Abstract

In this paper, we present a patterned graphene-hBN metamaterial structure and theoretically demonstrate the tunable multi-wavelength absorption within the hybrid structure. The simulation results show that the hybrid plasmon-phonon polariton modes originate from the coupling between plasmon polaritons in graphene and phonons in hBN, which are responsible for the triple-band absorption. By varying the Fermi level of graphene patterns, the absorption peaks can be tuned dynamically and continuously, and the surface plasmon-phonon polariton modes in the proposed structure enable high absorption and wideband tunability. In addition, how different structural parameters affect the absorption spectra is discussed. This work provides us a new method for the control and enhancement of plasmon-phonon polariton interactions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a two-dimensional natural Van der Waals crystal, which attracted recent attention due to its inherent hyperbolic dispersion relation and ability to support hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) [1–7]. On the other hand, graphene is an atomically thin plasmonic material that can support surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) from optical to terahertz frequency range [8–14]. As both hBN HPhPs and graphene SPPs reside in the mid-IR region, a hybrid graphene–hBN film would bring the advantages of electrical tunability of graphene and high quality factor of hBN polariton resonances, providing an effective and viable modulation of hyperbolic polaritons in such van der Waals heterostructure.

Recently, mid IR and optical properties of graphene-hBN heterostructures has been investigated. Kumar et al. [15] explored light-matter interaction within two Reststrahlen bands of hBN. Ye et al. [16] presented graphene-coated hBN nanowires which supported both SPP and HPhP modes. Meanwhile, electromagnetic wave propagation in multilayer graphene-hBN heterostructures were intensively studied [17–20]. Simulations and experiments show that a graphene-hBN hyper crystal exhibits both tunable and hyperbolic characteristics. Moreover, the coupling of plasmon polaritons in graphene and phonons in hBN leads to hybrid plasmon–phonon polaritons modes, which has great potential in IR applications including sensors, filters, thermal management and many others [21–23].

Combining plasmonic graphene and phonon hBN material together, one can enhance and control the HPhPs-SPPs coupling [24,25]. Previous studies focusing on graphene-hBN hybrid platform utilize a continuous graphene sheet, which does not provide significant enhancement due to lack of strong localized plasmonic resonances. A promising way is to use metal gratings covered by hBN to improve the absorption characteristics. Magnetic polaritons coupled with HPhPs in hBN can create hybrid phonon-plasmon polaritons to enhance the absorption [26], although the tunable bandwidth of the structure is limited due to the strong coupling of magnetic polaritons. Therefore, exploring new mechanisms to achieve broadband tunability remains an active research field.

In this paper, we presented a patterned graphene-hBN metasurface, which merit the advantages of strong plasmon-phonon interactions and wideband tunability. To the best of our knowledge, the plasmonic-phononic coupling in the patterned graphene-hBN structure has been seldom reported. Hajian et al. [27] theoretically demonstrated that the nearly perfect absorption by patterned graphene-hBN-graphene in the mid-IR region. However, the patterned hBN with relatively large thickness breeds multiple hybrid resonant modes and brings difficulties for tuning absorption peaks continuously. Here, we used hBN substrate with small thickness to reduce extra hybrid modes. It should be noticed that the reduction of hBN thickness leads to a significant reduction of intensity of hyperbolic phonon resonance. However, we can still expect a strong plasmon-phonon coupling between surface plasmons in graphene and second phonons in the hBN. Based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, the absorption and electromagnetic field distribution were analyzed. By varying the Fermi energy of graphene pattern, the absorption peaks can be tuned dynamically and continuously. This study offers new opportunities for the study and the control of plasmon-phonon interactions in a hybrid patterned graphene-hBN structure.

2. Method and analysis

The configuration of the hybrid structure, composed of patterned graphene/hBN heterostructure and lossfree dielectric substrate with a constant refractive index of n = 1.7, is illustrated in Fig. 1. The proposed structure is periodic along both the x and y directions with a period p. Moreover, the length of the square hole patch in graphene is d. The thickness of the hBN and dielectric substrate layer is denoted as t and h, respectively. In this simulation, the geometric parameters are p = 240 nm, d = 100 nm, t = 20 nm and h = 1.6 μm. The gold ground plane is set to be thick enough as there is no transmission through the substrate.

