Abstract

We describe a method of line narrowing and frequency-locking a diode laser stack to an alkali atomic line for use as a pump module for Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers. The pump module consists of a 600 W antireflection coated diode laser stack configured to lase using an external cavity. The line narrowing and frequency locking is accomplished by introducing a narrowband polarization filter based on magneto-optical Faraday effect into the external cavity, which selectively transmits only the frequencies that are in resonance with the 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 transition of Cs atoms. The resulting pump module has demonstrated that a diode laser stack, which lases with a line width of 3 THz without narrowbanding, can be narrowed to 10 GHz. The line narrowed pump module produced 518 Watts that is 80% of the power generated by the original broadband diode laser stack.

1. Introduction

During the past decade, Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) have received significant attention [1–5] because they combine many positive features of Gas Lasers and Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers. The DPAL has the feature of being electrically excited using a diode laser similar to solid state lasers but has the heat management and inherent good beam quality of a gas phase laser. In recent years, DPALs have demonstrated high average power of 1.5 kW [6] and showed great promise for future power scaling. In addition to the experimental efforts, there has been significant effort in the theoretical analysis of DPALs [7-8]. A key element of any DPAL is the diode laser pump module. The current state-of-the-art pump module is a Volume Bragg Grating (VBG) line narrowed diode laser bar or stack [9–13]. The problem with using multiple VBGs, required for narrowbanding stacks, is the requirement to be individually tuned to the resonant frequency. Also, they have an inherently broad line width of about 0.3 nm, which is about an order of magnitude broader than the alkali absorption line broadened by one atmosphere buffer gas. An alternative method used for line narrowing of low power single emitter diodes is to use a Faraday filter which has been demonstrated by [14–25]. In this paper we demonstrate the first high power line narrowing of a 600 watt diode laser stack to the linewidth of 10GHz and locking this line to the 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 transition of Cs atom using a Faraday filter in an external cavity of a diode pump module.

2. Experimental apparatus and results

In Fig. 1 we provide a diagram of the pump module. The pump module consists of a diode laser stack with an antireflection coated output facet, which is configured to lase using an external stable cavity containing a frequency sensitive element. The diode laser stack used was a Dilas 600 W designed to produce light at 852 nm.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Diagram of the narrow-banded DPAL pump module.

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The frequency sensitive element is a Faraday filter, which is an alkali vapor cell, 6 inches in length, placed in a magnetic field between two crossed linear polarizers. The output coupler of the external laser cavity had a reflectivity of 20%. The outcoupler was flat therefore, to satisfy the cavity stability requirement, a lens with a focal length of 25 cm was placed inside the cavity one focal length away from the outcoupler. The alkali vapor cell evacuated to pressure of 10−7 torr and filled with a visible amount of metallic Cs was heated to a temperature of 96 C corresponding to a vapor pressure of 1x1013/cm3 which provided optimal performance. The alkali vapor cell used anti reflection coated high quality fused silica windows and did not experience any birefringence. A magnetic field of 700 Gauss was applied to the alkali vapor cell using permanent cylindrical neodymium magnets. The magnetic field was applied parallel to the laser cavity optical axis and caused a rotation of the laser light polarization that is in resonance with the cesium 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 transition. The narrow-banding occurs because only the polarization of the spectral components of the diode laser emission, which are near the alkali atomic transition 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 of the cesium atomic vapor, can be rotated 90° and thus transmitted by this magneto-optical filter in both directions and provide feedback to the emitters in the diode stack. All other spectral components will not experience this rotation of polarization, resulting in significant losses and will not lase. This means that lasing occurs only in a narrow spectral range which matches the Cs 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 transition absorption line observed in a 1 atm pressure broadened alkali gain medium (about 12 GHz).

We examined the spectral output of the unlocked diode laser stack. The spectrum of the unlocked stack was produced by lasing the diode stack using the external cavity but with the Faraday filter removed. The spectrum was recorded using an Ocean Optics USB 2000 + spectrometer with spectral resolution of 2 nm (see Fig. 2). The unlocked stack lases with a line width of approximately 8 nm or 3 THz (FWHM). Such a broad spectral line is clearly unacceptable for pumping a 20 GHz pressure broadened cesium D2 line. On the other hand, when the Faraday filter is used, then a significant line narrowing occurs as it is also shown in Fig. 2. It should be noted that the line shape of the narrowed line is the instrument function of the Ocean Optics spectrometer and does not provide an accurate representation of the quality of the line narrowing.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Spectrum of the diode laser stack emission with and without the Faraday Filter.

