Abstract

An active absorption device is proposed based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials. By controlling the conductivity of vanadium dioxide, resonant absorbers are designed to work at wide range of terahertz frequencies. Numerical results show that a broadband terahertz absorber with nearly 100% absorptance can be achieved, and its normalized bandwidth of 90% absorptance is 60% under normal incidence for both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations when the conductivity of vanadium dioxide is equal to 2000Ω1cm1. Absorptance at peak frequencies can be continuously tuned from 30% to 100% by changing the conductivity from 10Ω1cm1 to 2000Ω1cm1. Absorptance spectra analysis shows a clear independence of polarization and incident angle. The presented results may have tunable spectral applications in sensor, detector, and thermophotovoltaic device working at terahertz frequency bands.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Metamaterials (MMs) are a distinct kind of electromagnetic materials and have been intensively studied in the past several years for some fascinating phenomenon, such as negative refraction [1, 2], perfect lens [3, 4], and transparency [5–7]. Its properties mainly result from subwavelength details of the metallic or dielectric element rather than their chemical composition. Recently dynamic control of the MMs’ response attracts lots of interest through the electric or optical methods [8–11]. It is well known that vanadium dioxides (VO2) show the transition behavior from insulator to metal at around 340 K. The lattice structure is transformed from monoclinic to tetragonal structures as the temperature rises, and the conductivity of VO2 increases by several orders of magnitude during the transition. So VO2 has wide potential for temperature sensitive photonic, electronic, and thermic devices. Thus, combining MMs with VO2 thin film or small particles is a promising way to dynamically modulate electromagnetic properties of some practical devices [12–24]. In 2010, W. Huang et al. fabricated a composite metamaterial of goldstrip/VO2spacer/goldstrip sandwich structure to study the optical response [15]. Their results indicated that the designed nanostructure with VO2 spacers can be used as a dynamically temperature-controlling optical switch. In 2012, M. A. Kats et al. showed perfect absorption in a system comprising a single lossy VO2 layer with ultra-thin thickness much smaller than the incident wavelength on the sapphire substrate [16]. The design leads to 99.75% absorption at λ=11.6μm in the vicinity of the VO2 insulator-to-metal phase transition. In 2015, H. Kocer et al. demonstrated thermally tunable short-wavelength infrared resonant absorbers by heating up hybrid gold-VO2 nanostructure arrays above the phase transition temperature of VO2 [17]. In 2017, Z. Zhu et al. realized an efficient absorber meta-device with each unit cell consisting of a gold bow-tie antenna with a small VO2 patch placed in its feed gap [18]. The device has an experimentally measured tuning range as large as 360 nm in the near infrared region and a modulation depth of 33% at the resonant wavelength. In the terahertz frequency region, the dielectric constant of VO2 varies by several orders of magnitude when the film undergoes phase transition. In this paper, we propose a composite MM with sandwich nanostructures metalcross/SiO2spacer/VO2film to dynamically modulate the absorption property.