 

Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the patterned graphene- hBN hybrid structure with structural parameters p = 240 nm, d = 100 nm, t = 20 nm and h = 1.6 μm. (b) Real part of the dielectric function of hBN with perpendicular (black line) and parallel (red line) components.

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hBN is a natural uniaxial crystal in the infrared region. The permittivity of hBN is a tensor, characterized by two parts: ε||, which is along the crystal symmetry axis, and ε, which is in the basal plane. The hBN permittivity tensor is given by

ε=(ε000ε000ε)

In hBN, there are two Reststrahlen bands, the lower frequency Reststrahlen band, corresponds to Type I region (ε>0, ε<0), and the higher frequency Reststrahlen band, corresponds to Type II region (ε<0, ε>0). Two dielectric functions representing these two bands can be described by [15,28]

εhBN,m=ε,m+s1,m2ωTO1,m·ωLO1,mω2iωΓ1,m+s2,m2ωTO2,m·ωLO2,mω2iωΓ2,m
Where m = ⊥, ∥, and ω is wavenumber. ωTO, ωLO, ε and Γ correspond to the transverse (TO), longitudinal (LO) optic phonon frequencies, the high frequency permittivity and the damping constant, respectively. The parameters are listed in Table 1 as follow:

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters used in Eq. (2) to obtain the permittivity tensors of hBN

Figure 1(b) shows the calculated real parts of dielectric constants by fitting the perpendicular and parallel components of the hBN dielectric function. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the areas between the dash lines illustrate the two hyperbolicity bands. It should be noticed that besides the main peak near Type I region, there is a minor peak named the second phonon peak for ε [28]. For this structure, it is the second phonon resonance enables the plasmon-phonon coupling.

The complex surface conductivity of graphene includes both the interband and intraband transitions and is described by the Kubo formalisms [29,30]. However, at the infrared region, the interband component can be neglected, as the conductivity σ of graphene is given as follows [13,31]:

σ=e2EFπ2jω+jτ1

Here, EF is the Fermi level, τ is the relaxation time. In simulation, we choose the Fermi level EF=0.64eV. The relaxation time τ can be calculated by

τ=μEFevF2
Where vF is the Fermi velocity, set to 106 m/s, and μ is the mobility which is 10000 cm2 /Vs.

The numerical simulations were conducted using a finite-difference time domain technique (in Lumerical FDTD). In the simulation, periodic boundary conditions in x and y directions are applied to simulate an infinite area, while in z direction the perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition is utilized. Moreover, graphene sheet thickness is chosen to be 1 nm, and the mesh with graphene sheet is set to 0.25 nm to ensure the accuracy of the calculation.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2(a) shows the absorption spectra of the proposed structure. From wavelength of 8 to 18 μm, as shown in Fig. 2(a), there are three resonance peaks, corresponds to mode 1, mode 2, and mode 3, respectively. For comparison, Fig. 2(a) also includes the absorption spectra of the structures which have no graphene sheet and continuous graphene sheet. It is clear that only with patterned graphene can excite such a triple resonance. Moreover, the resonance peak frequency of mode 2 located outside the Type I region of hBN, as we can predict that it is originated from the second phonon resonance.

 

Fig. 2 (a) Absorption spectra of the structures in different cases and (b) contribution of the Pabs of graphene and hBN layer within the patterned graphene/hBN heterostructure.

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The absorption of the proposed structure can be further illustrated by power dissipation at every single layer of the structure, as the power absorption per unit volume (Pabs) is defined as [32]:

Pabs=12ωε0Im(ε)|E|2
Where ω is angular frequency, ε0 is the permittivity of vacuum, Im(ε) is the imaginary part of relative permittivity, and |E| is the magnitude of the electric field.

Figure 2(b) demonstrates the contribution of the Pabs distribution in graphene and hBN layer, as the hBN contributes a fully partial of absorption in mode 2, as well as a larger partial in mode 1 and 3. Hence, we can expect a strong power absorption within hBN layer due to the coupling between hBN phonons and graphene plasmons.

