Abstract

Visible light communication (VLC) can provide a dedicated, secure, and high data rate wireless transmission link. It has gained considerable attentions recently, and is considered as one of the promising technologies for beyond 5G mobile and wireless communications. In this work, we demonstrate a VLC system with a recorded data rate of 40.665 Gbit/s using tricolor red, green and blue (RGB) laser diodes (LDs) and polarization multiplexing. 2 m free-space transmission distance is achieved. The implementation of bit-loading, power-loading, and polarization multiplexing are discussed. Experimental bit-error-ratio (BER) results show that each of the 6 polarization and wavelength de-multiplexed channels can achieve the forward-error-correction (FEC) requirement.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

It is predicted that the wireless traffic is booming rapidly particularly for indoor applications due to the increase in popularity of smart-home applications and internet-of-things (IOT) [1–4]. As the traditional radio-frequency (RF) communication frequency bands are nearly fully occupied, visible light communication (VLC) has gained considerable attentions as a promising technology for high speed wireless communication [5–9]. Furthermore, VLC is applicable in different scenarios, such as providing indoor illuminance [10], high precision positioning and navigation [11], underwater communication [12], and light-panel and mobile-phone communication [13,14]. The high directionality nature of the VLC makes it suitable for high data rate and high security data transmission.

Pushing VLC to higher data rates is another important goal in research and development. A 1.1 Gbit/s VLC system applying multiple-input-and-multiple-output (MIMO) in phosphor white LED was reported [10]. Red, green, and blue (RGB) LED scheme can be used [15]. Ref [16]. reported a 3.4 Gbit/s VLC system using RGB LED with orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexed (OFDM) signal. Ref [17]. demonstrated a 6.36 Gbit/s RGB LED VLC transmission using polarization multiplexing with transmission distance of 1 m. Micro-LED with a larger direct-modulation bandwidth can be used to increase the data rate [18]. Visible-light laser diode (LD) can be a promising choice for the high-speed VLC. A 2.5 Gbit/s LD VLC transmission based on a 422 nm gallium nitride (GaN) LD was reported [19]. Recently RGB LD VLC transmission was demonstrated [20,21]. A 1.25 Gbit/s white-light phosphor LD based VLC was reported [22] with a transmission distance of 1 m. Besides, a bit-directional LD VLC system using downstream OFDM and upstream signal remodulated OOK was reported, achieving a data rate of 10.6 Gbit/s in the downstream and 2 Mbit/s in the upstream [23].

In this work, we demonstrate a VLC system using tricolor RGB LDs achieving a recorded data rate of 40.665 Gbit/s. Here, a practical free-space transmission distance of 2 m is achieved. We believe the proposed work has potential applications in machine-to-machine (M2M) communication in areas that are sensitive to electromagnetic interference, such as in hospitals and power stations. The proposed VLC system can provide high bandwidth, high directionality, high security communication links. The implementation of bit-loading, power-loading and polarization multiplexing are discussed. Experimental bit-error-ratio (BER) results show that each of the 6 polarization and wavelength de-multiplexed channels can achieve the 7% pre-forward-error-correction (FEC) requirement (BER = 3.8 × 10−3).

2. Architecture and experiment

Figure 1(a) shows the architecture of the LD VLC system using tricolor RGB LDs. At the transmitter (Tx) side, two arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs) are used to provide electrical OFDM signals to the two sets of tricolor RGB LDs respectively. The two AWGs used in the experiment are Tektronix AWG70001 and Tektronix AWG7082C. Figure 1(b) illustrates the encoding and decoding processes of OFDM. They are carried out by using Matlab programs. In the OFDM signal encoding process, the randomly generated data is first serial-to-parallel (S/P) converted. After this, symbol mapping (SM) to different quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) levels is implemented. Then, inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) is employed to construct the orthogonal subcarriers. Parallel-to-serial (P/S) conversion together with cyclic prefix (CP) application are executed. The FFT size and CP are 512 and 1/32 respectively. After the OFDM signals generation, they are used to directly modulated the tricolor RGB LDs. During the implementation of the OFDM IFFT, parallel data stream is used to design the data frame for the IFFT. The first element of the data frame represents the DC value and is selected to be zero. If the number of subcarriers is M, and the IFFT size is N, then elements from 2 to M + 1 of the frame consist of the parallel data and elements from NM + 1 to N consist of the conjugate complex and mirrored version of the data. This is to produce real value output from the IFFT operation [24]. Then, the RGB channels at p-polarization and another RGB channels at s-polarization are polarization multiplexed via polarization beam splitters (PBS1, PBS2, PBS3) as shown in Fig. 1(a). Finally, the polarization multiplexed 40.665 Gbit/s tricolor RGB optical signal is produced at the Tx via 3 dichroic mirrors (DMs). After a free-space transmission of 2 m, the tricolor optical signal is first de-multiplexed by using color filters (with center wavelengths of R: 660 nm, G: 520 nm, B: 450 nm) before the receiver (Rx) for BER measurements. Then, PBS is used to polarization de-multiplexed each color channel to obtain the p- and s-polarization. Finally, the de-multiplexed optical OFDM signal is detected by different PIN photodiodes (PDs). Real-time oscilloscope (RTO, Teledyne LeCroy 816ZI-B) with 80 GS/s sampling rate and 16GHz analog bandwidth is used for signal analysis. Figure 1(b) also shows the OFDM decoding process, including removal of CP, S/P conversion, FFT execution, equalization (EQ), symbol de-mapping (SDM), and P/S conversion. The BER performance is obtained by the measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the received signal. The modeling showing the relationship between the BER, SNR and EVM is discussed in [25].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Architecture of the tricolor RGB LD VLC experiment. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; LD: laser diode; DM: dichroic mirrors; PBS: polarization beam splitter; PD: photodiode; RTO: real-time oscilloscope. (b) Encoding and decoding processes of OFDM in Matlab.

