Abstract

Recently, considerable attention has been focused on orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex wave, owing to its prospect of increasing communication capacity. Here, a single-layer metasurface is proposed to realize vortex beams with different OAM modes and polarizations carried at two distinctive bands. Both the resonant and geometric (Pancharatnam–Berry) phase cells are adopted to construct this metasurface for generating the desired phase profile, and each type of phase modulation cell can independently control the vortex beam at different frequencies. When a linearly-polarized wave is incident onto our metasurface, the resonant phase cells with spiral phase distribution can achieve OAM beam with topological charge of + 1 at 5.2 GHz. And under illumination of left-handed circular polarized (LHCP) wave, the rotated geometric phase cells assist the metasurface to generate the deflected OAM beam with topological charge of + 2 at 10.5~12 GHz. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate good performance of the proposed single-layer metasurface at the above two frequency bands.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried by vortex wave has attracted considerable interest due to its excellent performance and various application in optics and communication fields [1–10]. The OAM technology carries information on the phase distribution of electric field, which contains theoretically unbounded eigenstates. Since the eigenstates of OAM are mutually orthogonal to each other, using OAM can significantly improve the transmission capacity of optical communication system. So far, there have been many approaches to generate OAM wave, including spiral phase plate (SPP) [11,12], spiral parabolic antenna and circular antenna array [13–15]. More recently, metasurfaces based on catenary and other structures have been reported to generate vortex waves successfully, providing a novel route to achieve OAM beam [7,16–22]. Compared with the traditional methods above, metasurfaces have obvious advantages such as ultrathin profile, light-weight, and easy-fabrication, especially in the radio frequency domain [23–27].

Metasurface is generally composed of sub-wavelength cells that could tailor the wavefront of the incident EM wave by introducing abrupt phase changes across the interface [16,19]. By special design of phase distribution on the metasurface, the propagation direction of EM waves could be manipulated at will based on the generalized Snell’s law. This property promises a number of applications such as waveplates [28], flat lens [29,30], ultrathin cloak [31], orbital angular momentum generations [17–27] and low-scattering materials [32,33], etc. Typically, there are two approaches to modulate local phase with metasurfaces. One is based on the resonant phase modulation [34,35], which changes the phase information by varying the structural parameters of the meta-atoms. However, it usually leads to a narrow bandwidth due to the intrinsic dispersion of resonant meta-atoms. The other is the geometric phase modulation that is also called as the Pancharatnam–Berry (PB) phase modulation [36]. It can achieve the phase control with the rotation of the meta-atoms, and dispersionless phase responses can be obtained under illumination of circularly-polarized (CP) waves [18]. Numerous OAM beam generators based on metasurfaces have been proposed by using the resonant phase or PB phase modulation method [17–27]. Some researchers have also started to pay attention to the multiple OAM modes [37–41]. In [37], the shared-aperture antenna array concept was used to design the metasurface that is divided into subarrays (each subarray composed of particular PB phase cells supports a different OAM mode) for achieving the multiple OAM modes. However, since each subgroup only uses part of the metasurface aperture, the aperture efficiency is not high. In [38], the resonant phase cell was adopted to construct a single-layer metasurface for realizing two different OAM vortex waves in different directions. However, it is found that the existing multiple OAM metasurfaces are mainly limited to one frequency band. So the work in this paper focuses on the realization of the multiple OAM modes at two frequency bands. Here, we combine the resonant phase and PB phase cells into one single-layer reflective metasurface to generate the vortex beams at two microwave bands. By independently designing the resonant phase and PB phase distributions, the proposed metasurface is expected to achieve vortex beams with different OAM modes. Different from the subarray structure in [37], two kinds of the phase modulation cells are closely integrated into one meta-atom, and then they can use the whole metasurface aperture to realize the OAM beam at both two frequency bands. In addition, the reflected beam directions can be further controlled with additional phase modulation. This single-layer metasurface is numerically investigated, which shows that a + 1 mode OAM beam is generated at 5.2 GHz under illumination of linearly-polarized (LP) wave, while a + 2 mode OAM deflected beam is obtained at 10.5-12 GHz in response to incident CP wave. This vortex metasurface is fabricated, and the experimental results show good agreements with the simulation ones.

