Abstract

Discovering ways to increase the LED light extraction efficiency (LEE) should help create the largest performance improvement in the power of UV AlGaN LEDs. Employing surface roughening to increase the LEE of typical AlGaN UV LEDs is challenging and not well understood, yet it can be achieved easily in AlGaN LEDs grown on SiC. We fabricate thin-film UV LEDs (~294-310 nm) grown on SiC—with reflective contacts and roughened emission surface—to study and optimize KOH roughening of N-face AlN on the LEE as a function of roughened AlN pyramid size and KOH solution temperature. The LEE increased the most (2X) when the average AlN pyramid base diagonals (d) were comparable to the electroluminescence (EL) wavelength in the AlN layer (d ~λEL; 42–52 pyramids/µm2), but the LEE enhancement diminished when d was much larger than λEL (d ~5.5λEL; 2–3 pyramids/µm2). The UV LEDs had a 10 nm p-GaN contact layer, and the forward voltage was ~6 V at ~8 A/cm2, with a voltage efficiency (VE) of ~70%. The VE of the LEDs did not change after KOH roughening. This work suggests important implications to increase the LEE of AlGaN LEDs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have a wide range of potential applications including: curing systems, novel water- and surface-disinfection systems, DNA and protein assays, instrumentation, and sterilization of critical-care patients rooms [1–4]. AlGaN UV LEDs are expected to replace mercury lamps because UV LEDs are mercury-free, smaller, have higher disinfection efficacy, operate at a lower voltage, have simpler driving circuits, provide higher brightness, and can achieve higher power densities. Although the power conversion efficiency (PCE) (also known as “wall-plug-efficiency”) of typical, low-pressure mercury lamps is 20–30%, the surface power density of these cylindrical lamps is very low (~0.6 mW/mm2) [4]; by comparison, a UV LED with 0.01% PCE can deliver more than 0.6 mW/mm2 at typical operating currents; at 1% PCE, it can deliver more than 60 mW/mm2; at 10% PCE, the surface power density of UV LEDs is 1000-fold higher than that of low-pressure mercury lamps. However, the PCE of commercial UV LEDs still needs to improve beyond a single-digit percentage to improve LEDs’ reliability, increase their lifetime, and simplify heat sinking.

AlGaN LEDs’ power efficiency is limited by light extraction efficiency (LEE) [5–13]. Higher LEE of deep UV LEDs might be realized by focusing on developing an AlGaN thin-film flip chip (TFFC) structure with optimized roughened surfaces and high effective p-contact reflectivity. One advantage of growing AlGaN UV LEDs on SiC is the processing of LEDs into thin-film architectures [14–16]. Moreover, AlN can be grown on SiC with low threading dislocation density (TDD < 109 cm−2) using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) [17,18] and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) [19–22]. The TFFC geometry results in higher LEE of oblique TM emissions from the AlGaN quantum well than bulk flip-chip (FC) LEDs [8,23–25], as well as higher surface brightness than bulk FC UV LEDs [26]. For example, Ryu et al.’s. FDTD calculations [8] indicate that the LEE of TM emission in roughened thin-film LEDs is approximately six times higher than in bulk AlGaN FC-LEDs. Furthermore, the lateral TFFC LEDs avoid light losses through top n-contacts (in vertical injection n-contact TFFC) and wire-bonding wires.

N-face GaN roughening in aqueous KOH is very slow (without above-bandgap assistance, etch rate is less than 3 nm/min in 1 M KOH at room temperature) [27]. Guo et al. used photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching to accelerate GaN roughening in KOH by ~100X. Thin-film LEDs architecture is widely used in the blue and infrared LED literature; however, this technique has been largely underutilized in AlGaN UV LED research. This is partly because it is harder to make AlGaN thin-film LEDs [28,29], but it is also challenging to PEC etch N-face AlN in KOH at 210 nm because of the low density of the light source and absorption by air and water. However, at room temperature, and without above bandgap-assistance, N-face AlN etches in KOH at 600-1000 nm/min, which is similar to the etch rate of PEC etching of N-face GaN in KOH, and is sufficiently faster than the Al etch rate in dilute aqueous KOH (50-100 nm/min; Al is necessary to fabricate a reflective p-contact).

