Abstract

With their unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves, metamaterials provide a pathway to structural materials that can fill the so-called “THz gap”. It has been reported that vanadium dioxide (VO2) experiences a three orders of magnitude increase in THz electrical conductivity when it undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition. Here, we propose a VO2 based THz metamaterial absorber exhibiting broadband absorptivity that arises from the multiple resonances supported by a delicately balanced doubly periodic array of VO2 structures and numerically demonstrate that the corresponding absorption behavior is highly dependent on the VO2’s THz electrical properties. Considering the phase transition induced dramatic change in VO2’s material property, the proposed metamaterial absorbers have the potential for strong modulation and switching of broadband THz radiation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Substantial effort has been devoted to the development of devices that operate in the so-called ‘terahertz gap’, i.e., the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 THz, a spectral window that has been less explored than its microwave and optical counterparts. Nevertheless, terahertz spectroscopic tools have not been widely successful due to the lack of response from most naturally occurring materials in this window [1,2]. On the other hand, THz radiation is of great interest to researchers in a variety of fields, owing to its energetic equivalence to various biological, physical and chemical processes, which provides the basis for THz systems for nonionic bio-imaging, security screening and high-bit-rate communications, etc [1,2]. The manipulation of electromagnetic waves by structural materials has been well known for decades, but has only recently attracted renewed attention due to the emergence of metamaterials, which are artificial materials whose response can be tailored by controlling their subwavelength structure [3,4]. Importantly, terahertz metamaterials provide a pathway to creating artificial materials that are capable of filling the so-called “THz gap” [5].

Taking advantage of the subunit engineering offered by metamaterials, researchers have demonstrated versatile components that can manipulate THz radiation efficiently, including THz modulators [6–32], wavefront controllers [23–26] and polarization convertors [33–36]. In particular, metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) have recently attracted significant attention because of their capability for efficient THz radiation manipulation based on their specifically designed absorption properties. Nevertheless, like most conventional structural materials, THz MMAs in general suffer from two shortcomings that limit their usefulness, i.e., a narrow operating bandwidth and their fixed response. A large number of studies have been devoted to THz MMAs with broadband absorptivity or reconfigurability. In particular, three-dimensional resonators created by stacking alternating layers of dielectric/metal [37–39] or by patterning thick dielectric films [40] have been widely adopted for broadband THz MMAs, primarily due to their tailorable cavity modes. Planar THz MMAs with one intricately structured layer have also been reported [41]. On the other hand, active media, such as liquid crystals [13] and semiconductors [14] have been introduced into metallic structure based metamaterial systems to enable tunability, which have led to the development of MMA based THz spatial modulators [42], sensing [43] and imaging [44] devices. Nevertheless, THz MMAs that simultaneously possess broadband absorptivity and tunability over a large scale remain rare.

Vanadium dioxide (VO2), a common phase-change material that undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) near room temperature (~67 °C) has recently been utilized to enable reconfigurable metamaterials at THz [15,16,18] and optical frequencies [45–47]. IMT of VO2 can be achieved through direct thermal control or by optical excitation. Electrical signals triggered IMT has also been reported. Compared with other phase change materials [48,49], VO2 is particularly attractive for hybrid THz metamaterial systems due to the huge index change and the interesting hysteresis behavior during its phase transition. The latter has been used to demonstrate THz memory metamaterials [15]. We recently demonstrated that VO2 in its metallic phase can support strong THz resonance, which can be exploited to achieve highly tunable THz devices [50,51].

In this work, we numerically demonstrate a VO2 based THz metamaterial absorber exhibiting broadband absorptivity that arises from the multiple resonances supported by an intricate doubly periodic array of planar VO2 structures. We also demonstrate that the corresponding absorption is strongly dependent on the electrical properties of VO2 in the THz spectral regime. Field analyses are carried out to identify the localized absorption on different parts of the VO2 structure at a series of frequencies within the high absorption band. Furthermore, the dependence of absorption on incidence angle indicates that the proposed MMA can maintain its broadband absorption performance over a ± 50° field-of-view for the frequency band ranging from 0.61 to 1.36 THz. Moreover, due to the C4 rotational symmetry of the structure, this design is intrinsically polarization insensitive in case of small incidence angle [52]. Given the dynamic response of VO2 under external stimulus [53], the proposed systems may facilitate broadband and highly tunable THz metadevices [54,55].