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In order to record this spectrum with sufficient resolution, we used a Burleigh Fabry-Perot interferometer with a free spectral range of 30 GHz and resolution about 0.3 GHz. The recorded spectrum is shown in Fig. 3 together with the Cs D2 pressure broadened line.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 High resolution spectrum, recorded with a Fabry-Perot interferometer, of the line narrowed diode laser stack reveals a bimodal distribution. Also shown is the calculated D2 pressure broadened line shape with 200 Torr of methane and 400 Torr of helium. The x-axis is centered on the 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 fine structure transition.

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The high resolution spectrum shows a bimodal distribution. The pump radiation spectrum is well matched to the Cs D2 line shape pressure broadened using 200 Torr CH4 and 400 Torr He. The pressure broadened line shape was calculated taking into account the hyperfine splitting of the S and P states using values from Steck [26] and pressure broadening and line shift reported by Pits [27]. The low intensity Faraday transmission through the filter is provided in Fig. 4 and was calculated using the methodology outlined in [28].

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Low intensity Faraday filter transmission spectrum along with the transmission of the cesium vapor cell without the polarizers. These were calculated using the methodology reported in [28]. The x-axis is centered on the 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 fine structure transition.

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The calculated Faraday transmission spectrum indicates that the diode stack should frequency lock at approximately ± 16 GHz relative to the 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 fine structure transition. This would be true in the low intensity limit but at the high powers of this pump module there is significant optical pumping of the ground state atoms resulting in an effective reduction of the alkali number density. This reduction in number density will have the effect of moving the two transmission peaks towards the center. Also, because the diode stack has sufficient gain it will lase simultaneously on both peaks resulting in a bimodal output which quite fortuitously is well matched to a one atmosphere pressure broadened 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 transition line shape.

We next examined the total power output from the narrow-banded diode laser stack pump module. The output power versus power supply current is shown in Fig. 5.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 The triangles indicated the power output of the diode stack in an external cavity without the Faraday filter and the circles show the Narrow-banded pump module output power versus input current. Also included are the linear least squares fit to the data.

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The output power of the pump module appears to be linear with pump current similar to a free running diode stack. The maximum line narrowed power achieved was 518 watts which is about 80% of the broad band value (650 W). Such a loss in narrow-banded output power is expected when introducing losses from optical elements inserted into the external cavity.

3. Conclusion

The pump module reported in this paper was built using a commercial 600 W diode laser stack originally emitting with broadband radiation with line width about 8 nm. Using a Faraday filter in the external cavity of this stack we succeeded in narrowing spectral line of output radiation of this pump module to the value about 10 GHz, which is well matched to a 12 GHz pressure broadened (1 atm) cesium atomic vapor transition 62S1/2 → 62P3/2. The produced narrowband radiation power was 80% of the stack initial broadband power. This pump module is well matched to the Cs alkali metal pump line and will significantly improve the overall efficiency of a DPAL system. An important feature of this method is that it not only provides significant narrow-banding, but automatically locks the frequency of the pump module to the absorption line of the alkali atom. Such a pump module can also find application in spin-polarization of nuclei such as 3He and 129Xe for use in magnetic resonance imaging of lungs and other organs of the human body [29, 30].

Funding

Directed Energy Joint Transition Office (JTO-14-UPR-0525).

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the Directed Energy Joint Transition Office for their funding and support.

References and links

1. B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “A Review of Alkali Lasers Research and Development,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021010 (2013).

2. N. Zameroski, W. Rudolph, G. Hager, and D. Hostutler, “A study of collisional quenching and radiation-trapping kinetics for Rb(5p) in the presence of methane and ethane using time-resolved fluorescence,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(24), 245401 (2009). [CrossRef]  

3. T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005). [CrossRef]  

4. J. Zweiback and W. F. Krupke, “28W average power hydrocarbon-free rubidium diode pumped alkali laser,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1444–1449 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. B. V. Zhdanov, M. K. Shaffer, and R. J. Knize, “Demonstration of a diode pumped continuous wave potassium laser,” Proc. SPIE 7915, 791506 (2011).