2. Theoretical design and analysis

Figure 1 shows the schematic model of the proposed vortex metasurface. Two kinds of metallic patterns made of 17μm thick copper are etched on one F4B substrate (h = 3 mm and ɛ = 2.65) backed by a ground plane. The I-shape pattern is used to construct the resonant phase cell, and by tuning its geometrical structures, different reflection phase can be obtained. Here, eight different topological patterns corresponding to eight different reflection phases are designed. The varying structure parameters including S, g1 and g2 are respectively listed in Table 1, while the left parameters are fixed as l = 10 mm, w1 = 0.2mm and w2 = 0.4mm.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic model of the vortex metasurface and (b) geometry of its meta-atom.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Tables Icon

Table 1. Structure parameters of the eight I-shape topological patterns.

The rectangular patch is adopted as a PB phase cell, and its parameters are set as a = 7.5mm and b = 4mm. When it is illuminated by a CP wave, a linearly varying phase shift range from 0 to 2π can be achieved by rotating the phase cell. The period of the whole unit cell is p = 12mm. In order to investigate the reflection characteristic of this vortex metasurface, numerical simulation is carried out by using CST Microwave Studio. The periodic boundaries are set to x and y sides, while the plane wave with different polarizations is incident onto the meta-atom.

Figure 2(a) shows the reflection magnitude and phase information of all the I-shape topological patterns. At this case, the meta-atom is illuminated by a LP wave, while the rotation angle of the PB phase cell is fixed as 60°. It is seen that all the topological cells have high reflectivity and their reflection losses are less than 0.2 dB. The reflection phase difference between each topological cell is about 45° at 5.2GHz, as shown in the inset of Fig. 2(a). To ensure independent operation of the resonant and PB phase cells, weak coupling is required between them. Here, we discuss the influence of the varying rotation angles of the PB phase cell on the reflection characteristic of the topological pattern 1 for the resonant phase cell. As Fig. 2(b) shows, the reflection magnitude and phase of the I-shape structure has no obvious variation when the rotation angles of the PB phase cell is varied from 0°to 150° with a step of 30°. Figure 2(c) presents the reflection characteristics of the PB phase cell with varying rotation angles under incidence of left-handed circular polarized (LHCP) wave. It is found that the incident LHCP wave is transformed into right-handed circular polarized (RHCP) wave at a wide band ranging from 10.5 GHz to 12.0 GHz where most of the reflection losses are less than 1 dB. In addition, the near-parallel phase response is obtained, which could be modulated from 0 to 360 degree with the rectangular patch rotating from 0 to 180 degree, as shown in the inset of Fig. 2(c). When changing the topological I-shape patterns from number 1 to number 8, we can see in Fig. 2(d) that the reflection phase of the PB phase cell is almost unchanged and its reflection loss variation is very weak, indicating that the resonant phase cell and PB phase cell has little crosstalk with each other.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 The reflection characteristics of the meta-atom at different situations. (a) The magnitude of the eight I-shaped topological patterns under LP incidence. Inset shows the reflection phase can almost cover 0° to −315° at 5.2 GHz. (b) The magnitude and phase of the I-shaped structure with topological pattern 1 for different rotation angles of the PB phase cell. (c) The magnitude of the cross-polarization components for the PB phase cells under LHCP incidence, while the rotation angle is changed from 0° to 150°. Inset shows the reflection phase can cover 0° to −360°. (d) The magnitude and phase of the PB phase cell with the rotation angle of 60° for the different I-shaped topological patterns.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Using the proposed metasurface cell, the vortex beams could be expected at two frequency bands via ingenious design of phase distribution. For generation of spiral phase profile, the phase shift of each point (x, y) should satisfy the relationship with the azimuthal angle around the center as

φ(x,y)=larctan(yx)
where l is the desired OAM mode number. Considering the influence of the feed source location, we add a converging phase profile to the spiral wave front, which can be written as
ϕf(x,y)=2πλ(x2+y2+rf2rf)
where the incident wavelength is λ, and rf represents the distance between the feed horn and our metasurface. Therefore, the phase distribution of the resonant phase cells can be expressed as φp=φϕf.