There have been a few attempts at creating TFFC LEDs with laser liftoff of the buffer layer [28–34]. However, KOH roughening as a means to improve LEE in UV-C LEDs, have largely been overlooked. For example, researchers have yet to demonstrate enhanced LEE by KOH roughening in AlGaN LEDs grown homoepitaxially on AlN substrates [10,35,36]. Two novel studies showed roughening of the N-polar surface but it resulted in either device degradation, emergence of a parasitic peak, and current leakage in a 325 nm LEDs [29] or it resulted in small improvements in LEE in a 343 nm LEDs [28]. We recently reported on the optimization of a highly selective SF6 plasma etch to remove the SiC substrate and expose a pristine AlN, and we demonstrated TFFC deep UV LEDs (278 nm LEDs) [16]. However, we did not study the impact of KOH temperature on LED LEE and pyramid density and size. This topic have important implications for optimizing the LEE of both: AlGaN TFFC LEDs and AlGaN LEDs grown on AlN and sapphire substrates.

In this paper, we studied the impact of the dilute KOH temperature on the AlN surface hexagonal pyramid dimensions, density and the LED LEE enhancement after KOH roughening. Rigorous ray tracing simulations predicted that the impact of submicron pyramids dimensions on LEE was negligible [37]; however, our results show that the LEE increased the most (2X) when the average AlN pyramids base diagonal (d) was comparable to the electroluminescence (EL) wavelength inside AlN (d ~λEL), but the LEE enhancement diminished when d was much larger than λEL (d ~5.5λEL). The LEE of the TFFC LEDs (294-310 nm) increased after KOH roughening without a penalty to the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics or voltage efficiency (VE).

2. Experimental and device description

AlGaN LEDs were grown by MOCVD (TNSC SR-4000HT MOCVD) on the Si-face of a c-plane (0001) SiC substrate. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the SiC substrate (SiCrystal Ag) is shown in Fig. 1(a) and the RMS roughness was ~1 nm. The MOCVD precursors were ammonia, trimethylgallium, and trimethylaluminum. Disilane and bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium (Cp2Mg) were used for AlGaN n- and p-doping, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) AFM of SiC substrate. (b) Epi structure of the UV AlGaN LED (~300 nm) grown on SiC.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 1(b) shows the LED structure, which consisted of six layers: an AlN buffer layer (700 nm), n- Al0.49Ga00.51N (1200 nm grown at 1175 °C), a 3x-MQWs (grown at 1175 °C): 3x (Al0.49Ga0.51N/Al0.36Ga0.64N), Al0.45Ga00.55N:Mg (70 nm grown at 1050 °C), and p-GaN:Mg (10 nm; AFM is shown in Fig. 2). The AlN buffer layer was grown on SiC substrates (70 nm at 1100 °C/600 nm at 1200 °C); further details are reported elsewhere [17,38].

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 AFM image of the surface p-GaN/AlGaN:Mg shows 3D island growth of 10 nm p-GaN.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

After the growth, the LED was annealed at 900 °C for 3 min under N2 to activate the Mg-doped p-GaN and AlGaN:Mg. The samples were then dipped in boiling aqua regia (HCl:HNO3 (3:1)) at 120 °C for 3 × 10 min to remove any oxide that formed on top of the p+-GaN. The LEDs’ mesas were etched with RIE (BCl3/SiCl4) to access the n-AlGaN layer. The samples were then dipped in DI water for 1 min and in HF for 30 sec to remove etch-residue. The n-contacts were deposited by electron beam evaporation (Ti/Al/Ni/Au) (10/100/100/300 nm) and annealed at 850 °C under a nitrogen flow for 30 sec, resulting in ohmic contacts. After annealing, Ti/Au (10/700 nm) was deposited on the n-contacts to provide soft and un-alloyed Au for bonding. Circular transmission line model (CTLM) measurements were performed to estimate the n-contacts’ specific resistivity. The p-contacts (0.0129 mm2) were deposited by electron beam (Ni/Al/Ni/Au) (2/100/100/1000 nm). Further details of the LED structure are given in Table 1. The n- and p-type contacts were aligned and bonded to a new carrier substrate by Au-Au thermocompression bonding; the new carrier substrate was prepared by patterning n- and p-pads (Ti/Au, 20/1000 nm) on a highly thermally conductive substrate (n-type SiC substrate covered with 100 nm of low-stress SiNx). After the bonding, the SiC growth substrate was thinned to 80 µm and subsequently removed by a highly selective SF6 plasma etch. The details of the thinning and the highly selective SF6 etch of SiC over AlN are described elsewhere [16].