2. Theory and numerical simulations

A close inspection of the reported planar structure comprising broadband MMAs reveals that there are two crucial factors that lead to the desired absorption behavior. First, the resonating structures, which are composed of subunits (for instance, coplanar sectional structures) with different geometrical parameters should be capable of supporting multiple electromagnetic resonances with a continuous spectral distribution. Second, lossy materials should be introduced to the MMA systems to further broaden the resonances and allow the corresponding spectral superposition that gives rise to a flat high absorption band. Employing a genetic algorithm optimization approach, an earlier demonstration of MMAs confirms that a single-layer lossy metal nanostructure array can be used to realize broadband ideal absorption in the mid-infrared regime [56].

Inspired by the design reported by Bossard et al [56], here we propose a broadband THz MMA based on a doubly periodic array of VO2 structures, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The VO2 layer is embedded in a SiO2 matrix that is located on top of an optically thick gold film. It has been previously established that the THz dielectric property of VO2 in its metallic phase can be described by a Drude model, ε(ω)= ε(ωp(σ1))2ω2+iγω, where ε is the permittivity at high frequency, ωp(σ1) is the conductivity dependent plasmon frequency and γ is the collision frequency [57]. Moreover, it can be shown that the plasmon frequency at σ1' can be approximately expressed as ωp2(σ1')=(σ1'σ1) ωp2(σ1). From measured data [16], we have determined that when σ1 = 3 × 103 Ω−1cm−1 (ε = 12), it follows that the corresponding ωp = 1.40 × 1015 rad/s, while γ = 5.75 × 1013 rad/s is assumed to be independent of σ1. On the right-hand side of Fig. 1, we show the THz permittivity of VO2 with a conductivity of σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1, in which the negative value of the real part and the large imaginary part of εVO2 indicate that VO2 in its metallic phase behaves like a ‘poor’ metal in the frequency range of interest. Consequently, as shown in Fig. 1, a combination of the sophisticated VO2 pattern and the resonant cavity created by the bottom three layers (VO2/SiO2/Au) is expected to result in multiple overlapping resonances responsible for the broadband absorptivity. Furthermore, a SiO2 layer with optimized thickness is applied on the top to further improve the impedance matching condition. Importantly, the pronounced tuning capability of the proposed MMA is afforded by the conductivity dependent dielectric properties of VO2 during the phase transition [50,51]. It should be noted that IMT of VO2 is sensitive to its lattice structure. The phase transition of the VO2 layer (embedded in SiO2) in the proposed metamaterials is expected to have characteristics slightly different from that of VO2 films on the sapphire substrate. Nevertheless, previous studies have demonstrated that the basic properties of VO2 films integrated with complex nanostructures can be well reserved [47,58]. We note that, compared with the absorbers reported by Bossard et al [56], MMAs in this work come with their own set of unique features and advantages. First, exploiting the phase transition of VO2, response of the proposed MMAs can be actively tuned, while tunability and reconfigurability are of great importance for designing metadevices with practical functionalities. Second, the proposed MMAs are capable of manipulating THz radiation based on VO2’s interesting material property in the same range, while Ref [56] was focused on mid-IR region. Considering the rare response from naturally occurring materials in this spectral window, THz metamaterials open a pathway to structural materials that fill the so-called “THz gap”. It should be noted that the phonon response may have significant influence on the optical properties of VO2. For instance, it has been reported that the IMT in VO2 is dominated by strongly anharmonic phonons rather than electronic contributions [59]. In addition, it has been demonstrated that structural defects can greatly affect the IMT of VO2 [60,61]. The control of structural defects (such as oxygen vacancy) may provide more flexibility in the design of VO2 based metadevices.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 A vanadium dioxide based broadband THz metamaterial absorber. The schematic depicts the structure of the MMA based on an elaborate VO2 pattern inspired by an earlier demonstration in the mid-infrared regime [56]. The 1-μm-thick VO2 layer is embedded in a SiO2 matrix that is located on top of an optically thick Au film. The schematic on the left shows the unit cell of the metamaterial. The geometric parameters (all unit in μm) are: P = 120, L = R = 48, g = 3, w = 9, Lc = 20, wc = 5.5, d1 = 42 and d2 = 24. The permittivity dispersion of VO2 with conductivity σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1cm−1 in the THz frequency range of interest is shown on the right.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

It should be noted that, although MMAs are usually based on delicately designed meta-atoms, finding their response which can be treated as the reflection of multiple interfaces is a classic problem. Given the great importance of MMAs in both fundamental and applied research, four theoretical approaches including effective medium theory [62], transmission line modelling [63], coupled mode theory [64], and interference theory [65] have been developed to describe the underlying physics of MMAs. The distinct advantages and limitations of these approaches have been comprehensively discussed in a recent review paper [66].