2. Numerical calculations and discussions

In this study, we demonstrate conductivity-tunable terahertz resonant absorbers by utilizing a phase change material (VO2) to achieve dynamic control of metadevices. As shown in Fig. 1, the metadevice is based on the perfect absorber architecture with each unit cell consisting of a metal cross and a VO2 film [25–27]. These two layers are separated by a SiO2 spacer layer. The thicknesses of metal crosses, SiO2 layer, and VO2 film is 0.02 μm, 70 μm, and 0.5 μm. The chosen width, length, and period of metal crosses in simulation are 2.9 μm, 155 μm, and 174 μm. In order to avoid the Fabry-Perot resonance caused by the finite thickness of the underlying SiO2 substrate, the thickness of the underlying SiO2 substrate is assumed to be infinite in simulation. A variable conductivity of VO2 is assumed to simulate the phase transition effect. The optical permittivity of VO2 in terahertz range can be described by Drude model as follows:ε(ω)=εωp2(σ)ω2+iγω, where ε=12 is the permittivity at high frequency, ωp(σ) is the conductivity dependent plasma frequency and γ is the collision frequency [22–24]. In addition, both ωp2(σ) and σ are proportional to free carrier density. The plasma frequency at σ can be approximately expressed as ωp2(σ)=σσ0ωp2(σ0) withσ0=3×103Ω1cm1, ωp(σ0)=1.4×1015rad/s, and γ=5.75×1013rad/s which is assumed to be independent of σ. The relative permittivity of SiO2 with negligible loss is set to 3.8 at terahertz frequencies [28, 29]. The relative permittivity of gold is described by a Drude model εAu=1ωp2/ω(ω+iΓ) with plasma frequency ωp=1.37×1016rad/s and collision frequency Γ=1.2×1014rad/s [30].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic of the VO2-based tunable terahertz MM absorber studied in this paper. The red (cyan) part is VO2 (SiO2) with the thickness of t2=0.5μm (t1=70μm). The yellow part is gold with the thickness of 0.02μm, width of 2.9 μm, length of 155 μm. The substrate is SiO2 which is infinite in simulation.

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Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are performed using finite-element-method (comsol multiphysics). All simulations use extremely adaptive fine mesh settings. A unit cell of the investigated structure is simulated using periodic boundary condition. The total absorptance (A) in the designed structure is calculated by A=1RT=1|S11|2|S21|2, where R is the total reflectance and T is the transmittance. As shown in Fig. 2, the simulated results clearly tell that the values of reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance undergoe a noticeable shift as the conductivity increases. Figure 2(c) shows the absorptance spectra as a function of frequency and conductivity under normal incidence. It is obvious that as the conductivity increases, the absorptance increases without changing the operating frequency range. The corresponding absorptance increases from 30% to nearly 100% as conductivity increases from 10Ω1cm1 to2000Ω1cm1. In the case ofσ=2000Ω1cm1, the absorptance can reach 100%. The perfect absorptance is realized by the interference of the fields between metal crosses and VO2 film. From the absorptance spectra, it is observed that 90% absorptance bandwidth reaches 0.33 THz with a central frequency of 0.55 THz under normal incidence when σ=2000Ω1cm1. The normalized 90% bandwidth with respect to the central frequency is 60%. From the calculated results, we can see that the conductivity of VO2 has a remarkable impact on the absorptance properties of the designed system, which enables the creation of terahertz absorber with dynamically flexible behaviors. As shown in Fig. 3, The reason leading to this phenomenon is mainly caused by the variations of permittivity of VO2, it experiences an optical transition from dielectric to metal when the conductivity changes from 10Ω1cm1 to 2000Ω1cm1. The larger the conductivity, the better the metallic behavior, and the absorptance becomes more striking. Therefore, such a MM absorber with the flexible ability can be used as a terahertz broadband attenuator or modulator in absorption or transmission mode.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Simulated reflectance (a), transmittance (b), and absorptance (c) spectra of the designed system at a series of conductivity values of VO2 under normal incidence.

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 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The calculated real part of permittivity of VO2 at a series of conductivities.

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Furthermore, the dependence of absorptance of the proposed absorber on the thickness (t2) of VO2 is investigated. To briefly present this property, we only discuss the absorptance analysis under normal incidence. Figure 4 illustrates the relation between absorptance and t2 with the conductivity of VO2 fixed as σ=2000Ω1cm1. The calculated results tell that absorptance of the designed system under normal incidence is closely depend on t2 when it is smaller than 0.5 μm. As t2 increases from 0.01 μm to 0.5 μm, absorptance gradually enhances. When the thickness of VO2 is larger than 0.5 μm, absorptance becomes stable because VO2 is enough thick to prevent transmission.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Thickness dependence of absorptance under normal incidence when σ=2000Ω1cm1.