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In order to achieve high data rate, proper bit-loading and power-loading are applied based on the SNRs of different OFDM subcarriers. Besides, during the RGB multiplexing, as the R, G, B LDs are not temperature control, each DM should have a large enough pass-band allowing the wavelength shift due to temperature change. In our case, the 10 nm pass-band DMs are used. Furthermore, the PBS should be placed slight offset from the optical path in order to avoid back-reflection launching into the LDs producing laser instability.

Figures 2(a) and 2(b) show the top-view and side-view photographs of the polarization multiplexing tricolor RGB VLC system. In the experiment, the tricolor RGB LDs are housed in an aluminum-package, and each R, G, B LD has a separated bias-tee and current driving circuit. In the next version, the two sets of tricolor RGB LDs together with the optics components, such as PBSs and DMs could be housed in the same package to minimize the size of Tx. The LDs used in experiment are not temperature controlled. The R, G, B LDs used in the experiment are commercially available with miniaturized TO38 packages.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Photographs of (a) top-view and (b) side-view of the polarization multiplexed tricolor RGB VLC Tx. (b) Measured RGB optical spectra at the output of Tx.

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Figure 3(a) shows the measured optical spectra of the RGB LDs at the output of Tx. The peak emission wavelengths of 660 nm, 514 nm and 450 nm are observed. There spectral widths (full-width half-maximum, FWHM) are about 2 nm. Figure 3(b) shows the optical output powers of the R, G, B LDs at different biased currents. We can observe that the threshold currents are 60 mA (R), 45 mA (B) and 45 mA (B) respectively. The measured power conversion efficiencies are 0.913 W/A (R), 0.453 W/A (G) and 0.682 W/A (B) respectively.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Measured RGB optical spectra at the output of Tx. (b) Measured optical output powers of the R, G, B LDs at different biased currents.

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3. Results and discussions

The measured SNRs, bit-loaded and power-loaded p- and s-polarization R, G and B color channels are illustrated in this section. The bit-loading and power-loading applied are based on the SNRs of different OFDM subcarriers received at the Rx. Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the measured SNRs, bit-loaded and power-loaded of the p-polarization R channel respectively; while Figs. 4(c) and 4(d) show measured SNRs, bit-loaded and power-loaded of the s-polarization R channel respectively. The averaged measured SNRs of p-polarization and s-polarization R channels are 20.9 dB and 21.09 dB, respectively. The highest level of bit-loading applied is 7, and representing 128-QAM can be employed. The constellation diagrams are illustrated in the insets of Figs. 4(b) and 4(d), showing 128-QAM, 64-QAM, 32-QAM, 16-QAM and 8-QAM respectively. As the s-polarization R channel has a higher SNR than the p-polarization, higher data rate can be applied. The data rates of the p- and s-polarization channels are 6.621 Gbit/s and 7.024 Gbit/s respectively; and their corresponding BERs are 2.876 × 10−3 and 2.19 × 10−3, respectively, satisfying the 7% pre-FEC threshold (BER = 3.8 × 10−3).