6. G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

7. B. Barmashenko and S. Rosenwaks, “Detailed analysis of kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in diode-pumped alkali lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(5), 1118–1126 (2013). [CrossRef]  

8. Z. Yang, H. Wang, Q. Lu, Y. Li, W. Hua, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Modeling, numerical approach, and power scaling of alkali vapor lasers in side-pumped configuration with flowing medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(6), 1353–1364 (2011). [CrossRef]  

9. X. Zhang, J. Feng, B. Xiong, K. Zou, and X. Yuan, “Diffraction of Volume Bragg Gratings under high flux laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8291–8297 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

11. D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011). [CrossRef]  

12. D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1242–1246 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. W. Davide Lee and J. Campbell, “Optically stabilized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs laser using magnetically induced birefringence in Rb Vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 995–997 (1991). [CrossRef]  

15. K. Choi, J. Menders, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Optical feedback locking of a diode laser using a cesium Faraday filter,” Opt. Commun. 96(4-6), 240–244 (1993). [CrossRef]  

16. P. Wanninger, E. Valdez, and T. Shay, “Diode-Laser Frequency Stabilization Based on the Resonant Faraday Effect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 94–96 (1992). [CrossRef]  

17. Z. Tao, X. Zhang, D. Pan, M. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Chen, “Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity,” J. Phys. B 49(13), 13LT01 (2016). [CrossRef]  

18. M. Tetu and M. Breton, “Toward the Realization of a Wavelength Standard at 780 nm Based on a Laser Diode Frequency Locked to Rubidium Vapor,” IEEE Transactions on Inst. Meas. 40(2), 191–195 (1991).

19. Z. Tao, Y. Hong, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope 87Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4348–4351 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “A single-mode external cavity diode laser using an intra-cavity atomic Faraday filter with short-term linewidth <400 kHz and long-term stability of <1 MHz,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095111 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

22. N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland III, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).

23. X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

24. X. Zhang, Z. Tao, C. Zhu, Y. Hong, W. Zhuang, and J. Chen, “An all-optical locking of a semiconductor laser to the atomic resonance line with 1 MHz accuracy,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28010–28018 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. D. A. Steck, “Cesium D Line Data,” Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, (2009).

27. G. A. Pitz, C. D. Fox, and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening and shift of the cesium D2 transition by the noble gases and N2, H2, HD, D2, CH4, C2H6, CF4, and 3He with comparison to the D1 transition,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 042502 (2010). [CrossRef]  

28. M. D. Rotondaro, B. V. Zhdanov, and R. J. Knize, “Generalized treatment of magneto-optical transmission filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(12), 2507–2513 (2015).

29. T. G. Walker and W. Happer, “Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69(2), 629–642 (1997). [CrossRef]  

30. E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “A Review of Alkali Lasers Research and Development,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021010 (2013).
  2. N. Zameroski, W. Rudolph, G. Hager, and D. Hostutler, “A study of collisional quenching and radiation-trapping kinetics for Rb(5p) in the presence of methane and ethane using time-resolved fluorescence,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(24), 245401 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Zweiback and W. F. Krupke, “28W average power hydrocarbon-free rubidium diode pumped alkali laser,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1444–1449 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. B. V. Zhdanov, M. K. Shaffer, and R. J. Knize, “Demonstration of a diode pumped continuous wave potassium laser,” Proc. SPIE 7915, 791506 (2011).
  6. G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).
  7. B. Barmashenko and S. Rosenwaks, “Detailed analysis of kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in diode-pumped alkali lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(5), 1118–1126 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Yang, H. Wang, Q. Lu, Y. Li, W. Hua, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Modeling, numerical approach, and power scaling of alkali vapor lasers in side-pumped configuration with flowing medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(6), 1353–1364 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. Zhang, J. Feng, B. Xiong, K. Zou, and X. Yuan, “Diffraction of Volume Bragg Gratings under high flux laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8291–8297 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).
  11. D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1242–1246 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. W. Davide Lee and J. Campbell, “Optically stabilized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs laser using magnetically induced birefringence in Rb Vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 995–997 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Choi, J. Menders, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Optical feedback locking of a diode laser using a cesium Faraday filter,” Opt. Commun. 96(4-6), 240–244 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Wanninger, E. Valdez, and T. Shay, “Diode-Laser Frequency Stabilization Based on the Resonant Faraday Effect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 94–96 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Tao, X. Zhang, D. Pan, M. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Chen, “Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity,” J. Phys. B 49(13), 13LT01 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Tetu and M. Breton, “Toward the Realization of a Wavelength Standard at 780 nm Based on a Laser Diode Frequency Locked to Rubidium Vapor,” IEEE Transactions on Inst. Meas. 40(2), 191–195 (1991).
  19. Z. Tao, Y. Hong, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope 87Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4348–4351 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “A single-mode external cavity diode laser using an intra-cavity atomic Faraday filter with short-term linewidth <400 kHz and long-term stability of <1 MHz,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095111 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).
  22. N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).
  23. X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).
  24. X. Zhang, Z. Tao, C. Zhu, Y. Hong, W. Zhuang, and J. Chen, “An all-optical locking of a semiconductor laser to the atomic resonance line with 1 MHz accuracy,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28010–28018 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. D. A. Steck, “Cesium D Line Data,” Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, (2009).
  27. G. A. Pitz, C. D. Fox, and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening and shift of the cesium D2 transition by the noble gases and N2, H2, HD, D2, CH4, C2H6, CF4, and 3He with comparison to the D1 transition,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 042502 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. D. Rotondaro, B. V. Zhdanov, and R. J. Knize, “Generalized treatment of magneto-optical transmission filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(12), 2507–2513 (2015).
  29. T. G. Walker and W. Happer, “Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69(2), 629–642 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “A single-mode external cavity diode laser using an intra-cavity atomic Faraday filter with short-term linewidth <400 kHz and long-term stability of <1 MHz,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