Here, using interference theory, we present the determination of the thickness of the two dielectric layers and the high-absorption band of the proposed MMA. Note that the layered structure illustrated in Fig. 1 is slightly different from most reported MMAs which have three (air-structure, spacer-structure, and spacer-substrate) interfaces. In our design the resonating VO2 structure is embedded in a dielectric matrix, which results in the fact that the response of the MMA is largely determined by the thickness (d1 and d2) of the two dielectric layers. It has been shown that, based upon the interference between the multiple reflections at the interfaces, the interference theory can accurately predict the reflection of the three-interface MMAs via the equation r = r12 + r23t12t21/(r21 + e-i2β), where r12, t12, r21, and t21 are the complex reflection and transmission coefficients at the air-structure and spacer-structure interfaces, and, due to the high conductivity of metals at THz frequencies, the reflection coefficient at the spacer-substrate interface r23 is assumed to be −1 [65,67]. Moreover, a multi-step approach can be utilized to calculate the overall reflection of a multilayer structure with more interfaces. Consequently, to simplify the calculation without loss accuracy, here we obtain the reflection of the proposed MMA from a two-step approach. In particular, as the schematic illustrated in Fig. 2(a) shows, the reflection (rS1) of ‘System 1’ (S1) which can be treated as a MMA surrounded by SiO2 is firstly calculated. And then, the reflection (rS2) of ‘System 2’ (S2), which represents the overall reflection of the proposed MMA, can be further obtained by considering r23S2 = rS1.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Interference theory based reflection analysis. (a) Schematic of the interference analysis. (b) Simulated complex reflection and transmission coefficients (r12S1 and t12S1) for the structure including the VO2-pattern embedded in a SiO2 matrix at normal incidence when σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1. (c) Absorption spectra of the MMA at normal incidence at a series of VO2 conductivity (σ1 in unit of Ω−1 cm−1). (d) The corresponding spectra of amplitude modulation.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In Fig. 2(b) we show the simulated complex reflection and transmission coefficients (r12S1 and t12S1) for the structure of patterned VO21 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1) embedded in SiO2 for y-polarization of THz wave at normal incidence. Due to the reciprocal property of the structure, we have r21S1 = r12S1 and t21S1 = t12S1, respectively. By applying the two-step approach mentioned above, we obtain the corresponding theoretical overall absorption (A = 1 - |r|2 and T = 0) spectrum of the proposed MMA (red curve in Fig. 2(c)), in which a highly absorptive band in the frequency range from ~0.6 THz to ~1.3 THz is evident. Furthermore, by using the simulated r12S1 and t12S1 at series of VO2 conductivity, we calculate the absorption spectra of the MMA as a function of σ1 (Fig. 2(c)). It can be seen that the change in VO2’s property may lead to dynamically tunable absorption property of the MMAs, implying the potential applicability of the proposed metamaterial for phase transition enabled active THz meta-devices. Another interesting observation is the near-unity absorption around 1.7 THz when VO2 shows intermediate conductivity (e.g. σ1 = 100 Ω−1 cm−1). This absorption peak is attributed to the interference induced strong absorption in the VO2 structure. Moreover, to manifest the corresponding tuning of the reflection signal that can be directly detected in practical applications, we define amplitude modulation (AM) as the variation in the MMA’s overall reflection magnitude relative to the case of insulator VO2, i.e., AM = |r(insu)| - |r1)| and show the corresponding results in Fig. 2(d). It should be noted that the relatively large periodicity of the VO2 pattern (P in Fig. 1) leads to diffraction effect at frequencies higher than ~1.3 THz. In our interference theory based calculation for normal incidence case only the zero-order wave is considered for two reasons: (i) the waves of higher-order mode carry rather limited power, and (ii) the high-absorption band of interest is located in the lower frequency range. Nevertheless, the theoretical approach used can still provide important guidance to the design of the proposed MMAs. It should be also noted that, to perform an accurate reflection analysis of metamaterials involving diffraction effect, interference theory taking into account higher-order diffracted waves especially for the case of oblique incidence is desired, but is beyond the scope of this work.