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the structure of the UV LEDs (294-310 nm)

A schematic cross-section image of a TFFC UV LED with surface roughening is shown in Fig. 3. Figure 4(a) shows a micrograph of the LED’s n-contact (0.019 mm2) and p-contact (0.013 mm2) before FC bonding. Figure 4(b) shows a micrograph of the TFFC LED after complete SiC substrate removal. Figure 4(c) shows an SEM image of a packaged TFFC UV LED. The freestanding thin-film AlN/n-AlGaN surrounding the LED was under tensile stress (concave-up thin-film). The excess suspended thin-film does not impact the operation of the LED and can be removed via an optional “haircut” lithography by etching a larger and deeper mesa around the LEDs mesa (into ~70% of the AlN thickness)—before FC bonding.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Schematic cross-section of TFFC UV LED with surface roughening (not to scale with the actual LED dimensions).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) A micrograph of the LED’s n-contact (0.019 mm2) and p-contact (0.013 mm2) before FC bonding. (b) A micrograph of a thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) TFFC UV LED after substrate removal. (c) SEM image of a packaged UV AlGaN TFFC LED (294-310 nm).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

We packaged the TFFC UV LEDs with TO-39 headers and measured them in a small integrating sphere (ISP 75, Instrument Systems GmbH) using a spectrophotometer (MAS 40 Mini-Array Spectrometer, Instrument Systems GmbH). The packaged LEDs were roughened in dilute KOH solution (0.25 M) at three temperatures (3.5 °C, 25 °C, 75 °C), and we observed the impact of KOH solution temperature on the pyramid dimensions and the LEE of the LEDs (refer to Table 2).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary for TFFC LED LEE enhancement after KOH roughening at different temperature. The LEE enhancement depends on pyramid density, dimensions and AlN/AlGaN etch depth.

3. Results and discussion

To study the impact of KOH solution temperature on LEE and AlN pyramid dimensions, we tested several LEDs at three temperatures (3.5 °C, 25 °C, and 75 °C). Larger pyramids resulted in less LEE than smaller pyramids when the pyramid diagonal was comparable to the emitted light wavelength in AlN (refer to Table 2 and Fig. 5). After KOH roughening, the light output and the LEE increased by 1.8X at 3.5 °C (refer to Fig. 5(a)), 2X at 25 °C (refer to Fig. 5(b)), and 1.15X at 75 °C (refer to Fig. 5(c)).

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 L-I curves for UV TFFC LEDs shows the impact of KOH (~0.25 mol/L) roughening on TFFC UV LED (~300 nm) light power, before and after roughening. The LEE enhancement after KOH roughening is shown in blue stars on the right ordinate axis. (a) At 3.5 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~1.8X. (b) At 25 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~2X. (c) At 75 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~1.15X.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In every LED we tested, in this study and elsewhere with thicker AlN [3], the marginal increase in the LEE enhancement reduced as the AlN etch depth (time) increased—well before etching most of the AlN. For example, Fig. 5a shows that the LEE enhancement was ~1.8X after KOH roughening for 88 sec and beyond (we show additional data at 119 sec and 129 sec). In Fig. 5b, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening for 15 sec and beyond (we show additional data at 20 sec). We present data after 26 sec of etching to show an example of what could happen if KOH started etching into the n-AlGaN, affecting its sheet resistance, as well as, etching into the active region and making leakage pathways.