Z. Tao, X. Zhang, D. Pan, M. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Chen, “Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity,” J. Phys. B 49(13), 13LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tao, Y. Hong, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope 87Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4348–4351 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Rotondaro, B. V. Zhdanov, and R. J. Knize, “Generalized treatment of magneto-optical transmission filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(12), 2507–2513 (2015).

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2011 (5)

N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

B. V. Zhdanov, M. K. Shaffer, and R. J. Knize, “Demonstration of a diode pumped continuous wave potassium laser,” Proc. SPIE 7915, 791506 (2011).

Z. Yang, H. Wang, Q. Lu, Y. Li, W. Hua, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Modeling, numerical approach, and power scaling of alkali vapor lasers in side-pumped configuration with flowing medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(6), 1353–1364 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

J. Zweiback and W. F. Krupke, “28W average power hydrocarbon-free rubidium diode pumped alkali laser,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1444–1449 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Pitz, C. D. Fox, and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening and shift of the cesium D2 transition by the noble gases and N2, H2, HD, D2, CH4, C2H6, CF4, and 3He with comparison to the D1 transition,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 042502 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. Zameroski, W. Rudolph, G. Hager, and D. Hostutler, “A study of collisional quenching and radiation-trapping kinetics for Rb(5p) in the presence of methane and ethane using time-resolved fluorescence,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(24), 245401 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

2003 (1)

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. G. Walker and W. Happer, “Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69(2), 629–642 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Choi, J. Menders, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Optical feedback locking of a diode laser using a cesium Faraday filter,” Opt. Commun. 96(4-6), 240–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

P. Wanninger, E. Valdez, and T. Shay, “Diode-Laser Frequency Stabilization Based on the Resonant Faraday Effect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 94–96 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

M. Tetu and M. Breton, “Toward the Realization of a Wavelength Standard at 780 nm Based on a Laser Diode Frequency Locked to Rubidium Vapor,” IEEE Transactions on Inst. Meas. 40(2), 191–195 (1991).

W. Davide Lee and J. Campbell, “Optically stabilized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs laser using magnetically induced birefringence in Rb Vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 995–997 (1991).
[Crossref]

Adams, C. S.

J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “A single-mode external cavity diode laser using an intra-cavity atomic Faraday filter with short-term linewidth <400 kHz and long-term stability of <1 MHz,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, L. W.

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrusyak, O.

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1242–1246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Babcock, E.

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barmashenko, B.

Breton, M.

M. Tetu and M. Breton, “Toward the Realization of a Wavelength Standard at 780 nm Based on a Laser Diode Frequency Locked to Rubidium Vapor,” IEEE Transactions on Inst. Meas. 40(2), 191–195 (1991).

Campbell, J.

W. Davide Lee and J. Campbell, “Optically stabilized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs laser using magnetically induced birefringence in Rb Vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 995–997 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chang, P.