If we need to deflect the vortex beam produced by the PB phase cells, an additional phase gradient dϕdx along x-direction should be added to φ(x,y), and thus the total phase modulation φg at the higher band can be written as φg=φdϕdx. Here the deflection angle of θ is set as 14 degree, so the additional phase gradient of dϕdx=π5 according to the equation of dϕdx=2π·Pλ0sin(θ).

To validate the OAM beam performance of our metasurface, an OAM-generating design with mode number + 1 is achieved with the resonant phase cells, while the PB phase cells take responsible for the generation of OAM beam with mode number + 2. As long as the above two kinds of the phase modulation cells satisfy the calculated phase distribution shown in Fig. 3, the dual-band OAM beams with different modes could be expected by our metasurface.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Phase distribution and the calculation process for OAM generator at two separated bands. (a)The calculation process and phase distribution of our metasurface for generating + 1 mode OAM beam at f1 (5.2GHz) under y-polarized incidence. (b) The calculation process and phase distribution of our metasurface for generating + 2 mode OAM beam at f2 (10.5GHz) under LHCP incidence.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Next, all the phase modulation cells are designed to construct the desired phase profiles calculated above. Full-wave simulation is performed to investigate our vortex metasurface at the lower frequency band. The whole metasurface is designed to be composed of 41 × 41 meta-atoms and the overall dimension is 492 × 492mm2. The LP horn antenna (LB-187-15-C-NF, A-INFO.inc [42]) working at 3.9~5.9 GHz is set as the feeding source that is placed at a distance of 0.5m away from the metasurface. Figure 4(a) shows the far-field radiation pattern. There is an obvious OAM beam generated at 5.2 GHz, and the amplitude null caused by the phase singularity exists at its central region. From the near-field phase distribution shown in Fig. 4(b), it is found that the major feature of the spiral phase distribution is obtained, and its phase characteristics of topological charge l = + 1 is easily recognized. For the other OAM beam generated at the higher frequency, the vortex metasurface is illuminated by a LHCP plane wave. A vortex feature can be recognized from the far-field pattern displayed in Fig. 4(c), and the reflected beam is obviously deflected from the normal, and its outgoing angle is redirected towards about 14.0° at 10.5 GHz. The simulated phase distribution given in Fig. 4(d) shows the similar phase characteristic with the theoretically calculated result in Fig. 3(b). To characterize the efficiency of our device, we analyze the mode purity of the generated OAM beams based on the simulated phase profile given in Figs. 4(b) and 4(d). Generally, the purity of the optical vortex is calculated by decomposing its complex field on a complete basis set of optical modes with angular momentum, i.e. the Laguerre-Gaussian modes (El,pLG) [21,43]. In our metasurface, the mode purity for topological charge l = + 1 vortex beam at 5.2GHz is calculated to be 65%, and some phase noise is generated at other modes as shown in Fig. 5(a). The imperfect mode purity at 5.2GHz is mainly due to the quantization loss caused by the discrete I-shaped phase cells. For the PB phase cell, we can obtain arbitrary reflection phase value by tuning its rotating angle, and so the generated l = + 2 vortex beam OAM beam has higher mode purity that is about 83% at 10.5GHz as depicted in Fig. 5(b).