It is known that hybrid plasmon-phonon polaritons can be excited when combining graphene with hBN in hybrid structures. In addition, the hybrid polaritons can be categorized to surface plasmon-phonon polaritons (SP3) and hyperbolic plasmon-phonon polaritons (HP3) which are supported outside and inside of the Reststrahlen bands of hBN, respectively [21,27]. However, from the simulations above, we find that the second phonons can also lead to strong coupling with surface plasmons, exciting hybrid plasmon-phonon polaritons. To further comprehend the absorption mechanism, we calculated the electric field and Pabs distributions of the three resonant modes and results are shown in Fig. 3. For the first mode, shown in Fig. 3(a), there are obvious propagating surface plasmon polaritons travelling at the surface of graphene sheet, which indicates that SPP mode was produced within the hybrid structure. Similar phenomenon was observed in Fig. 3(e), as mode 3 is also related to SPP mode. On the other hand, the Pabs distributions in Figs. 3(b) and 3(f) suggested that for mode 1 and 3, there is still a certain amount of absorption taking place in hBN, as the surface plasmon polaritons in graphene couple with phonon polaritons in hBN, producing these two SP3 mode. However, for mode 2, the electric field distribution shown in Fig. 3(c) indicates that the intensity of plasmons at the surface of graphene are much weaker than that of SP3 modes. Moreover, from Fig. 3(d), most of the absorption is concentrated in the hBN layer, demonstrating that phonon polaritons in hBN dominate the plasmon-phonon coupling.

 

Fig. 3 Electric field and Pabs distribution in a cross-section of the hybrid structure. (a) and (b): mode 1; (c) and (d): mode 2; (e) and (f): mode 3.

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Figure 4(a) illustrates the tunability of the hybrid structure, i.e. the relationship between chemical potentials of graphene and the absorption spectra. For comparison, the tunability of the patterned graphene structure without hBN with same geometric parameters presented in Fig. 4(b) shows that the SPPs in graphene may have a wider range in wavelengths. However, it is the coupling between graphene and hBN that contribute to the hybrid resonance modes. As the chemical potential increases from 0.2 eV to 0.8 eV, all absorption peaks show blue shift. Meanwhile, peak absorption also varies with the change of chemical potential. It is worthy to notice that continuously increasing the chemical potential of graphene could move the peak frequency of mode 3 closer to that of mode 2 (second phonon resonance band). However, just like SP3 and HP3, the resonance frequencies of these two modes have no intersections. Moreover, for mode 1, the resonance frequency shows a redshift with the increase of chemical potential of graphene. It is interesting that the wavelength interval between mode 1 and mode 2 is larger than that between mode 2 and mode 3, which indicates that the SP3 mode cannot be supported within Reststrahlen band of hBN, even though there is no hyperbolic phonon resonance. As shown in Fig. 4(a), for the two SP3 modes, not only the peak absorption frequency but also the absorption intensity can be tuned within a fairly broad wavelength range.

 

Fig. 4 Absorption spectra of the patterned graphene structures for various chemical potentials. (a) With hBN and (b) Without hBN.

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Finally, we analyzed the effect of the structure geometry of the hybrid structure on the absorption spectrum. In the simulation, only one parameter, e.g., the periodicity (p), the length of the pattern in graphene (d), the thickness of the hBN (t), or the thickness of the dielectric substrate (h), was changed, while other parameters were fixed.

The simulation results for different p, d, t, and h are illustrated in Fig. 5. From Fig. 5(a), the increase of p causes the strong redshift of the two SP3 modes, since the increase of the overall length of the patterned graphene causes the increase of the inductance of the resonant structure. However, the reverse trend is observed in Fig. 5(b), as the increase of pattern length d leads to the decrease of the inductance. Hence, the absorption peaks move towards to higher frequencies. Figure 5(c) illustrate the dependence of hBN thickness t on absorption spectra, where the absorption rate of phonon mode is more dependent on t than that of SP3 modes. Moreover, compared with phonon mode, hBN thickness t plays a more important role on the resonant frequency of SP3 mode.