To elucidate the absorption response of the proposed MMAs, we performed full-wave simulations using the commercial finite integration package CST Microwave Studio. A unit cell of the structure was simulated by employing periodic boundary conditions, in which the SiO2 was modeled as a lossless dielectric with an index of 1.9. Figure 3(a) shows the absorption spectra of the MMA for a series of VO2 conductivity values. An absorptivity larger than 90% is observed in the frequency range from 0.61 to 1.36 THz, when VO2 possesses a conductivity higher than 400 Ω−1cm−1. In sharp contrast, the system absorbs less than 30% of the power of incident waves in the same band when the VO2 is in its insulator state (σ1 = 10 Ω−1 cm−1). Another interesting observation is that perfect absorption is achieved around 1.73 THz when σ1 = 100 Ω−1cm−1, which corresponds to the intermediate transition status of VO2. Different from the metallic-phase VO2 (e.g. σ1 = 2000 Ω−1cm−1) systems in which the planar VO2 structures’ resonance dominate the absorption behavior, this absorption peak is primarily determined by the Fabry-Perot resonance in the air/SiO2/VO2/SiO2/Au cavity system in which the VO2 layer behaves like a thin film. This is more evident in the field analysis as seen in a later discussion. The corresponding reflection amplitude modulation is shown in Fig. 3(b), which indicates the potential of the MMA for use in broadband THz reflection modulators. This is in good agreement with the theoretical approach based results shown in Fig. 2. To further identify the absorption contribution, the total absorption (open squares) of the MMA at four frequencies of interest is plotted in Fig. 3(c), along with the corresponding absorption in the gold ground plane (open circles), as a function of σ1. This reveals that almost all energy is dissipated as dielectric loss within the VO2 structures. Furthermore, Fig. 3(d) shows the absorption spectrum of the same system but with the constituent material of the patterned layer replaced by gold, which indicates the presence of multiple resonances within the spectral range of interest. However, due to the rather high conductivity of gold in the THz regime, which is roughly one order of magnitude higher than that of metallic-phase VO2, the gold structure does not show the broadband absorption characteristics. The main results of this work are summarized in Fig. 3.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The THz response of the metamaterial absorber. (a) Simulated absorption and (b) reflection modulation amplitude spectra for a series of VO2 conductivity (σ1) values. (c) The corresponding absorption spectra at several frequencies of interest as a function of σ1. The absorption spectrum of a similar metamaterial with a gold patterned layer is shown in (d).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The finite conductivity of metallic-phase VO2, on the other hand, causes the corresponding electromagnetic resonance to be sensitive to the VO2 structures’ thickness. Given the fact that the skin depth of metallic-phase VO2 around 1.0 THz is roughly 1 μm, we calculated the absorption behavior of the proposed MMA as a function of the VO2 layer’s thickness (tVO2) by varying it from 0.2 to 2 μm, as illustrated in Fig. 4(a). It can be seen that the absorptivity in the frequency range from 0.6 to 1.4 THz decreases when tVO2 is decreased from 1 μm to 0.2 μm, while it becomes saturated if tVO2 is larger than 1 μm. Furthermore, the absorption spectra of the identical system with an unpatterned VO2 film calculated over the same series of thickness values are shown in Fig. 4(b). It can be seen that an absorption peak can be identified around 1.0 THz when the unpatterned film thickness is small (e.g. 0.1 μm), while the absorption of the system vanishes with increasing film thickness. This observation can be explained by the interference effect: a thin VO2 film is partially transparent, which allows the destructive interference condition to be complied with at certain frequencies, while, with larger thickness (e.g. when tVO2 is thicker than the skin depth), the unpatterned VO2 film behaves like a reflector allowing almost no transmitted wave. A comparison unambiguously reveals the greatly enhanced absorption corresponding to the MMA, originating from the resonance properties of the complex VO2 structure. We note that it remains challenging to grow thick VO2 films on arbitrary substrates such as gold and SiO2 due to the many stable members of the vanadium oxide family, including VO2, V2O3, V2O5, etc. It should also be noted that patterning of VO2 films based on standard lithographic processes may general involve acid mixture solution enabled wet-etching, which can possibly degrade the properties of VO2. Nevertheless, a number of studies have verified that with carefully selected fabrication conditions the electronic and optical properties associated with the phase transition can be well reserved in the patterned VO2 structures [16,58,68,69], which shows the practicality of the proposed VO2 based MMAs.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The absorption spectra of (a) the MMA with a patterned VO2 structure and (b) a VO2 thin film for a series of VO2 layer thicknesses.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