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Simulation results of the proposed vortex metasurface at two frequency bands. (a) Far-field pattern and (b) near-field phase distribution in the xoy plane of the vortex metasurface under normal incidence of the LP horn at f1 (5.2GHz). (d) Far-field pattern and (e) near-field phase distribution in the xoy plane of the vortex metasurface illuminated by LHCP plane wave at f2 (10.5GHz).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Purity of OAM modes generated at (a) 5.2GHz and (b) 10.5GHz.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In order to verify the broadband behavior of the designed metasurface at the higher frequency band, the simulated far-field patterns at 10.5, 11, 11.5 and 12 GHz are respectively presented in Fig. 6. Each of the generated vortex beams exhibits an amplitude null across a wide band at its central region. Compared with the scattering magnitude of the LHCP wave at each frequency, the magnitude of the corresponding RHCP reflection patterns is much higher, indicating the excellent polarization conversion ratio. In addition, the topological charge l = + 2 can be easily observed from the phase profile of all the deflected OAM beams.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Far-field patterns of the vortex metasurface illuminated by LHCP wave at 10.5~12GHz. (a) Cross-polarized component and (b) Co-polarized component. The incident LHCP wave is transformed into RHCP outgoing wave, and all the generated vortex beams are deflected from the normal when the observation direction is along -z axis. (c) Phase information pattern. The topological charge of l = + 2 can be distinguished from the phase profile, when the observation direction is set along the deflection direction.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Fabrication and measurement

To demonstrate the proposed vortex metasurface in experiment, we fabricate it using printed-circuit-board technology, as seen in Fig. 7(a). Two LP horns (LB-187-15-C-NF, A-INFO.inc) connected to a vector network analyzer are set as receiver and transmitter, respectively. The transmitting horn is placed at a distance of 0.5 m in front of the metasurface sample. Both the sample and the horn are fixed on a rotating equipment. When rotating the equipment, the sample is always illuminated by the normal incident wave produced by the transmitting horn. The reflected wave for the (- 90° to + 90°) rotating angles can be received by the receiving horn antenna. The measured far-field patterns are shown in Fig. 7(b), which also includes the simulation results as comparison. The amplitude null can be clearly seen at the center of the vortex beam. Compared with the simulation results, the measured amplitude in the center becomes high, which may be caused by the fabricated tolerance and the imperfection between the simulation and measurement environment. In order to measure the vortex characteristic of the sample at the higher frequency, the two LP horns are replaced by one pair of LHCP and RHCP horns, and using the same measurement method described above, we can obtain the OAM beam performance of the sample. Figures. 7(c)-7(f) shows the simulated and measured far-field patterns of the generated OAM beam. With modulation of the PB phase cells, the LHCP incident wave is converted into the RHCP wave at 10.5-12 GHz, and the deflection of the vortex beam can be clearly recognized, as seen in Figs. 7(c) and 7(e). The measurement results are in agreement with the simulation ones. The far field patterns of the LHCP waves are also measured, as seen in Figs. 7(d) and 7(f). The intensity of the LHCP field is relatively much lower than that of the RHCP field, and the cross-polarization suppression exceeds 15 dB. The magnitude and phase information of the two vortex beams were also measured at 5.2GHz and 10.5GHz by the near-field planar scanning technique. The vertical component of the reflected electrical field Ev was detected by using a standard measuring probe, as seen in Fig. 8(a). The near-field sampling plane is set at a distance of 3.0m away from our sample, and the reflected field magnitude and phase were measured on the sampling plane. To observe vortex phase information, the sampling plane is set to be perpendicular to the outgoing vortex beam. So when measuring the vortex beam generated at 10.5 GHz, the sample is rotated by 14° to keep the scanned surface perpendicular to the vortex beam. The sampling grid period is set as 20 mm at 5.2 GHz and 10mm at 10.5GHz. It is seen in Fig. 8(b) that the two doughnut-shaped field intensity maps are obtained at both 5.2 and 10.5 GHz. In addition, the major feature of the spatial phase distribution for the + 1 mode and + 2 mode vortex beams can be also identified in Fig. 8(c), although there is a little phase distortion in the center of the vortex beam because of the shielding effect of the feeding horn in front of the sampling plane. Therefore, the proposed single-layer metasurface has been verified to generate the two vortex beams with different OAM modes at two frequency bands.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 (a) Photography of the fabricated vortex metasurface. (b-f) Measured and simulated far-field radiation patterns of the vortex metasurface. (b) Co-polarized component under LP incidence at 5.2 GHz. (c, d) Cross-and co-polarized components under LHCP incidence at 10.5GHz and (e, f) Cross-and co-polarized components under LHCP incidence at 12GHz.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Measured magnitude and phase distributions by near-field planar scanning technique (a) Near-field planar scanning setup and the standard measuring probe. (b) Measured magnitude distributions of the vortex beams at 5.2GHz and 10.5GHz. (c) Measured phase distributions of the vortex beams at 5.2GHz and 10.5GHz.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have proposed a single-layer metasurface which can generate two vortex beams with different OAM modes at 5.2 and 10.5-12 GHz. Two types of phase modulation cells are adopted to construct the whole vortex metasurface, and each type of phase modulation cell takes responsible for the generation of one OAM mode. Both the simulated and experimental results show good performance of our vortex metasurface. Since all the phase cells are printed on one single-layer dielectric substrate, it is a convenient and low-cost way to generate beams carrying OAM at two separated bands. The proposed method could be developed for potential application in radio and microwave wireless communications.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61475160, 61605213, 61775218).