 

Fig. 5 Absorption spectrum dependence on different structural parameters: (a) periodicity, p, (b) length of the pattern in graphene, d, (c) thickness of the hBN, t, and (d) thickness of the dielectric substrate, h.

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Lastly, the effect of the dielectric substrate thicfkness h on the absorption spectra is presented in Fig. 5(d). As seen in Fig. 5(d), reducing h leads to a weaker absorption for all resonant modes. This can be attributed to the reduction of phonon resonance intensity which depends on the thickness of the substrate and thus, further weaken the plasmon-phonon coupling.

4. Conclusion

In summary, by combing patterned graphene with hBN, we have theoretically demonstrated the tunable multi-wavelength absorption within the hybrid structure. The electric field and Pabs distributions are investigated to elucidate the intrinsic mechanisms, and it is found that the hybrid plasmon-phonon polaritons modes, originate from the coupling between surface plasmons in patterned graphene and second phonons in hBN, are responsible for the multi-wavelength absorption. Moreover, by applying a voltage to the connected graphene patterns and the gold ground plane, one can easily change the chemical potential of graphene and tune these absorption peaks. This work can broaden the polariton coupling study which leads to the control of the plasmon-phonon interaction within a hybrid graphene-hBN structure, providing new potential application in the mid-IR detection.

Funding

Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Program (ONR-YIP) Award (N00014-17-1-2425), United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF) (2016388) and China Scholarship Council (CSC).

References

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2. Z. Jacob, “Nanophotonics: Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1081–1083 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials , 5(1), 015018 (2018).

6. J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016). [CrossRef]  

7. X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019). [CrossRef]  

8. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012). [CrossRef]  

11. L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017). [CrossRef]  

12. S. Baher and Z. Lorestaniweiss, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene surrounded by nonlinear dielectric media,” J. Appl. Phys. 124(7), 073103 (2018). [CrossRef]  

13. Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Enhanced infrared transmission through gold nanoslit arrays via surface plasmons in continuous graphene,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27882–27889 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. X. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Wu, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Multi-channel perfect absorber based on a one-dimensional topological photonic crystal heterostructure with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4256–4259 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. S. Ye, Z. Wang, C. Sun, C. Dong, B. Wei, B. Wu, and S. Jian, “Plasmon-phonon-polariton modes and field enhancement in graphene-coated hexagon boron nitride nanowire pairs,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23854–23867 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. H. Hajian, A. Ghobadi, S. Dereshgi, B. Butun, and E. Ozbay, “Hybrid plasmon-phonon polariton bands in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), D29–D35 (2017). [CrossRef]  

18. J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015). [CrossRef]  

20. K. Shi, F. Bao, and S. He, “Enhanced Near-Field Thermal Radiation Based on Multilayer Graphene-hBN Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 971–978 (2017). [CrossRef]  

21. S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. Y. Hajati, Z. Zanbouri, and M. Sabaeian, “Optimizing encapsulated graphene in hexagonal boron nitride toward low propagation loss and enhanced field confinement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36(5), 1189–1199 (2019). [CrossRef]  

25. Y. Hajati, Z. Zanbouri, and M. Sabaeian, “Low-loss and high-performance mid-infrared plasmon-phonon in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(2), 446–453 (2018). [CrossRef]  

26. Q. Pan, G. Zhang, R. Pan, J. Zhang, Y. Shuai, and H. Tan, “Tunable absorption as multi-wavelength at infrared on graphene/hBN/Al grating structure,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18230–18237 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. H. Hajian, A. Ghobadi, B. Butun, and E. Ozbay, “Tunable, omnidirectional, and nearly perfect resonant absorptions by a graphene-hBN-based hole array metamaterial,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16940–16954 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. R. Geick, C. H. Perry, and G. Rupprecht, “Normal modes in hexagonal boron nitride,” Phys. Rev. 146(2), 543–547 (1966). [CrossRef]  

29. A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(16), 161407 (2011). [CrossRef]  

30. Z. Liu, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Time-Varying Metasurfaces Based on Graphene Microribbon Arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2035–2039 (2016). [CrossRef]  