To further investigate the underlying absorption mechanism, in Fig. 5 we present the simulated power loss density (PLD) distribution in the VO2 layer of the MMA under THz illumination. With its value expressed in units of W/m3, PLD corresponds to the electric power dissipated inside the materials. As illustrated in Figs. 5(a)-5(e), the evolution of PLD distribution at frequencies within the high absorption band when σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1 explicitly identifies the localized absorption in different parts of the VO2 pattern, which corresponds to the multiple structure-supported resonances. In sharp contrast, when the VO2 system is in the insulator-phase, the corresponding PLD is low (Figs. 5(f)-5(j)), which reveals the non-resonant response of the structure. Furthermore, Fig. 5(k) shows the PLD distribution of the system with σ1 = 100 Ω−1cm−1 at 1.73 THz, i.e., the perfect-absorption frequency illustrated in Fig. 3(a). In contrast to the observation made in Figs. 5(a)-5(e), the energy dissipation is rather non-localized, indicating the thin-film like absorption characteristics of the VO2 structure in this case. This comparison clearly reveals the distinct absorption mechanisms of the proposed MMA for the different material phases of VO2.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Simulated power loss density (PLD) distribution in the VO2 layer at a series of frequencies when (a)-(e) σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1 and when (f)-(j) VO2 is in its insulator phase. (k) PLD distribution at 1.73 THz when σ1 = 100 Ω−1 cm−1.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Besides the geometrically tailorable resonances, MMAs constructed from subwavelength building blocks can potentially provide absorption with large field-of-view. Here, the angle of incidence (θin) was varied to study the angular dependence of the absorption behavior of the proposed MMA. In particular, to capture the complete absorption response of the proposed MMA as a function of θin, total absorption in the VO2 structure and the Au substrate was extracted from simulations. Importantly, it should be noted that, the total absorption spectra can also be estimated based on the simulated reflection coefficients, but, in that case, one need to make sure to include the reflection information of all the diffraction modes. It can be seen from Figs. 6(a) and 6(b) that the overall absorption performance of the MMA with metallic-phase VO2 is insensitive to the incidence angle for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarized illuminations when the incidence angle varies up to ~50°. In particular, as indicated by the 80% absorptivity contour curves (white), the metamaterial maintains its broadband absorption performance over a ± 50° field-of-view for frequencies ranging from 0.61 to 1.36 THz. On the other hand, for the system with σ1 = 100 Ω−1 cm−1 (Figs. 6(c) and 6(d)), the observed absorption peak around 1.7 THz blueshifts with increasing incidence angle and, when θin approaches ~70°, an obvious additional absorption band appears around 0.6 THz (1.4 THz) for TE (TM) polarized incident waves. A similar dependence of absorption spectra on the incident angle was observed in previous reported optical absorbers [70,71]. It should be noted that a theoretical description of these observations can be achieved using the interference theory that can take into account the higher-order diffraction modes. These results again show the distinct absorption behavior of the MMA with VO2 in its metallic phase and intermediate transition status.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The incident angular dependence of absorption in the MMA for (a) transverse electric (TE) and (b) transverse magnetic (TM) polarized illumination when σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1. Angular dependence for the (c) TE and (d) TM case when σ1 = 100 Ω−1 cm−1.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Conclusion

A vanadium dioxide based broadband THz metamaterial absorber was proposed and numerically validated. More importantly, it was demonstrated that the absorptivity can be tuned over a wide range by VO2’s THz electrical conductivity, which varies dramatically during an insulator-to-metal transition. Field analyses show that the observed broadband absorption behavior arises from the localized resonance supported by the delicate doubly periodic VO2 structures. By conducting a study of the dependence of absorption on incidence angle, we have shown that the proposed MMAs can maintain their broadband absorption performance over ± 50° field-of-view over the frequency range from 0.61 to 1.36 THz. Given the reported phase transition dynamics of VO2 under external stimulus, we envision applications of the proposed metamaterial absorber to highly tunable THz metadevices, such as broadband modulators.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (51302196) and State Key Laboratory for Hubei New Textile Materials and Advanced Processing Technology (ZDSYS201711; John L. and Genevieve H. McCain endowed chair professorship at the Pennsylvania State University.