KOH etching formed random hexagonal pyramids that roughened the N-face AlN surface, leading to increased LEE due to favorable scattering-geometry for light extraction [37] and a reduction in the effective refractive index of AlN [39]. The hexagonal pyramids are defined by {1011¯} [40] due to the etching rate ratio between these planes and the other AlN crystal planes facets (refer to Fig. 6).

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The effect of KOH temperature on AlN pyramid densities, average diagonal length (d) and the LEE. Surface roughening by KOH increased LEE. The LEE enhancement was ~2X at 25 °C and ~1.15X at 75 °C. The SEM images show that the KOH-etched surface has random hexagonal pyramids bound by {1011¯} facets. The relative LEE enhancement was limited to 2X because of: p-contact reflectivity (Ni/Al/Ni/Au; 2/100/100/1000 nm) and p-GaN thickness (10 nm).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 6 shows the effect of dilute KOH temperature on AlN hexagonal pyramid densities, average base diagonal length (d), and the LEE. The pyramids density was ~50 pyramids/µm2 at 25 °C which was ~20X larger than the pyramid density at (~75 °C). This result suggests that the pyramids (etching hillocks) are not controlled solely by threading dislocations. Moreover, the KOH solution temperature impacts the ratio between the net lateral and vertical etch rates which affect the pyramids density and height.

The LEE was enhanced by 2X by roughening in KOH at room temperature (~25 °C) with a pyramid density of 42–52 pyramids/µm2 (d ~190–170 nm ~λEL), but only by 1.1X at 75 °C with a pyramid density of around 2–3 pyramids/µm2 (d ~880–715 nm ~5.5λEL)—as shown in Fig. 6. The LEE was larger when the pyramid diagonal was comparable to the emitted light wavelength in AlN (λEL ~142 nm if the refractive index of AlN at 297 nm is 2.1) than when λEL << d. These results suggest that LEE-enhancing structures fabricated by dry etching, need to be comparable to the emitted UV light wavelength. Inoue et al. [36] demonstrated a 2X relative enhancement in bulk FC UV LEDs by fabricating submicron circular AlN cones on the back side of the AlN substrate using dry etching and nanoimprint lithography, and we observe that the optimal structure dimensions in Inoue et al. [36] (submicron cones with d ~240 nm) were also comparable to the emitted UV light wavelength in AlN.

Although ray tracing simulations for TE polarized emission indicate that larger pyramids are as efficient for light extraction as smaller pyramids [37], TM polarized emission is emitted in-plane, and the LEE could diminish due to poor light extraction at high incident angles. Moreover, ray tracing simulations do not account for the wave nature of light at subwavelength dimensions [41] and coherence effects, such as diffraction and interference [41–43].

There are two main reasons for the light extraction being limited to 2X in this paper was: p+-GaN absorption and p-contact absorption. The p-contact (2/100/100/1000 nm) reflectivity was ~60% in the 290-300 nm range. Moreover, GaN has an absorption coefficient of ~1.5 × 105 cm−1 at 275 nm [44], and p+-GaN absorption could be even higher. An absorption coefficient of 1.5 × 105–2.0 × 105 cm−1 in a total of 20 nm (2 × 10 nm) of p-GaN will cause 26–33% of absorption losses per pass. With thinner p-GaN (5 nm) and more reflective p-contact (76% at 275 nm), we reported elsewhere [16] higher relative enhancement in LEDs LEE after KOH roughening.