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Measured SNRs, bit-loaded and (b) power-loaded of the p-polarization and (c), (d) the corresponding s-polarization R channel. (e) Measured SNRs, bit-loaded and (f) power-loaded of the p-polarization and (g), (h) the corresponding s-polarization G channel. Measured (i) SNRs, bit-loaded and (j) power-loaded of the p-polarization, (k), (l) the corresponding s-polarization B channel.

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Figures 4(e) - 4(h) show the measured SNRs, bit-loaded and power-loaded for the p- and s-polarization G channel respectively. The averaged measured SNRs of p- and s-polarization G channels are 22.7 dB and 23.3 dB, respectively. We can also observe that the highest bit-loading level of 7 can be applied, and this means 128-QAM can be used. The data rates of the p- and s-polarization channels are 6.435 Gbit/s and 6.804 Gbit/s respectively; and their corresponding BERs are 2.514 × 10−3 and 2.832 × 10−3, respectively, satisfied 7% pre-FEC threshold.

Figures 4(i) - 4(l) show the measured SNRs, bit-loaded and power-loaded for the p- and s-polarization B channel respectively. The averaged measured SNRs of p- and s-polarization B channels are 21.96 dB and 21.93 dB, respectively. The data rates of the p- and s-polarization channels are 6.111 Gbit/s and 7.670 Gbit/s respectively; and their corresponding BERs are 2.579 × 10−3 and 3.092 × 10−3, respectively, satisfied 7% FEC threshold.

Then, the BER performances of the polarization and color de-multiplexed R, G, and B channels are evaluated. Figures 5(a) - 5(c) present the BER curves of the R, G, and B channels. The receiver sensitivities at FEC threshold for the R, G, and B channels are about 7.8 mW, 5.3 mW, and 5.7 mW respectively. The receiver sensitivity differences between the p- and s-polarization de-multiplexed channels are from 0.5 mW to 1 mW. This is due to the non-ideal orthogonal alignment of the p- and s-polarizations in the separated package of the two sets of RGB LDs.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Measured BER curves of color and polarization de-multiplexed (a) R, (b) G and (c) B color channels.

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4. Conclusion

It is predicted that the wireless traffic is booming rapidly particularly for indoor applications in the near future. As VLC can provide many transmission merits and to relieve the congested RF wireless communication spectrum, it is attracting many attentions recently. Previously reported VLC systems are limited by transmission distances and data rates. Here we demonstrated a LD VLC system with a recorded data rate of 40.665 Gbit/s using tricolor RGB LDs and polarization multiplexing satisfying 7% pre-FEC threshold. A transmission distance of 2 m was achieved. The implementation of bit-loading, power-loading and polarization multiplexing were discussed. The aggregated 40.665 Gbit/s RGB visible light transmission was achieved by using the tricolor signal: R channel of 13.645 Gbit/s, G channel of 13.239 Gbit/s, and B channel of 13.781 Gbit/s. The receiver sensitivities at FEC threshold for the R, G, and B channels were about 7.8 mW, 5.3 mW and 5.7 mW respectively. The receiver sensitivity differences between the p- and s-polarization de-multiplexed channels were from 0.5 mW to 1 mW.

Funding

Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (MOST-107-2221-E-009-118-MY3, MOST-106-2221-E-009-105-MY3); Higher Education Sprout Project; Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.

References

1. H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2015, Paper Tu2G.5.

2. K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015). [CrossRef]  

3. J. Vučić and K. D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communications: state-of-the-art,” Proc. OFC 2012, Paper OTh3G.3.

4. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

5. H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009). [CrossRef]  

6. N. Chi, Y. Zhou, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Huang, “Enabling technologies for high speed visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper Th1E.3. [CrossRef]  

7. W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014). [CrossRef]  

9. H. Yang, C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and A. Alphones, “Joint precoder and equalizer design for multi-user multi-cell MIMO VLC systems,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 67(12), 11354–11364 (2018). [CrossRef]  

10. C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016). [CrossRef]  

11. C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2. [CrossRef]  

12. H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016). [CrossRef]  

13. C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018). [CrossRef]  

14. C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. I. C. Lu, C. H. Lai, C. H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36 Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper W2A39. [CrossRef]  

18. R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016). [CrossRef]  

19. S. Watson, M. Tan, S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, G. Targowski, S. Grzanka, and A. E. Kelly, “Visible light communications using a directly modulated 422 nm GaN laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3792–3794 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. L. Y. Wei, C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “40-Gbit/s visible light communication using polarization- multiplexed R/G/B laser diodes with 2-m free-space transmission,” Proc. OFC2019, paper M3I.3. [CrossRef]  

22. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, and L. Y. Wei, “1250 Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(3), 7903205 (2019). [CrossRef]  

23. C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, “Visible light communication using OFDM,” Proc. of TRIDENTCOM2006, 9075550.