Acknowledgments

Chen Ji and Jiakun Song contributed equally to this work.

References

1. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007). [CrossRef]  

2. A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011). [CrossRef]  

3. F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011). [CrossRef]  

4. Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012). [CrossRef]  

6. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. X. Luo, “Subwavelength optical engineering with metasurface waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1701201 (2018). [CrossRef]  

9. B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012). [CrossRef]  

11. X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015). [CrossRef]  

12. Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016). [CrossRef]  

13. Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014). [CrossRef]  

14. X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

16. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014). [CrossRef]  

18. H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017). [CrossRef]  

19. X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015). [CrossRef]  

20. X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016). [CrossRef]  

22. X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017). [CrossRef]  

25. K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. Y. Meng, J. Yi, S. N. Burokur, L. Kang, H. Zhang, and D. H. Werner, “Phase-modulation based transmitarray convergence lens for vortex wave carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22019–22029 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018). [CrossRef]  

28. D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018). [CrossRef]  

31. C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017). [CrossRef]  

32. C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017). [CrossRef]  

33. C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014). [CrossRef]  

35. C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

36. Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

38. S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016). [CrossRef]  

39. Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017). [CrossRef]  

40. J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017). [CrossRef]  

41. Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017). [CrossRef]  

42. Standard gain horn antenna test report, “Test report for LB-187-15-C-NF,” http://www.ainfoinc.com/en/p_ant_h_std.asp.

43. P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. X. Luo, “Subwavelength optical engineering with metasurface waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1701201 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).
  16. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Meng, J. Yi, S. N. Burokur, L. Kang, H. Zhang, and D. H. Werner, “Phase-modulation based transmitarray convergence lens for vortex wave carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22019–22029 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  31. C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  33. C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  41. Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  42. Standard gain horn antenna test report, “Test report for LB-187-15-C-NF,” http://www.ainfoinc.com/en/p_ant_h_std.asp .
  43. P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2018 (5)

X. Luo, “Subwavelength optical engineering with metasurface waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1701201 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Meng, J. Yi, S. N. Burokur, L. Kang, H. Zhang, and D. H. Werner, “Phase-modulation based transmitarray convergence lens for vortex wave carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22019–22029 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Ahmed, N.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, B.

Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, G. D.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bai, Q.

Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bergman, J.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianchini, A.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bomzon, Z.

Boyd, R. W.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brousseau, C.

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

Burokur, S. N.

Cai, H.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carozzi, T. D.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. L. N.

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. Y.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, H.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, L. K.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, J.

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, T. W.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, X.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Emile, O.

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, P.

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hasman, E.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, W.

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, R.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibragimov, N. H.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Istomin, Y. N.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L. J.

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z. H.

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jin, J.

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, J. Yi, S. N. Burokur, L. Kang, H. Zhang, and D. H. Werner, “Phase-modulation based transmitarray convergence lens for vortex wave carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22019–22029 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khamitova, R.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleiner, V.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. L.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavery, M. P. J.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leon, I. D.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ling, X.

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.-Q.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M.

Luo, J.

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, “Subwavelength optical engineering with metasurface waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1701201 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Q.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maguid, E.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahdjoubi, K.

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

Mari, E.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mehmood, M. Q.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ménard, A.

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

Meng, Y.

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

Molisch, A. F.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niemiec, R.