The I-V characteristics of the LEDs did not change before, or during, roughening, as shown in Fig. 7(a). Roughening N-face AlN is more advantageous than roughening of n-AlGaN [29] and led to increased gains in LEE without impacting the LEDs VE or I-V characteristics. Moreover, AlN has a lower refractive index than Al0.6Ga0.4N, which enables AlN pyramids to extract more light than Al0.6Ga0.4N pyramids. Also, the sheet resistance of the n-AlGaN layer did not increase nor caused a leakage. However, if the LEDs were over-etched, the LEDs became leaky diodes as the KOH etched through the AlN, AlGaN, and into the active region. With increasing forward currents, a slight redshift of the electroluminescence (EL) peak wavelength was observed (data not shown), a redshift by ~1 nm over 200 A/cm2 to 400 A/cm2. This result indicates good thermal performance and uniform Au-Au bonding at 300 °C.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 (a) J-V curve of a 294–295 nm TFFC LED under DC operation shows the impact of KOH (at 25 °C) roughening on J-V characteristics. (b) LI curve shows the impact of (0.25 M) KOH roughening (at 25 °C) on TFFC LED light power, before roughening. (c) Voltage efficiency (VE) of a 297 nm LED.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The resistance for a typical UV LED was ~3 mΩ cm−2 (24 Ω), and the resistance was dominated by the p-contact resistance (~11.6 Ω), n-contact resistance (~2.6 Ω), and p-AlGaN series resistance (~10 Ω). Because the n- and p- contacts area of the LEDs were relatively small (refer to Fig. 3(a)), their excess voltage contribution to the LEDs was high (11% from the n-contact resistance, 48% from the p-contact resistance, and 41% from the AlGaN:Mg resistance; refer to Fig. 8). The n-contacts were ohmic, with specific contact resistance of 5 × 10−4 Ω cm2. Replacing the Ti-based n-contacts with V-based n-contacts [45,46] will make n-contact resistance contribution to voltage negligible. The p-contact specific resistance the ultrathin 10 nm p-GaN (AFM showed 3D island growth, and is shown in Fig. 2) was estimated to be 1.5 × 10−3 Ω cm2. Increasing the LED and p-contact area will reduce the p-contact resistance contribution.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Estimate of series resistance (excess voltage) contribution to TFFC LED (p-contact area is 0.013 mm2). Current spreading in the n-AlGaN layer was uniform.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The series resistance of the LED limits the VE, which is defined as the ratio between the photon energy and the potential energy of injected electrons, which corresponds to the ratio between the PCE and EQE. The VE for state-of-the-art UV LEDs (275 nm) ranges from 47%–70% at 20 mA [47,48], whereas for the best commercial blue LEDs, VE approaches 95% [49] and 99% [50]. Figure 7(a) shows LEDs with a forward voltage of ~6 V at 7.8 A/cm2 (1 mA), and Fig. 7(b) shows that the VE of 56% at 45 A/cm2; the VE was ~70% at 20 A/cm2. As a result of the LED series resistance, the voltage drop at higher current density was high; for example, in Fig. 7(a), 6.4 V at 20 A/cm2. There is a tradeoff between the VE, which characterizes voltage losses in contacts and LED layers, and LEE, which characterizes light losses in contacts and LED layers, as it is challenging to achieve low contact resistance with reflective contacts; however, we show that the TFFC LED approach can result in good VE and LEE.

Although we conducted the demonstration on LEDs of ~0.013 mm2, the LED area is scalable to larger LED areas (> 1 mm2) [51] that have lower p-contact resistance. The TFFC LED luminous flux directly scales with the thin-film LEDs’ emitting area [52].

4. Summary

KOH roughening of AlN in AlGaN TFFC LEDs increased the LEE due to favorable geometry for light extraction by scattering and the reduction in the effective refractive index of AlN. We inspected the impact of dilute KOH temperature on roughening the N-face AlN surface of LEDs, by quantifying the roughening hexagonal pyramid density and dimensions. We observed that the LED LEE increased more when the average pyramid diagonals (d) was comparable to λEL in AlN than when d was much larger than λEL (d ~5.5λEL). The highest increase in LEE of the TFFC LEDs (p-contact reflectivity ~60%) was ~2X after the KOH roughening at room temperature (25 °C)—without affecting the VE. The LEDs’ forward voltage was ~6 V at ~8 A/cm2, with a VE ~70%. This work has important implications for increasing the LEE of AlGaN LEDs grown homoepitaxially on bulk AlN substrates, or for any AlGaN UV LEDs that are processed into thin-film LEDs.