References

1. P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002). [CrossRef]  

2. Y.-S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer US, 2009).

3. C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011). [CrossRef]  

4. Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011). [CrossRef]  

6. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008). [CrossRef]  

9. N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012). [CrossRef]  

12. J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014). [CrossRef]  

15. T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. Z. Han, K. Kohno, H. Fujita, K. Hirakawa, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS reconfigurable metamaterial for terahertz switchable filter and modulator,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21326–21339 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017). [CrossRef]  

30. W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013). [CrossRef]  

34. Y.-J. Chiang and T.-J. Yen, “A composite-metamaterial-based terahertz-wave polarization rotator with an ultrathin thickness, an excellent conversion ratio, and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011129 (2013). [CrossRef]  

35. S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013). [CrossRef]  

36. A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014). [CrossRef]  

38. S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015). [CrossRef]  

39. Y. Lin, Y. Cui, F. Ding, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, D. Li, and Y. Hao, “Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 606–617 (2017). [CrossRef]  

40. S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015). [CrossRef]  

41. L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

42. W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009). [CrossRef]  

43. L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015). [CrossRef]  

44. C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014). [CrossRef]  

45. M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

46. M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

47. L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

48. B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

49. A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. A. Bossard, J. P. Turpin, J. D. Musgraves, H. J. Shin, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. A. Richardson, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Reconfigurable near-IR metasurface based on Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2264–2275 (2018). [CrossRef]  

50. S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

51. S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Active terahertz chiral metamaterials based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 189 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

52. B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010). [CrossRef]  

53. H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004). [CrossRef]  

54. Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019). [CrossRef]  

55. Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

56. J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

57. Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, M. Holtz, Z. Fan, and A. A. Bernussi, “Effect of substrate orientation on terahertz optical transmission through VO2 thin films and application to functional antireflection coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2373–2378 (2012). [CrossRef]  

58. Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010). [CrossRef]  

59. J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

60. J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

61. Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017). [CrossRef]  

62. C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012). [PubMed]  

63. F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013). [CrossRef]  

64. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984).

65. H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

66. G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019). [CrossRef]  

67. G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018). [CrossRef]  

68. P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund Jr., and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015). [CrossRef]  

69. M. T. Nouman, J. H. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, K.-J. Lee, D.-Y. Noh, and J.-H. Jang, “Vanadium dioxide based frequency tunable metasurface filters for realizing reconfigurable terahertz optical phase and polarization control,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12922–12929 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

70. J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011). [CrossRef]  

71. B. H. Woo, I. C. Seo, E. Lee, S.-C. An, H. Y. Jeong, and Y. C. Jun, “Angle-dependent optical perfect absorption and enhanced photoluminescence in excitonic thin films,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28619 (2017). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y.-S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer US, 2009).
  3. C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Han, K. Kohno, H. Fujita, K. Hirakawa, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS reconfigurable metamaterial for terahertz switchable filter and modulator,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21326–21339 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y.-J. Chiang and T.-J. Yen, “A composite-metamaterial-based terahertz-wave polarization rotator with an ultrathin thickness, an excellent conversion ratio, and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011129 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  36. A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. Y. Lin, Y. Cui, F. Ding, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, D. Li, and Y. Hao, “Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 606–617 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  40. S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  41. L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  43. L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  44. C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  45. M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. A. Bossard, J. P. Turpin, J. D. Musgraves, H. J. Shin, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. A. Richardson, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Reconfigurable near-IR metasurface based on Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2264–2275 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  50. S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Active terahertz chiral metamaterials based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 189 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  53. H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  54. Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  55. Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  56. J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  57. Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, M. Holtz, Z. Fan, and A. A. Bernussi, “Effect of substrate orientation on terahertz optical transmission through VO2 thin films and application to functional antireflection coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2373–2378 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  58. Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  59. J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  60. J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  61. Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  62. C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  63. F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  64. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984).
  65. H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  66. G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  67. G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  68. P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  69. M. T. Nouman, J. H. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, K.-J. Lee, D.-Y. Noh, and J.-H. Jang, “Vanadium dioxide based frequency tunable metasurface filters for realizing reconfigurable terahertz optical phase and polarization control,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12922–12929 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  70. J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  71. B. H. Woo, I. C. Seo, E. Lee, S.-C. An, H. Y. Jeong, and Y. C. Jun, “Angle-dependent optical perfect absorption and enhanced photoluminescence in excitonic thin films,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28619 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. T. Nouman, J. H. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, K.-J. Lee, D.-Y. Noh, and J.-H. Jang, “Vanadium dioxide based frequency tunable metasurface filters for realizing reconfigurable terahertz optical phase and polarization control,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12922–12929 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Active terahertz chiral metamaterials based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 189 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. A. Bossard, J. P. Turpin, J. D. Musgraves, H. J. Shin, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. A. Richardson, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Reconfigurable near-IR metasurface based on Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2264–2275 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, Y. Cui, F. Ding, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, D. Li, and Y. Hao, “Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 606–617 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. H. Woo, I. C. Seo, E. Lee, S.-C. An, H. Y. Jeong, and Y. C. Jun, “Angle-dependent optical perfect absorption and enhanced photoluminescence in excitonic thin films,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28619 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, K. Kohno, H. Fujita, K. Hirakawa, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS reconfigurable metamaterial for terahertz switchable filter and modulator,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21326–21339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Chiang and T.-J. Yen, “A composite-metamaterial-based terahertz-wave polarization rotator with an ultrathin thickness, an excellent conversion ratio, and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011129 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, M. Holtz, Z. Fan, and A. A. Bernussi, “Effect of substrate orientation on terahertz optical transmission through VO2 thin films and application to functional antireflection coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2373–2378 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, D. L.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, K.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Naib, I.