31. W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Jacob, “Nanophotonics: Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1081–1083 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).
  6. J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Baher and Z. Lorestaniweiss, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene surrounded by nonlinear dielectric media,” J. Appl. Phys. 124(7), 073103 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Enhanced infrared transmission through gold nanoslit arrays via surface plasmons in continuous graphene,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27882–27889 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. X. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Wu, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Multi-channel perfect absorber based on a one-dimensional topological photonic crystal heterostructure with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4256–4259 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. Ye, Z. Wang, C. Sun, C. Dong, B. Wei, B. Wu, and S. Jian, “Plasmon-phonon-polariton modes and field enhancement in graphene-coated hexagon boron nitride nanowire pairs,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23854–23867 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Hajian, A. Ghobadi, S. Dereshgi, B. Butun, and E. Ozbay, “Hybrid plasmon-phonon polariton bands in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), D29–D35 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. Shi, F. Bao, and S. He, “Enhanced Near-Field Thermal Radiation Based on Multilayer Graphene-hBN Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 971–978 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Hajati, Z. Zanbouri, and M. Sabaeian, “Optimizing encapsulated graphene in hexagonal boron nitride toward low propagation loss and enhanced field confinement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36(5), 1189–1199 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. Hajati, Z. Zanbouri, and M. Sabaeian, “Low-loss and high-performance mid-infrared plasmon-phonon in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(2), 446–453 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  26. Q. Pan, G. Zhang, R. Pan, J. Zhang, Y. Shuai, and H. Tan, “Tunable absorption as multi-wavelength at infrared on graphene/hBN/Al grating structure,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18230–18237 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. H. Hajian, A. Ghobadi, B. Butun, and E. Ozbay, “Tunable, omnidirectional, and nearly perfect resonant absorptions by a graphene-hBN-based hole array metamaterial,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16940–16954 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. R. Geick, C. H. Perry, and G. Rupprecht, “Normal modes in hexagonal boron nitride,” Phys. Rev. 146(2), 543–547 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(16), 161407 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. Z. Liu, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Time-Varying Metasurfaces Based on Graphene Microribbon Arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2035–2039 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2019 (2)

X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Hajati, Z. Zanbouri, and M. Sabaeian, “Optimizing encapsulated graphene in hexagonal boron nitride toward low propagation loss and enhanced field confinement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36(5), 1189–1199 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

Q. Pan, G. Zhang, R. Pan, J. Zhang, Y. Shuai, and H. Tan, “Tunable absorption as multi-wavelength at infrared on graphene/hBN/Al grating structure,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18230–18237 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

H. Hajian, A. Ghobadi, B. Butun, and E. Ozbay, “Tunable, omnidirectional, and nearly perfect resonant absorptions by a graphene-hBN-based hole array metamaterial,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16940–16954 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ye, Z. Wang, C. Sun, C. Dong, B. Wei, B. Wu, and S. Jian, “Plasmon-phonon-polariton modes and field enhancement in graphene-coated hexagon boron nitride nanowire pairs,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23854–23867 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baher and Z. Lorestaniweiss, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene surrounded by nonlinear dielectric media,” J. Appl. Phys. 124(7), 073103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Hajati, Z. Zanbouri, and M. Sabaeian, “Low-loss and high-performance mid-infrared plasmon-phonon in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(2), 446–453 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Wu, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Multi-channel perfect absorber based on a one-dimensional topological photonic crystal heterostructure with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4256–4259 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Hajian, A. Ghobadi, S. Dereshgi, B. Butun, and E. Ozbay, “Hybrid plasmon-phonon polariton bands in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), D29–D35 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Shi, F. Bao, and S. He, “Enhanced Near-Field Thermal Radiation Based on Multilayer Graphene-hBN Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 971–978 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Enhanced infrared transmission through gold nanoslit arrays via surface plasmons in continuous graphene,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27882–27889 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Time-Varying Metasurfaces Based on Graphene Microribbon Arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2035–2039 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, “Nanophotonics: Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1081–1083 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(16), 161407 (2011).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

R. Geick, C. H. Perry, and G. Rupprecht, “Normal modes in hexagonal boron nitride,” Phys. Rev. 146(2), 543–547 (1966).
[Crossref]

Andersen, T.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Enhanced infrared transmission through gold nanoslit arrays via surface plasmons in continuous graphene,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27882–27889 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Time-Varying Metasurfaces Based on Graphene Microribbon Arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2035–2039 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baher, S.