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tao, X. Zhang, D. Pan, M. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Chen, “Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity,” J. Phys. B 49(13), 13LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tao, Y. Hong, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope 87Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4348–4351 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tao, C. Zhu, Y. Hong, W. Zhuang, and J. Chen, “An all-optical locking of a semiconductor laser to the atomic resonance line with 1 MHz accuracy,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28010–28018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

Z. Yang, H. Wang, Q. Lu, Y. Li, W. Hua, X. Xu, and J. Chen, “Modeling, numerical approach, and power scaling of alkali vapor lasers in side-pumped configuration with flowing medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(6), 1353–1364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Z. Tao, X. Zhang, D. Pan, M. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Chen, “Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity,” J. Phys. B 49(13), 13LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K.

K. Choi, J. Menders, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Optical feedback locking of a diode laser using a cesium Faraday filter,” Opt. Commun. 96(4-6), 240–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cohanoschi, I.

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Dang, A.

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

Davide Lee, W.

W. Davide Lee and J. Campbell, “Optically stabilized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs laser using magnetically induced birefringence in Rb Vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 995–997 (1991).
[Crossref]

Divliansky, I.

D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011).
[Crossref]

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Drachenberg, D.

D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011).
[Crossref]

Drachenberg, D. R.

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1242–1246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Driehuys, B.

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehrenreich, T.

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

Fox, C. D.

G. A. Pitz, C. D. Fox, and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening and shift of the cesium D2 transition by the noble gases and N2, H2, HD, D2, CH4, C2H6, CF4, and 3He with comparison to the D1 transition,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 042502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Glebov, L.

B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011).
[Crossref]

Glebov, L. B.

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1242–1246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Guild, E. M.

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

Guo, H.

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tao, Y. Hong, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope 87Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4348–4351 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

Hager, G.

N. Zameroski, W. Rudolph, G. Hager, and D. Hostutler, “A study of collisional quenching and radiation-trapping kinetics for Rb(5p) in the presence of methane and ethane using time-resolved fluorescence,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(24), 245401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hamlyn, W. J.

J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “A single-mode external cavity diode laser using an intra-cavity atomic Faraday filter with short-term linewidth <400 kHz and long-term stability of <1 MHz,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Happer, W.

N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).

T. G. Walker and W. Happer, “Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69(2), 629–642 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hersman, F. W.

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y.

Hostutler, D.

N. Zameroski, W. Rudolph, G. Hager, and D. Hostutler, “A study of collisional quenching and radiation-trapping kinetics for Rb(5p) in the presence of methane and ethane using time-resolved fluorescence,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(24), 245401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hostutler, D. A.

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

Hua, W.

Hughes, I. G.

J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “A single-mode external cavity diode laser using an intra-cavity atomic Faraday filter with short-term linewidth <400 kHz and long-term stability of <1 MHz,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ito, S.

T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

Kadlecek, S.

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keaveney, J.

J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “A single-mode external cavity diode laser using an intra-cavity atomic Faraday filter with short-term linewidth <400 kHz and long-term stability of <1 MHz,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knize, R. J.

M. D. Rotondaro, B. V. Zhdanov, and R. J. Knize, “Generalized treatment of magneto-optical transmission filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(12), 2507–2513 (2015).

B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “A Review of Alkali Lasers Research and Development,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021010 (2013).

B. V. Zhdanov, M. K. Shaffer, and R. J. Knize, “Demonstration of a diode pumped continuous wave potassium laser,” Proc. SPIE 7915, 791506 (2011).

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005).
[Crossref]

Korevaar, E.

K. Choi, J. Menders, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Optical feedback locking of a diode laser using a cesium Faraday filter,” Opt. Commun. 96(4-6), 240–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kostinski, N.

N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).

Krupke, W. F.

Li, Y.

Lu, Q.

Luo, B.

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tao, Y. Hong, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope 87Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4348–4351 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

Marsland, R.

N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).

Maruyama, T.

T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

McGuyer, B.

N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).

Menders, J.

K. Choi, J. Menders, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Optical feedback locking of a diode laser using a cesium Faraday filter,” Opt. Commun. 96(4-6), 240–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

Miao, X.

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

Mokhun, O.

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Moran, P. J.

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

Nelson, I.

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nimonji, T.

T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

Ohkawa, M.

T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

Olike, B. Q.

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

Olsen, B.

N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).

Pan, D.

Z. Tao, X. Zhang, D. Pan, M. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Chen, “Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity,” J. Phys. B 49(13), 13LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peng, H.