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, S.-C.

Astic, M.

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

Averitt, R. D.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernien, H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernussi, A. A.

Blanchard, R.

Boatner, L. A.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bossard, J. A.

Boyd, E. M.

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Budai, J. D.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, G.

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, B.-G.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chaturvedi, A.

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-C.

D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chiang, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Chiang and T.-J. Yen, “A composite-metamaterial-based terahertz-wave polarization rotator with an ultrathin thickness, an excellent conversion ratio, and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011129 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choe, J. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, C.-G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cong, L.

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Conley, H. J.

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Costa, F.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coutaz, J.-L.

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dayal, G.

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

Delaire, O.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Ventra, M.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dicken, M. J.

Ding, F.

Y. Lin, Y. Cui, F. Ding, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, D. Li, and Y. Hao, “Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 606–617 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, G.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dutta, A.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Faiyaz, M.

Fan, K.

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Feng, Y.

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujita, H.

Fung, K. H.

Garet, F.

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genovesi, S.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gholipour, B.

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gokkavas, M.

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldflam, M.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, X.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Haglund, R. F.

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, Z.

Hao, J.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hewak, D. W.

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirakawa, K.

Holtz, M.

Hong, J.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horng, J.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hunt, J.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J. H.

Jang, J.-H.

Jeong, H. Y.

Ji, T.

Jia, Q. X.

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, T.

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

Kafesaki, M.

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, K.-Y.

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kang, L.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Active terahertz chiral metamaterials based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 189 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keiser, G. R.

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerbusch, J.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. J.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B.-J.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-T.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-T.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kittiwatanakul, S.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kloc, C.

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kohno, K.

Koo, S.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishna, S.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, H. N. S.

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kyoung, J.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larrabee, T. J.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E.

Lee, K.-J.

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-W.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leu, B. M.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lheurette, É.

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, A.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, C. W.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Li, J.

Liang, D.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, L.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, W. X.

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, Y.-S.

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, L.

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Lippens, D.

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lipworth, G.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q. H.

Liu, S.

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-L.

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

Ma, Y.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, K. F.

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeng, S.-L.

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manara, G.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Manceau, J.-M.

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manjappa, M.

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manley, M. E.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markov, P.

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martin, M.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marvel, R. E.

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Massaouti, M.

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayer, T. S.

A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. A. Bossard, J. P. Turpin, J. D. Musgraves, H. J. Shin, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. A. Richardson, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Reconfigurable near-IR metasurface based on Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2264–2275 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLeod, A. S.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McQueeney, R. J.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metcalfe, G. D.

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miller, K. J.

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Min, B.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Monorchio, A.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Montoya, J.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Musgraves, J. D.

Nam, S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nawrodt, R.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, D.-Y.

Nouman, M. T.

O’Hara, J. F.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Omenetto, F. G.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouyang, C.

Ozbay, E.

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. H.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, N.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Q.-H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilon, D. V.

Pitchappa, P.

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podraza, N.

Pogrebnyakov, A. V.

Prokes, S. M.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pryce, I. M.

Qazilbash, M. M.

Qiu, M.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ramanathan, S.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiten, M. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rensberg, J.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, J.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, K. A.

Rivero-Baleine, C.

Ronning, C.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Said, A. H.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savinov, V.

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schalch, J.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, C.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, I. C.