Funding

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) Technology Innovations Center (TIC) program; KACST-KAUST-UCSB Solid State Lighting Program; Solid State Lighting and Energy Electronics Center (SSLEEC) at UCSB; UCSB-Collaborative Research in Engineering, Science and Technology (CREST) Malaysia project; NSF NNIN network (ECS-0335765); NSF MRSEC Program (1650114); National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (1650114).

Acknowledgments

Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and may not reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The authors would like to thank Claude Weisbuch for useful discussions and the cleanroom staff at UCSB nanofabrication facility.

References

1. M. A. Lange, T. Kolbe, and M. Jekel, Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes for Water Disinfection (Springer, 2016), pp. 267–291.

2. K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. J. Pagan, O. Lawal, “Coming of Age - UV-C LED Technology Update,” AquiSense Technologies, 2015).

5. T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017). [CrossRef]  

6. Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. J. Yun and H. Hirayama, “Investigation of the light-extraction efficiency in 280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes having a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013105 (2017). [CrossRef]  

8. H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013). [CrossRef]  

9. J. Rass and N. Lobo-Ploch, “Optical Polarization and Light Extraction from UV LEDs,” in III-Nitride Ultraviolet Emitters, M. Kneissl and J. Rass, eds. (Springer, 2016).

10. J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013). [CrossRef]  

11. T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011). [CrossRef]  

12. Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016). [CrossRef]  

13. Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017). [CrossRef]  

14. B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Epi-Transfer Technology for High EQE UV LEDs Grown on SiC (Late News),” presented at the International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (IWN) ,Orlando, FL, USA, 2–7 Oct. 2016.

15. B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

16. B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019). [CrossRef]  

17. H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018). [CrossRef]  

18. J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018). [CrossRef]  

19. H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012). [CrossRef]  

20. W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

21. H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011). [CrossRef]  

22. H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014). [CrossRef]  

23. B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018). [CrossRef]  

25. S. Zhou, X. Liu, H. Yan, Z. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient GaN-based high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A669 (2019). [CrossRef]  

26. O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

27. D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012). [CrossRef]  

29. L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006). [CrossRef]  

30. V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009). [CrossRef]  

31. F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013). [CrossRef]  

32. M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013). [CrossRef]  

33. H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017). [CrossRef]  

34. S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011). [CrossRef]  

35. W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015). [CrossRef]  

36. S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017). [CrossRef]  

37. C. Lalau Keraly, L. Kuritzky, M. Cochet, and C. Weisbuch, “Light Extraction Efficiency Part A. Ray Tracing for Light Extraction Efficiency (LEE) Modeling in Nitride LEDs,” in III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications (Springer, 2013), pp. 231–269.

38. B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

39. C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).

40. Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004). [CrossRef]  

41. A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013). [CrossRef]  

42. M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016). [CrossRef]  

43. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998). [CrossRef]  

44. J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997). [CrossRef]  

45. R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007). [CrossRef]  

46. M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013). [CrossRef]  

47. M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017). [CrossRef]  

48. “LG Innotek Unveils the World’s First ‘100mW’ UV-C LED - LG Innotek,” http://www.lginnotek.com/en/itk_news/lg-innotek-unveils-worlds-first-100mw-uv-c-led/.

49. C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015). [CrossRef]  

50. S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Liu, M. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

51. B. K. SaifAddin, “Development of Deep Ultraviolet (UV-C) Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on SiC,” PhD thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2018.