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perram, G. P.

G. A. Pitz, C. D. Fox, and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening and shift of the cesium D2 transition by the noble gases and N2, H2, HD, D2, CH4, C2H6, CF4, and 3He with comparison to the D1 transition,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 042502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phipps, S. P.

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pitz, G. A.

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

G. A. Pitz, C. D. Fox, and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening and shift of the cesium D2 transition by the noble gases and N2, H2, HD, D2, CH4, C2H6, CF4, and 3He with comparison to the D1 transition,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 042502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Podvyaznyy, A.

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Rosenwaks, S.

Rotondaro, M. D.

M. D. Rotondaro, B. V. Zhdanov, and R. J. Knize, “Generalized treatment of magneto-optical transmission filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(12), 2507–2513 (2015).

Rudolph, W.

N. Zameroski, W. Rudolph, G. Hager, and D. Hostutler, “A study of collisional quenching and radiation-trapping kinetics for Rb(5p) in the presence of methane and ethane using time-resolved fluorescence,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(24), 245401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

Sawamura, A.

T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

Searcy, P.

K. Choi, J. Menders, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Optical feedback locking of a diode laser using a cesium Faraday filter,” Opt. Commun. 96(4-6), 240–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

Shaffer, M. K.

B. V. Zhdanov, M. K. Shaffer, and R. J. Knize, “Demonstration of a diode pumped continuous wave potassium laser,” Proc. SPIE 7915, 791506 (2011).

Shay, T.

P. Wanninger, E. Valdez, and T. Shay, “Diode-Laser Frequency Stabilization Based on the Resonant Faraday Effect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 94–96 (1992).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, V.

B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1242–1246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011).
[Crossref]

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Stalnake, D. M.

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

Takekoshi, T.

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tao, Z.

Tetu, M.

M. Tetu and M. Breton, “Toward the Realization of a Wavelength Standard at 780 nm Based on a Laser Diode Frequency Locked to Rubidium Vapor,” IEEE Transactions on Inst. Meas. 40(2), 191–195 (1991).

Townsend, S. W.

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

Valdez, E.

P. Wanninger, E. Valdez, and T. Shay, “Diode-Laser Frequency Stabilization Based on the Resonant Faraday Effect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 94–96 (1992).
[Crossref]

Venus, G.

B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1242–1246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011).
[Crossref]

Venus, G. B.

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

Walker, T. G.

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. G. Walker and W. Happer, “Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69(2), 629–642 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wanninger, P.

P. Wanninger, E. Valdez, and T. Shay, “Diode-Laser Frequency Stabilization Based on the Resonant Faraday Effect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 94–96 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xiong, B.

Xu, X.

Yang, Z.

Yin, L.

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

Yuan, X.

Zameroski, N.

N. Zameroski, W. Rudolph, G. Hager, and D. Hostutler, “A study of collisional quenching and radiation-trapping kinetics for Rb(5p) in the presence of methane and ethane using time-resolved fluorescence,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(24), 245401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhdanov, B.

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhdanov, B. V.

B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Rotondaro, B. V. Zhdanov, and R. J. Knize, “Generalized treatment of magneto-optical transmission filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(12), 2507–2513 (2015).

B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “A Review of Alkali Lasers Research and Development,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021010 (2013).

B. V. Zhdanov, M. K. Shaffer, and R. J. Knize, “Demonstration of a diode pumped continuous wave potassium laser,” Proc. SPIE 7915, 791506 (2011).

Zhu, C.

Zhuang, W.

X. Zhang, Z. Tao, C. Zhu, Y. Hong, W. Zhuang, and J. Chen, “An all-optical locking of a semiconductor laser to the atomic resonance line with 1 MHz accuracy,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28010–28018 (2013).
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X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

Zou, K.