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To easily and clearly understand the effect of perfect absorption whenσ=2000Ω1cm1, the effective electromagnetic parameters of MM absorber are retrieved [31]. The magnetic component of incident wave couples to this system and thus generates antiparallel currents between metal crosses and VO2 film, resulting in resonant μ response. By changing the conductivity of VO2, we can simultaneously tune ε and μ such that it is possible to approximately match the impedance (z=μ/ε) to free space, and then minimize the reflectance at a specific frequency. From Fig. 5, it is found that at the frequency of the resonant absorption peak, the permittivity and permeability is approximately equal which means that the impedance of the designed system is almost matched to that of free space, so the reflectance is negligible. Meanwhile, the large imaginary part of the refractive index would generate high absorption.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Retrieved effective physical parameters (a) permittivity, (b) permeability, (c) refractive index, and (d) impedance in the case of perfect absorption whenσ=2000Ω1cm1.

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Figure 6 gives the absorptance evolution of the structure by tuning of polarization angle from 0° to 90° in steps of 5°. With increasing polarization angle, the absorptance is completely unchanged. The symmetry of the designed system leads to the polarization-insensitive behavior, and this polarization-insensitive absorber would be helpful in numerous applications. Angular independence is very important for an absorber since incident wave in general case is randomly oblique. Figure 7 plots the spectral absorptance of the MM absorber as a function of incident angle and frequency. As shown in Fig. 7, it is found that the designed absorber shows excellent performances with the stable absorptance and working bandwidth over a wide range of oblique incident angle for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations. The absorptance is almost insensitive to incident angle variations up to 60° for both TE and TM polarizations, which is beneficial to practical application over a wide range of incident angle. With increasing angles of TE polarization, beyond 60° there is a noticeable decrease in the absorptance as the incident magnetic field can no longer efficiently drive circulating currents between metal crosses and VO2 film. For TM polarization, the maximum absorptance remains great even for the angle of 75°. This is because the direction of magnetic field of the incident wave is unchanged with various incident angles and it can efficiently drive the circulating currents at all angles of incidence, which is important to maintain impedance matching. The incident angle- and polarization-roust characteristics could have great potential applications in terahertz sensing, detecting, and optoelectronic devices.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Simulated absorptance spectrum of perfect absorption phenomenon with tuning of polarization angles when σ=2000Ω1cm1 under normal incidence.

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 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Incident angular dependence of perfect absorptance phenomenon for TE polarization (a) and TM polarization (b) when σ=2000Ω1cm1.

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3. Conclusions

To summarize, we propose a broadband conductivity-tunable absorber by utilizing VO2 in the terahertz range. A terahertz-tunable absorptance involving the large shift in resonant peak absorptance has been observed from 30% to 100% at a wide band, and 60% normalized bandwidth of 90% absorptance can be obtained. The absorption of the proposed MM absorber is insensitive to the incident angle of both TE and TM polarizations. And the absorber design in our work can be easily scalable to other terahertz and infrared regions. This work may provide the potential of highly active and tunable MM devices in the terahertz regime. A wide range of applications such as modulator, sensor, and active filter can be expected.

Funding

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11504305.

References and links

1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]  

6. Z. Song and H. Xu, “Near-infrared transparent conducting metal based on impedance matching plasmonic nanostructures,” EPL 107(5), 57007 (2014). [CrossRef]  

7. Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014). [CrossRef]  

8. Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015). [CrossRef]  

9. Y. Chen, J. Yao, Z. Song, L. Ye, G. Cai, and Q. H. Liu, “Independent tuning of double plasmonic waves in a free-standing graphene-spacer-grating-spacer-graphene hybrid slab,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16961–16972 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010). [CrossRef]  

16. M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012). [CrossRef]  

17. H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015). [CrossRef]  

18. Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund Jr, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, M. Holtz, Z. Fan, and A. A. Bernussi, “Effect of substrate orientation on terahertz optical transmission throughVO2thin films and application to functional antireflection coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2373–2378 (2012). [CrossRef]  