52. V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. A. Lange, T. Kolbe, and M. Jekel, Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes for Water Disinfection (Springer, 2016), pp. 267–291.
  2. K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Pagan, O. Lawal, “Coming of Age - UV-C LED Technology Update,” AquiSense Technologies, 2015).
  5. T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Yun and H. Hirayama, “Investigation of the light-extraction efficiency in 280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes having a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013105 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Rass and N. Lobo-Ploch, “Optical Polarization and Light Extraction from UV LEDs,” in III-Nitride Ultraviolet Emitters, M. Kneissl and J. Rass, eds. (Springer, 2016).
  10. J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Epi-Transfer Technology for High EQE UV LEDs Grown on SiC (Late News),” presented at the International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (IWN) ,Orlando, FL, USA, 2–7 Oct. 2016.
  15. B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).
  16. B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).
  21. H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Zhou, X. Liu, H. Yan, Z. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient GaN-based high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A669 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  26. O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
  27. D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  35. W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  37. C. Lalau Keraly, L. Kuritzky, M. Cochet, and C. Weisbuch, “Light Extraction Efficiency Part A. Ray Tracing for Light Extraction Efficiency (LEE) Modeling in Nitride LEDs,” in III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications (Springer, 2013), pp. 231–269.
  38. B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).
  39. C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).
  40. Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  42. M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  43. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  44. J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  45. R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  46. M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  47. M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  48. “LG Innotek Unveils the World’s First ‘100mW’ UV-C LED - LG Innotek,” http://www.lginnotek.com/en/itk_news/lg-innotek-unveils-worlds-first-100mw-uv-c-led/ .
  49. C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  50. S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Liu, M. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. B. K. SaifAddin, “Development of Deep Ultraviolet (UV-C) Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on SiC,” PhD thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2018.
  52. V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

2019 (2)

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, H. Yan, Z. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient GaN-based high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A669 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

2017 (9)

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yun and H. Hirayama, “Investigation of the light-extraction efficiency in 280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes having a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Liu, M. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

2011 (3)

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

2004 (2)

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

1998 (1)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Addin, B. S.

Adivarahan, V.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, I.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al Yamani, A.

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

Albadri, A.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alif, M. E.

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

Allerman, A. A.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Almogbel, A.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Alyamani, A.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aoshima, H.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, A. M.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asif, F.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bader, S.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Bahl, M.

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bajaj, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bhattarai, D.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Bryan, I.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bryan, Z.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Casey, H. C.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cassarly, W.

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekaran, R.

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-C.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.-S.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, I.-G.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coleman, A.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Neve, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
[Crossref]

DeLille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Den Baars, S. P.

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

DenBaars, S. P.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Ding, X.

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dion, J.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eberhard, F.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Einfeldt, S.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eisert, D.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fareed, Q.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

Foronda, H.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Foronda, H. M.

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

France, R.

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fujita, T.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukahori, S.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Liu, M. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G. A.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaynes, S.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gherasimova, M.

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gibb, S. R.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gilmar, C.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goetz, W.

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grandusky, J. R.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grzonka, J.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gui, C.

Guo, W.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haerle, V.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Hahn, B.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Han, J.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heidari, A.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heller, E.

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hirano, A.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yun and H. Hirayama, “Investigation of the light-extraction efficiency in 280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes having a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Honda, Y.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hou, M.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hussey, L.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D.

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inazu, T.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Inoue, S.

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ippommatsu, M.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Islam, M.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ito, S.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Jain, R.

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, S.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Kamiyama, S.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kao, C.-K.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Keller, B. P.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kesler, A.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, I.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kimoto, T.

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kirste, R.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kolbas, R. M.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Krishnamoorthy, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krüger, O.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Külberg, A.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lachab, M.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lapeyrade, M.

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lemettinen, J.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Liu, M. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

McDonnell, B.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendrick, M. C.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mino, T.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moe, C. G.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mogilatenko, A.

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mohseni, M.

K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moldawer, A.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Morgan, D.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moseley, M. W.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moustakas, T. D.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muhin, A.

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muth, J. F.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nagasawa, Y.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Nazir, H.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nikiforov, A. Y.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Noguchi, N.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Okumura, H.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Palacios, T.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pegues, D. A.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernot, C.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plössl, A.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Qin, Z.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajan, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rass, J.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reddy, P.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z.

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rodak, L.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rudzinski, M.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saifaddin, B.

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

Saifaddin, B. K.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Sakai, J.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Saxena, T.

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

Scarmozzino, R.

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schowalter, L. J.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Shim, J.-I.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shmagin, I. K.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sitar, Z.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. J.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Song, K.

K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suda, J.

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suihkonen, S.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Taghipour, F.

K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takano, T.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takeda, K.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takehara, K.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tamari, N.

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, M.