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

Noor, A.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Palmer, K.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, W.

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pu, M.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qassim, H.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qi, M. Q.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qin, F.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C. W.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratni, B.

Ren, H.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Romanato, F.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schulz, S. A.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sha, W. E. I.

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, C. B.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, G.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sjöholm, J.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sponselli, A.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, B.

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tamburini, F.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, K.

Tennant, A.

Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Then, H.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thide, B.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thidé, B.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ting, S. K.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tur, M.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Upham, J.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Veksler, D.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkatesan, T.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, X.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, J. Yi, S. N. Burokur, L. Kang, H. Zhang, and D. H. Werner, “Phase-modulation based transmitarray convergence lens for vortex wave carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22019–22029 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A. E.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. C.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Wu, X.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, R.

R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, G.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. X.

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. C.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, A. M.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yi, J.

Yu, N.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, F.

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yulevich, I.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, K.

Zhang, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, B.

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, S.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (2)

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. Technol. (1)

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (5)

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, “Subwavelength optical engineering with metasurface waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1701201 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. (3)

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (2)

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Adv. (1)

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. (1)

X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (7)

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Standard gain horn antenna test report, “Test report for LB-187-15-C-NF,” http://www.ainfoinc.com/en/p_ant_h_std.asp .

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic model of the vortex metasurface and (b) geometry of its meta-atom.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The reflection characteristics of the meta-atom at different situations. (a) The magnitude of the eight I-shaped topological patterns under LP incidence. Inset shows the reflection phase can almost cover 0° to −315° at 5.2 GHz. (b) The magnitude and phase of the I-shaped structure with topological pattern 1 for different rotation angles of the PB phase cell. (c) The magnitude of the cross-polarization components for the PB phase cells under LHCP incidence, while the rotation angle is changed from 0° to 150°. Inset shows the reflection phase can cover 0° to −360°. (d) The magnitude and phase of the PB phase cell with the rotation angle of 60° for the different I-shaped topological patterns.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Phase distribution and the calculation process for OAM generator at two separated bands. (a)The calculation process and phase distribution of our metasurface for generating + 1 mode OAM beam at f1 (5.2GHz) under y-polarized incidence. (b) The calculation process and phase distribution of our metasurface for generating + 2 mode OAM beam at f2 (10.5GHz) under LHCP incidence.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation results of the proposed vortex metasurface at two frequency bands. (a) Far-field pattern and (b) near-field phase distribution in the xoy plane of the vortex metasurface under normal incidence of the LP horn at f1 (5.2GHz). (d) Far-field pattern and (e) near-field phase distribution in the xoy plane of the vortex metasurface illuminated by LHCP plane wave at f2 (10.5GHz).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Purity of OAM modes generated at (a) 5.2GHz and (b) 10.5GHz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Far-field patterns of the vortex metasurface illuminated by LHCP wave at 10.5~12GHz. (a) Cross-polarized component and (b) Co-polarized component. The incident LHCP wave is transformed into RHCP outgoing wave, and all the generated vortex beams are deflected from the normal when the observation direction is along -z axis. (c) Phase information pattern. The topological charge of l = + 2 can be distinguished from the phase profile, when the observation direction is set along the deflection direction.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Photography of the fabricated vortex metasurface. (b-f) Measured and simulated far-field radiation patterns of the vortex metasurface. (b) Co-polarized component under LP incidence at 5.2 GHz. (c, d) Cross-and co-polarized components under LHCP incidence at 10.5GHz and (e, f) Cross-and co-polarized components under LHCP incidence at 12GHz.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured magnitude and phase distributions by near-field planar scanning technique (a) Near-field planar scanning setup and the standard measuring probe. (b) Measured magnitude distributions of the vortex beams at 5.2GHz and 10.5GHz. (c) Measured phase distributions of the vortex beams at 5.2GHz and 10.5GHz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structure parameters of the eight I-shape topological patterns.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ ( x , y ) = l arc tan ( y x )
ϕ f ( x , y ) = 2 π λ ( x 2 + y 2 + r f 2 r f )

Metrics