24. S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010). [CrossRef]  

27. H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012). [CrossRef]  

28. M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(4), 043517 (2007). [CrossRef]  

29. R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco Jr, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  • |

  1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Song and H. Xu, “Near-infrared transparent conducting metal based on impedance matching plasmonic nanostructures,” EPL 107(5), 57007 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Chen, J. Yao, Z. Song, L. Ye, G. Cai, and Q. H. Liu, “Independent tuning of double plasmonic waves in a free-standing graphene-spacer-grating-spacer-graphene hybrid slab,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16961–16972 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, M. Holtz, Z. Fan, and A. A. Bernussi, “Effect of substrate orientation on terahertz optical transmission throughVO2thin films and application to functional antireflection coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2373–2378 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(4), 043517 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Yao, Z. Song, L. Ye, G. Cai, and Q. H. Liu, “Independent tuning of double plasmonic waves in a free-standing graphene-spacer-grating-spacer-graphene hybrid slab,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16961–16972 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Song and H. Xu, “Near-infrared transparent conducting metal based on impedance matching plasmonic nanostructures,” EPL 107(5), 57007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, M. Holtz, Z. Fan, and A. A. Bernussi, “Effect of substrate orientation on terahertz optical transmission throughVO2thin films and application to functional antireflection coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2373–2378 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(4), 043517 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Andryieuski, A.

Atwater, H. A.

Averitt, R. D.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banar, B.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernussi, A. A.

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyd, E. M.

Butun, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, G.

Cai, T.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chae, B. G.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Choi, J. W.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Ventra, M.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dicken, M. J.

Ding, K.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Evans, P. G.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, R.

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Z.

Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, J. Q.

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gritti, C.

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haglund, R. F.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, J. M.

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtz, M.

Hong, M.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, S.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, Y. G.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

Jian, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kästel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keiser, G. R.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. J.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. T.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kittiwatanakul, S.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kocer, H.

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X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
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Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
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G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
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Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
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M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
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L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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Liu, X. L.

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
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Ma, S.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
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L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
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Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
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J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
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Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
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Pryce, I. M.

Qazilbash, M. M.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
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H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
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M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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Song, Z.

Srivastava, A.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Strikwerda, A. C.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
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Tang, S.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
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Tao, H.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
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Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walavalkar, S.

Wang, D.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
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H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
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H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
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H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
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W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
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S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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Werner, D. H.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
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L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, B. I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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Xu, H.

Z. Song and H. Xu, “Near-infrared transparent conducting metal based on impedance matching plasmonic nanostructures,” EPL 107(5), 57007 (2014).
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Xu, H. X.

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. M.

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
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M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Ye, L.

Yin, X.

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
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Zhang, B.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the V O 2 -based tunable terahertz MM absorber studied in this paper. The red (cyan) part is V O 2 ( Si O 2 ) with the thickness of t 2 =0.5μm ( t 1 =70μm). The yellow part is gold with the thickness of 0.02 μm, width of 2.9 μm, length of 155 μm. The substrate is Si O 2 which is infinite in simulation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated reflectance (a), transmittance (b), and absorptance (c) spectra of the designed system at a series of conductivity values of V O 2 under normal incidence.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The calculated real part of permittivity of V O 2 at a series of conductivities.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Thickness dependence of absorptance under normal incidence when σ=2000 Ω 1 c m 1 .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Retrieved effective physical parameters (a) permittivity, (b) permeability, (c) refractive index, and (d) impedance in the case of perfect absorption when σ=2000 Ω 1 c m 1 .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated absorptance spectrum of perfect absorption phenomenon with tuning of polarization angles when σ=2000 Ω 1 c m 1 under normal incidence.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Incident angular dependence of perfect absorptance phenomenon for TE polarization (a) and TM polarization (b) when σ=2000 Ω 1 c m 1 .

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