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thomidis, C.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Tsubaki, K.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tweedie, J.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weimar, A.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Weisbuch, C.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Woodward, J.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Wraback, M.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

Xie, H.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

Yan, J.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yonkee, B. P.

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, E. C.

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, J.

J. Yun and H. Hirayama, “Investigation of the light-extraction efficiency in 280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes having a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeimer, U.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

Zollner, C.

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zollner, C. J.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Appl. Phys. Express (8)

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
[Crossref]

Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. (1)

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Yun and H. Hirayama, “Investigation of the light-extraction efficiency in 280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes having a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013105 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. (1)

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (3)

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Semimet. (1)

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Water Res. (1)

K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

M. A. Lange, T. Kolbe, and M. Jekel, Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes for Water Disinfection (Springer, 2016), pp. 267–291.

J. Pagan, O. Lawal, “Coming of Age - UV-C LED Technology Update,” AquiSense Technologies, 2015).

J. Rass and N. Lobo-Ploch, “Optical Polarization and Light Extraction from UV LEDs,” in III-Nitride Ultraviolet Emitters, M. Kneissl and J. Rass, eds. (Springer, 2016).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Epi-Transfer Technology for High EQE UV LEDs Grown on SiC (Late News),” presented at the International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (IWN) ,Orlando, FL, USA, 2–7 Oct. 2016.

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

C. Lalau Keraly, L. Kuritzky, M. Cochet, and C. Weisbuch, “Light Extraction Efficiency Part A. Ray Tracing for Light Extraction Efficiency (LEE) Modeling in Nitride LEDs,” in III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications (Springer, 2013), pp. 231–269.

“LG Innotek Unveils the World’s First ‘100mW’ UV-C LED - LG Innotek,” http://www.lginnotek.com/en/itk_news/lg-innotek-unveils-worlds-first-100mw-uv-c-led/ .

C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).

B. K. SaifAddin, “Development of Deep Ultraviolet (UV-C) Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on SiC,” PhD thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2018.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) AFM of SiC substrate. (b) Epi structure of the UV AlGaN LED (~300 nm) grown on SiC.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AFM image of the surface p-GaN/AlGaN:Mg shows 3D island growth of 10 nm p-GaN.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic cross-section of TFFC UV LED with surface roughening (not to scale with the actual LED dimensions).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) A micrograph of the LED’s n-contact (0.019 mm2) and p-contact (0.013 mm2) before FC bonding. (b) A micrograph of a thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) TFFC UV LED after substrate removal. (c) SEM image of a packaged UV AlGaN TFFC LED (294-310 nm).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 L-I curves for UV TFFC LEDs shows the impact of KOH (~0.25 mol/L) roughening on TFFC UV LED (~300 nm) light power, before and after roughening. The LEE enhancement after KOH roughening is shown in blue stars on the right ordinate axis. (a) At 3.5 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~1.8X. (b) At 25 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~2X. (c) At 75 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~1.15X.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The effect of KOH temperature on AlN pyramid densities, average diagonal length (d) and the LEE. Surface roughening by KOH increased LEE. The LEE enhancement was ~2X at 25 °C and ~1.15X at 75 °C. The SEM images show that the KOH-etched surface has random hexagonal pyramids bound by { 10 11 ¯ } facets. The relative LEE enhancement was limited to 2X because of: p-contact reflectivity (Ni/Al/Ni/Au; 2/100/100/1000 nm) and p-GaN thickness (10 nm).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) J-V curve of a 294–295 nm TFFC LED under DC operation shows the impact of KOH (at 25 °C) roughening on J-V characteristics. (b) LI curve shows the impact of (0.25 M) KOH roughening (at 25 °C) on TFFC LED light power, before roughening. (c) Voltage efficiency (VE) of a 297 nm LED.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Estimate of series resistance (excess voltage) contribution to TFFC LED (p-contact area is 0.013 mm2). Current spreading in the n-AlGaN layer was uniform.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the structure of the UV LEDs (294-310 nm)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary for TFFC LED LEE enhancement after KOH roughening at different temperature. The LEE enhancement depends on pyramid density, dimensions and AlN/AlGaN etch depth.

Metrics