Zweiback, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Davide Lee and J. Campbell, “Optically stabilized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs laser using magnetically induced birefringence in Rb Vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 995–997 (1991).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Ehrenreich, B. Zhdanov, T. Takekoshi, S. P. Phipps, and R. J. Knize, “Diode Pumped Cesium Laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(7), 47–48 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Wanninger, E. Valdez, and T. Shay, “Diode-Laser Frequency Stabilization Based on the Resonant Faraday Effect,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(1), 94–96 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Inst. Meas. (1)

M. Tetu and M. Breton, “Toward the Realization of a Wavelength Standard at 780 nm Based on a Laser Diode Frequency Locked to Rubidium Vapor,” IEEE Transactions on Inst. Meas. 40(2), 191–195 (1991).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

M. D. Rotondaro, B. V. Zhdanov, and R. J. Knize, “Generalized treatment of magneto-optical transmission filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(12), 2507–2513 (2015).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

N. Zameroski, W. Rudolph, G. Hager, and D. Hostutler, “A study of collisional quenching and radiation-trapping kinetics for Rb(5p) in the presence of methane and ethane using time-resolved fluorescence,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(24), 245401 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

Z. Tao, X. Zhang, D. Pan, M. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Chen, “Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity,” J. Phys. B 49(13), 13LT01 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. App. Phys. (1)

T. Nimonji, S. Ito, A. Sawamura, T. Sato, M. Ohkawa, and T. Maruyama, “New Frequency Stabilization Method of a Semiconductor Laser Using the Faraday Effect of the Rb-D2 Absorption Line,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43(5), 2504 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Choi, J. Menders, P. Searcy, and E. Korevaar, “Optical feedback locking of a diode laser using a cesium Faraday filter,” Opt. Commun. 96(4-6), 240–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. V. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, “A Review of Alkali Lasers Research and Development,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021010 (2013).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. A. Pitz, C. D. Fox, and G. P. Perram, “Pressure broadening and shift of the cesium D2 transition by the noble gases and N2, H2, HD, D2, CH4, C2H6, CF4, and 3He with comparison to the D1 transition,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 042502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, B. Driehuys, L. W. Anderson, F. W. Hersman, and T. G. Walker, “Hybrid Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of 3He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 123003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (4)

B. V. Zhdanov, M. K. Shaffer, and R. J. Knize, “Demonstration of a diode pumped continuous wave potassium laser,” Proc. SPIE 7915, 791506 (2011).

G. A. Pitz, D. M. Stalnake, E. M. Guild, B. Q. Olike, P. J. Moran, S. W. Townsend, and D. A. Hostutler, “Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9729, 972902 (2016).

D. R. Drachenberg, O. Andrusyak, I. Cohanoschi, I. Divliansky, O. Mokhun, A. Podvyaznyy, V. Smirnov, G. B. Venus, and L. B. Glebov, “Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for high power spectral beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801U (2010).

D. Drachenberg, I. Divliansky, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “High Power Spectral Beam Combining of Fiber Lasers with Ultra High Spectral Density by Thermal Tuning of Volume Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141F (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. G. Walker and W. Happer, “Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69(2), 629–642 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rev. of Sci. Inst. (1)

N. Kostinski, B. Olsen, R. Marsland, B. McGuyer, and W. Happer, “Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines,” Rev. of Sci. Inst. 82, 033144 (2011).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

X. Miao, L. Yin, W. Zhuang, B. Luo, A. Dang, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 086106 (2011).

J. Keaveney, W. J. Hamlyn, C. S. Adams, and I. G. Hughes, “A single-mode external cavity diode laser using an intra-cavity atomic Faraday filter with short-term linewidth <400 kHz and long-term stability of <1 MHz,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(9), 095111 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. V. Zhdanov, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, and R. J. Knize, “Continuous wave Cs diode pumped alkali laser pumped by single emitter narrowband laser diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(8), 083104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

P. Chang, H. Peng, S. Zhang, Z. Chen, B. Luo, J. Chen, and H. Guo, “A Faraday laser lasing on Rb 1529 nm transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8995 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. A. Steck, “Cesium D Line Data,” Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diagram of the narrow-banded DPAL pump module.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectrum of the diode laser stack emission with and without the Faraday Filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 High resolution spectrum, recorded with a Fabry-Perot interferometer, of the line narrowed diode laser stack reveals a bimodal distribution. Also shown is the calculated D2 pressure broadened line shape with 200 Torr of methane and 400 Torr of helium. The x-axis is centered on the 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 fine structure transition.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Low intensity Faraday filter transmission spectrum along with the transmission of the cesium vapor cell without the polarizers. These were calculated using the methodology reported in [28]. The x-axis is centered on the 62S1/2 → 62P3/2 fine structure transition.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The triangles indicated the power output of the diode stack in an external cavity without the Faraday filter and the circles show the Narrow-banded pump module output power versus input current. Also included are the linear least squares fit to the data.

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