S. Baher and Z. Lorestaniweiss, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene surrounded by nonlinear dielectric media,” J. Appl. Phys. 124(7), 073103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bando, Y.

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, F.

K. Shi, F. Bao, and S. He, “Enhanced Near-Field Thermal Radiation Based on Multilayer Graphene-hBN Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 971–978 (2017).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brar, V. W.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burch, K. S.

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butun, B.

Butun, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caldwell, J. D.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

Chen, Y.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, S.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, X.

X. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Wu, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Multi-channel perfect absorber based on a one-dimensional topological photonic crystal heterostructure with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4256–4259 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dereshgi, S.

Dominguez, G.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C.

Ellis, C. T.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, D.

L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fang, N. X.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fei, Z.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fogler, M. M.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francescato, Y.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, K. H.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gannett, W.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
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A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(16), 161407 (2011).
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P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
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R. Geick, C. H. Perry, and G. Rupprecht, “Normal modes in hexagonal boron nitride,” Phys. Rev. 146(2), 543–547 (1966).
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Giannini, V.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
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X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
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J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
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X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
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S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
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A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(16), 161407 (2011).
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X. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Wu, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Multi-channel perfect absorber based on a one-dimensional topological photonic crystal heterostructure with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4256–4259 (2018).
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L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hajati, Y.

Hajian, H.

He, S.

K. Shi, F. Bao, and S. He, “Enhanced Near-Field Thermal Radiation Based on Multilayer Graphene-hBN Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 971–978 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hong, M.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
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Z. Jacob, “Nanophotonics: Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1081–1083 (2014).
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V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janssen, G. C.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jarillo-Herrero, P.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jian, S.

Jiang, J. H.

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Keilmann, F.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, L. B.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kocer, H.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kretinin, A. V.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewin, M.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, E.

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

Li, P.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

Li, Z.

Z. Liu, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Time-Varying Metasurfaces Based on Graphene Microribbon Arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2035–2039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y.

Lin, X.

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

Liu, M. K.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Enhanced infrared transmission through gold nanoslit arrays via surface plasmons in continuous graphene,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27882–27889 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Time-Varying Metasurfaces Based on Graphene Microribbon Arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2035–2039 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, J. J.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorestaniweiss, Z.

S. Baher and Z. Lorestaniweiss, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene surrounded by nonlinear dielectric media,” J. Appl. Phys. 124(7), 073103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Low, T.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, Q.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(16), 161407 (2011).
[Crossref]

McLeod, A. S.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musa, M.

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

Nikitin, A. Y.

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(16), 161407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

Palacios, E.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, Q.

Pan, R.

Perry, C. H.

R. Geick, C. H. Perry, and G. Rupprecht, “Normal modes in hexagonal boron nitride,” Phys. Rev. 146(2), 543–547 (1966).
[Crossref]

Polini, M.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regan, W.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rensing, R. G.

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Renuka, M.

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

Rodin, A. S.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rupprecht, G.

R. Geick, C. H. Perry, and G. Rupprecht, “Normal modes in hexagonal boron nitride,” Phys. Rev. 146(2), 543–547 (1966).
[Crossref]

Sabaeian, M.

Scheuer, J.

X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sherrott, M.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, K.

K. Shi, F. Bao, and S. He, “Enhanced Near-Field Thermal Radiation Based on Multilayer Graphene-hBN Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 971–978 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shu, J.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shuai, Y.

Song, X.

X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

Tan, H.

Taniguchi, T.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taubner, T.

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiemens, M.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tischler, J. G.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tongay, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakil, A.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, G. C.

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Wu, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Multi-channel perfect absorber based on a one-dimensional topological photonic crystal heterostructure with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4256–4259 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Watanabe, K.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, B.

Wen, S.

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Woods, C. R.

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

Wu, J.

