Investigation of multiband plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorbers based on graphene ribbons by the phase-coupled method,” Carbon 141, 481–487 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene Plasmonics for Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Zhu, J. Han, Z. Tian, J. Gu, Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Thermal broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 3129–3133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Independently tunable metamaterials absorber for amplitude and frequency with graphene and STO layer. (a) Top view of the unit cell. (b) Schematic representation and geometrical characters of the unit cell. (c) Schematic representation of the proposed absorber, which consist of a graphene sheet, two dielectric layers and one metallic background layer, with the terahertz wave along the z-axis. The geometrical parameters are given.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reflection and absorption spectra of the absorber under initial conditions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Permittivity of STO material as a function of temperature and frequency. (a) Real part of permittivity. (b) Losses tanδ.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Center frequency tunable spectra by changing the temperature from 400 K to 200 K.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Phase of the reflected wave as a function of temperature from 200 K to 400K.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Complex impedance of graphene as a function of frequency under different chemical potentials and temperatures. (a) Real part with different chemical potential. (b) Imaginary part with different chemical potential, (c) Real part with different temperatures. (d) Imaginary part with different temperatures.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Amplitude tunable spectra under different chemical potentials.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Electric distribution of the peak frequency under different temperatures.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Electric distribution under different chemical potentials of graphene sheet, with the absolute temperature of 400 K at resonant frequency of 0.43 THz.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Absorption contour map of the absorber as a function of frequency and incident angles from 0° to 80°with a step-width of 10°. (a) For TE mode. (b) For TM mode.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ gra σ intra (ω, μ c ,Γ,T)= j e 2 π 2 (ωj2Γ) 0 ( f d (E, μ c ,T) E f d (E, μ c ,T) E ) EdE,
ε w = ε + f ω 0 2 ω 2 iωγ ,
ω 0 (T)[ cm -1 ]= 31.2(T42.5) γ(T)[ cm -1 ]=3.3+0.094T,
A(ω)=1R(ω)T(ω)=1 | S 11 | 2 | S 21 | 2 ,

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