Seo, M.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seren, H. R.

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shen, N.-H.

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, H. J.

Shrekenhamer, D.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Singh, N.

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sleasman, T.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solanki, A.

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Z.

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Specht, E. D.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, Y. K.

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sternbach, A. J.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sum, T. C.

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sweatlock, L. A.

Tan, S.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tischler, J. Z.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toshiyoshi, H.

Trugman, S. A.

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turpin, J. P.

Tzortzakis, S.

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walavalkar, S.

Wan, C.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Wang, F.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Wang, N.

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Active terahertz chiral metamaterials based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 189 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watts, C. M.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, D.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, M.

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, S. M.

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wen, Q.-Y.

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Werner, D. H.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Active terahertz chiral metamaterials based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 189 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. A. Bossard, J. P. Turpin, J. D. Musgraves, H. J. Shin, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. A. Richardson, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Reconfigurable near-IR metasurface based on Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2264–2275 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, K. G.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, S. A.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, B. H.

Wraback, M.

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.-S.

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yahiaoui, R.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yang, Q.-H.

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Yao, J.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, T.-J.

Y.-J. Chiang and T.-J. Yen, “A composite-metamaterial-based terahertz-wave polarization rotator with an ultrathin thickness, an excellent conversion ratio, and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011129 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, G.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, S.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ying, Y.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Youn, D.-H.

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yue, W.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S.

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.-W.

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zheludev, N. I.

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuo, F.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (8)

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

APL Mater. (1)

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Chiang and T.-J. Yen, “A composite-metamaterial-based terahertz-wave polarization rotator with an ultrathin thickness, an excellent conversion ratio, and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011129 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (4)

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Woo, I. C. Seo, E. Lee, S.-C. An, H. Y. Jeong, and Y. C. Jun, “Angle-dependent optical perfect absorption and enhanced photoluminescence in excitonic thin films,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28619 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. T. Nouman, J. H. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, K.-J. Lee, D.-Y. Noh, and J.-H. Jang, “Vanadium dioxide based frequency tunable metasurface filters for realizing reconfigurable terahertz optical phase and polarization control,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12922–12929 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, K. Kohno, H. Fujita, K. Hirakawa, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS reconfigurable metamaterial for terahertz switchable filter and modulator,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21326–21339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Active terahertz chiral metamaterials based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 189 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984).

Y.-S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer US, 2009).

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A vanadium dioxide based broadband THz metamaterial absorber. The schematic depicts the structure of the MMA based on an elaborate VO2 pattern inspired by an earlier demonstration in the mid-infrared regime [56]. The 1-μm-thick VO2 layer is embedded in a SiO2 matrix that is located on top of an optically thick Au film. The schematic on the left shows the unit cell of the metamaterial. The geometric parameters (all unit in μm) are: P = 120, L = R = 48, g = 3, w = 9, Lc = 20, wc = 5.5, d1 = 42 and d2 = 24. The permittivity dispersion of VO2 with conductivity σ 1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1cm−1 in the THz frequency range of interest is shown on the right.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Interference theory based reflection analysis. (a) Schematic of the interference analysis. (b) Simulated complex reflection and transmission coefficients (r12S1 and t12S1) for the structure including the VO2-pattern embedded in a SiO2 matrix at normal incidence when σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1. (c) Absorption spectra of the MMA at normal incidence at a series of VO2 conductivity (σ1 in unit of Ω−1 cm−1). (d) The corresponding spectra of amplitude modulation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The THz response of the metamaterial absorber. (a) Simulated absorption and (b) reflection modulation amplitude spectra for a series of VO2 conductivity (σ1) values. (c) The corresponding absorption spectra at several frequencies of interest as a function of σ1. The absorption spectrum of a similar metamaterial with a gold patterned layer is shown in (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The absorption spectra of (a) the MMA with a patterned VO2 structure and (b) a VO2 thin film for a series of VO2 layer thicknesses.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated power loss density (PLD) distribution in the VO2 layer at a series of frequencies when (a)-(e) σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1 and when (f)-(j) VO2 is in its insulator phase. (k) PLD distribution at 1.73 THz when σ1 = 100 Ω−1 cm−1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The incident angular dependence of absorption in the MMA for (a) transverse electric (TE) and (b) transverse magnetic (TM) polarized illumination when σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1. Angular dependence for the (c) TE and (d) TM case when σ1 = 100 Ω−1 cm−1.

Metrics