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

X. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Wu, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Multi-channel perfect absorber based on a one-dimensional topological photonic crystal heterostructure with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4256–4259 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiang, Y.

X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Wu, J. Guo, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Multi-channel perfect absorber based on a one-dimensional topological photonic crystal heterostructure with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4256–4259 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Turnable perfect absorption at infrared frequencies by a Graphene-hBN Hyper Crystal,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17103–17114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X. G.

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, S.

Zanbouri, Z.

Zettl, A.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

Zhang, G.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, H.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhi, C.

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S. E.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2D Materials (1)

M. Musa, M. Renuka, X. Lin, R. Li, H. Wang, E. Li, B. Zhang, and H. Chen, “Confined transverse electric phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitrides,” 2D Materials, 5(1), 015018 (2018).

ACS Nano (3)

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Xu, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, R. G. Rensing, K. S. Burch, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and G. C. Walker, “Mid-infrared polaritonic coupling between boron nitride nanotubes and graphene,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11305–11312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (3)

Z. Liu, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Time-Varying Metasurfaces Based on Graphene Microribbon Arrays,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2035–2039 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in Layered Graphene-Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Shi, F. Bao, and S. He, “Enhanced Near-Field Thermal Radiation Based on Multilayer Graphene-hBN Heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 971–978 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Baher and Z. Lorestaniweiss, “Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene surrounded by nonlinear dielectric media,” J. Appl. Phys. 124(7), 073103 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, H. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Guo, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and S. Wen, “Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203107 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Song, Z. Liu, J. Scheuer, Y. Xiang, and K. Aydin, “Tunable polaritonic metasurface absorbers in mid-IR based on hexagonal boron nitride and vanadium dioxide layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 52(16), 164002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

P. Li, M. Lewin, A. V. Kretinin, J. D. Caldwell, K. S. Novoselov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, F. Gaussmann, and T. Taubner, “Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caldwell, A. V. Kretinin, Y. Chen, V. Giannini, M. M. Fogler, Y. Francescato, C. T. Ellis, J. G. Tischler, C. R. Woods, A. J. Giles, M. Hong, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. A. Maier, and K. S. Novoselov, “Sub-diffractional volume-confined polaritons in the natural hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5221 (2014).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

Z. Jacob, “Nanophotonics: Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1081–1083 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. Janssen, S. E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. Geick, C. H. Perry, and G. Rupprecht, “Normal modes in hexagonal boron nitride,” Phys. Rev. 146(2), 543–547 (1966).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(16), 161407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuator B-Chem. (1)

L. Wu, J. Guo, Q. Wang, S. Lu, X. Dai, Y. Xiang, and D. Fan, “Sensitivity enhancement by using few-layer black phosphorus-graphene/TMDCs heterostructure in surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 249, 542–548 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the patterned graphene- hBN hybrid structure with structural parameters p = 240 nm, d = 100 nm, t = 20 nm and h = 1.6 μm. (b) Real part of the dielectric function of hBN with perpendicular (black line) and parallel (red line) components.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Absorption spectra of the structures in different cases and (b) contribution of the P abs of graphene and hBN layer within the patterned graphene/hBN heterostructure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electric field and P abs distribution in a cross-section of the hybrid structure. (a) and (b): mode 1; (c) and (d): mode 2; (e) and (f): mode 3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption spectra of the patterned graphene structures for various chemical potentials. (a) With hBN and (b) Without hBN.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Absorption spectrum dependence on different structural parameters: (a) periodicity, p, (b) length of the pattern in graphene, d, (c) thickness of the hBN, t, and (d) thickness of the dielectric substrate, h.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters used in Eq. (2) to obtain the permittivity tensors of hBN

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε=( ε 0 0 0 ε 0 0 0 ε )
ε hBN,m = ε ,m + s 1,m 2 ω TO1,m · ω LO1,m ω 2 iω Γ 1,m + s 2,m 2 ω TO2,m · ω LO2,m ω 2 iω Γ 2,m
σ= e 2 E F π 2 j ω+j τ 1
τ= μ E F e v F 2
P abs = 1 2 ω ε 0 Im(ε) | E | 2

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