25. R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” Proc. of International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, 408–411. [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2015, Paper Tu2G.5.
  2. K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Vučić and K. D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communications: state-of-the-art,” Proc. OFC 2012, Paper OTh3G.3.
  4. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).
  5. H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Chi, Y. Zhou, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Huang, “Enabling technologies for high speed visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper Th1E.3.
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Yang, C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and A. Alphones, “Joint precoder and equalizer design for multi-user multi-cell MIMO VLC systems,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 67(12), 11354–11364 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2.
    [Crossref]
  12. H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. I. C. Lu, C. H. Lai, C. H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36 Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper W2A39.
    [Crossref]
  18. R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Watson, M. Tan, S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, G. Targowski, S. Grzanka, and A. E. Kelly, “Visible light communications using a directly modulated 422 nm GaN laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3792–3794 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. L. Y. Wei, C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “40-Gbit/s visible light communication using polarization- multiplexed R/G/B laser diodes with 2-m free-space transmission,” Proc. OFC2019, paper M3I.3.
    [Crossref]
  22. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, and L. Y. Wei, “1250 Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(3), 7903205 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, “Visible light communication using OFDM,” Proc. of TRIDENTCOM2006, 9075550.
  25. R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” Proc. of International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, 408–411.
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, and L. Y. Wei, “1250 Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(3), 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

H. Yang, C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and A. Alphones, “Joint precoder and equalizer design for multi-user multi-cell MIMO VLC systems,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 67(12), 11354–11364 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2009 (1)

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Afgani, M. Z.

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, “Visible light communication using OFDM,” Proc. of TRIDENTCOM2006, 9075550.

Alphones, A.

H. Yang, C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and A. Alphones, “Joint precoder and equalizer design for multi-user multi-cell MIMO VLC systems,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 67(12), 11354–11364 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baxley, R. J.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, G. K.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Chen, B. R.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

H. Yang, C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and A. Alphones, “Joint precoder and equalizer design for multi-user multi-cell MIMO VLC systems,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 67(12), 11354–11364 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, J.

I. C. Lu, C. H. Lai, C. H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36 Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper W2A39.
[Crossref]

Chen, J. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. Y.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C. J.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, N.

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Huang, “Enabling technologies for high speed visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper Th1E.3.
[Crossref]

Chi, Y. C.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhury, P.

Chow, C. W.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, and L. Y. Wei, “1250 Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(3), 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

L. Y. Wei, C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “40-Gbit/s visible light communication using polarization- multiplexed R/G/B laser diodes with 2-m free-space transmission,” Proc. OFC2019, paper M3I.3.
[Crossref]

Chu, C. A.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ciaramella, E.

Corsini, R.

Cossu, G.

Dawson, M. D.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Elgala, H.

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, “Visible light communication using OFDM,” Proc. of TRIDENTCOM2006, 9075550.

Faulkner, G.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R. X. G.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grzanka, S.

Gu, E.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, “Visible light communication using OFDM,” Proc. of TRIDENTCOM2006, 9075550.

H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2015, Paper Tu2G.5.

Hsu, C. H.

C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Wei, C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “40-Gbit/s visible light communication using polarization- multiplexed R/G/B laser diodes with 2-m free-space transmission,” Proc. OFC2019, paper M3I.3.
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. W.

C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Huang, “Enabling technologies for high speed visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper Th1E.3.
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. F.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Islam, A. R.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” Proc. of International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, 408–411.
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Watson, M. Tan, S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, G. Targowski, S. Grzanka, and A. E. Kelly, “Visible light communications using a directly modulated 422 nm GaN laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3792–3794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khalid, A. M.

Knipp, D.

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, “Visible light communication using OFDM,” Proc. of TRIDENTCOM2006, 9075550.

Lai, C. H.

I. C. Lu, C. H. Lai, C. H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36 Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper W2A39.
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leszczynski, M.

Li, C. Y.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, K.

Liao, X. L.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H. C.

Lin, H. H.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, K. H.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, W. Y.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, S.

C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. C.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. F.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. L.

C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Lu, H. H.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, I. C.

C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. C. Lu, C. H. Lai, C. H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36 Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper W2A39.
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Minh, H. L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Najda, S. P.

O’Brien, D.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y. J.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Penty, R. V.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Perlin, P.

Qian, H.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rahman, M. S.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” Proc. of International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, 408–411.
[Crossref]

Rajbhandari, S.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shafik, R. A.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” Proc. of International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, 408–411.
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Huang, “Enabling technologies for high speed visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper Th1E.3.
[Crossref]

Shiu, R. J.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, M.

Targowski, G.

Tsai, C. T.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, W. S.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. W.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Huang, “Enabling technologies for high speed visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper Th1E.3.
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. C.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, S.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Watson, M. Tan, S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, G. Targowski, S. Grzanka, and A. E. Kelly, “Visible light communications using a directly modulated 422 nm GaN laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3792–3794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, L. Y.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, and L. Y. Wei, “1250 Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(3), 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Y. Wei, C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “40-Gbit/s visible light communication using polarization- multiplexed R/G/B laser diodes with 2-m free-space transmission,” Proc. OFC2019, paper M3I.3.
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. J.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. W.

Wu, T. C.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, E.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and A. Alphones, “Joint precoder and equalizer design for multi-user multi-cell MIMO VLC systems,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 67(12), 11354–11364 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, and L. Y. Wei, “1250 Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(3), 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

L. Y. Wei, C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “40-Gbit/s visible light communication using polarization- multiplexed R/G/B laser diodes with 2-m free-space transmission,” Proc. OFC2019, paper M3I.3.
[Crossref]

I. C. Lu, C. H. Lai, C. H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36 Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper W2A39.
[Crossref]

Ying, K.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W. D.

H. Yang, C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and A. Alphones, “Joint precoder and equalizer design for multi-user multi-cell MIMO VLC systems,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 67(12), 11354–11364 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G. T.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Huang, “Enabling technologies for high speed visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper Th1E.3.
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

IEEE Photonics J. (4)

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lin, W. S. Tsai, C. A. Chu, B. R. Chen, and C. J. Wu, “An 8 m/9.6 Gbps underwater wireless optical communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 7906107 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure mobile-phone based visible light communications with different noise-ratio light-panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 7902806 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, and L. Y. Wei, “1250 Mbit/s OOK wireless white-light VLC transmission based on phosphor laser diode,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(3), 7903205 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3 × 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. L. Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a post-equalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. (1)

H. Yang, C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and A. Alphones, “Joint precoder and equalizer design for multi-user multi-cell MIMO VLC systems,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 67(12), 11354–11364 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Wirel. Commun. (1)

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G. K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Rep. (2)

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

M. Z. Afgani, H. Haas, H. Elgala, and D. Knipp, “Visible light communication using OFDM,” Proc. of TRIDENTCOM2006, 9075550.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” Proc. of International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, 408–411.
[Crossref]

C. W. Hsu, S. Liu, F. Lu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, and G. K. Chang, “Accurate indoor visible light positioning system utilizing machine learning technique with height tolerance,” Proc. OFC2018, Paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

L. Y. Wei, C. H. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “40-Gbit/s visible light communication using polarization- multiplexed R/G/B laser diodes with 2-m free-space transmission,” Proc. OFC2019, paper M3I.3.
[Crossref]

I. C. Lu, C. H. Lai, C. H. Yeh, and J. Chen, “6.36 Gbit/s RGB LED-based WDM MIMO visible light communication system employing OFDM modulation,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper W2A39.
[Crossref]

H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2015, Paper Tu2G.5.

J. Vučić and K. D. Langer, “High-speed visible light communications: state-of-the-art,” Proc. OFC 2012, Paper OTh3G.3.

N. Chi, Y. Zhou, J. Shi, Y. Wang, and X. Huang, “Enabling technologies for high speed visible light communication,” Proc. OFC2017, Paper Th1E.3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Architecture of the tricolor RGB LD VLC experiment. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; LD: laser diode; DM: dichroic mirrors; PBS: polarization beam splitter; PD: photodiode; RTO: real-time oscilloscope. (b) Encoding and decoding processes of OFDM in Matlab.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photographs of (a) top-view and (b) side-view of the polarization multiplexed tricolor RGB VLC Tx. (b) Measured RGB optical spectra at the output of Tx.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured RGB optical spectra at the output of Tx. (b) Measured optical output powers of the R, G, B LDs at different biased currents.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured SNRs, bit-loaded and (b) power-loaded of the p-polarization and (c), (d) the corresponding s-polarization R channel. (e) Measured SNRs, bit-loaded and (f) power-loaded of the p-polarization and (g), (h) the corresponding s-polarization G channel. Measured (i) SNRs, bit-loaded and (j) power-loaded of the p-polarization, (k), (l) the corresponding s-polarization B channel.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured BER curves of color and polarization de-multiplexed (a) R, (b) G and (c) B color channels.

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