Abstract

Warm dense conditions in titanium foils irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses are diagnosed using an x-ray imaging spectroscopy technique. The line shapes of radially resolved titanium Kα spectra are measured with a toroidally bent GaAs crystal and an x-ray charge-coupled device. Measured spectra are compared with the K-shell emissions modeled using an atomic kinetics – spectroscopy simulation code. Kα line shapes are strongly affected by warm (5-40 eV) bulk electron temperatures and imply multiple temperature distributions in the targets. The spatial distribution of temperature is dependent on the target thickness, and a thin target shows an advantage to generate uniform warm dense conditions in a large area.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Investigation of states of matter between plasma and solid, so called warm dense matter (WDM) has attracted much interest recently [1–4]. Materials with near the Fermi temperature and near solid density can be viewed as a high-density strongly coupled plasma or superheated liquid or solid. A proper description of such states of matter is of great importance for modeling many astrophysical objects [5], studying inertial confinement fusion [6], and understanding relativistic laser–matter interactions [7].

Intense short-pulse laser irradiation on solid density targets has been a unique platform to create and diagnosing various high energy density conditions. However, strongly coupled solid-density plasma formed by such interactions is a highly complicated issue. Within a small focal area (typically a few microns in diameter), fast and energetic electrons are generated [8–10]. When the normalized vector potential of laser field is greater than the unity (a > 1), these electrons, mainly driven ponderomotively by j × B acceleration, could become relativistic and propagate through solid materials. They induce strong electric and magnetic fields, as well as currents [11]. They also ionize materials and lead to various forms of radiation [12–15]. Throughout these processes, the bulk solid target can be heated to several 10s eV on a picosecond time scale maintaining a relatively unchanged density, and WDM conditions could be created.

As fast electrons transverse through a target, they can produce vacancies in the K-shell of the target element and lead to characteristic K-shell emissions. Measurements of Kα x-rays have been widely used as reliable spectroscopic diagnostics for high-density plasmas [16–19]. The atomic levels involved in K-shell radiation are sensitive to plasma conditions. In particular, M-shell vacancies are mainly created by collision of low temperature bulk electrons which have dominant numbers in the target. They can reduce the screening of the L-shell and induce blueshifts of Kα lines [20]. Kα emission occurs within the lifetime of fast electrons, which is typically shorter than the hydrodynamic expansion time [21]. Precedent works showed Kα line measurements could serve as a thermometer for the bulk of WDM samples created by high energy lasers [20,22–24].

In this paper, we present the spatially resolved Kα doublet spectra from thin titanium foils irradiated by ultrashort multi-terawatt laser pulses. Using an atomic kinetics and spectral simulation, the spatially revolved multi-temperature distributions in warm dense slabs could be determined. The spectra were obtained by using a toroidally bent crystal spectrograph (providing one-dimensional energy dispersion and one-dimensional imaging) and an x-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Radially resolved spectra are determined via the discrete Abel-deconvolution method and are compared with the calculated Kα spectra using a spectroscopy simulation code including relativistic atomic configurations, SCFLY. The analysis implies that the existence of multiple electron temperatures of warm dense titanium ranges from 5 to 40 eV, and that the radial distribution of temperature is strongly dependent on target thickness. In particular, in a thin 1 μm target where hot electron refluxing plays a role in energy transport, a WDM condition with an average temperature of 20 eV could be achieved over 150 μm diameter, which is 10 times larger than the laser spot size.

2. Experiment

The experiment was conducted using a Ti:sapphire laser system at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The laser pulses delivered 700 mJ of energy of 50 fs in duration. They were focused by an off-axis parabola (F/#10) to a focal spot of 15 μm full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) diameter, and a peak intensity of (5 ± 1) × 1018 W/cm2 was obtained. The prepulse level was 10−8 at a nanosecond prior to the main pulse. The laser pulses were p-polarized and the incidence angle was 10°.

The targets were free-standing titanium foils of 1–10 μm in thickness. The target front surface (laser irradiated side) was coated with 100 nm of aluminum to prevent the direct interaction between the intense laser and bulk titanium and the generation of low-density hot Ti plasma emitting Kα radiation [20,22,25]. After each laser shot, the target was translated to the fresh surface.

The spatio-spectral-resolved titanium Kα doublet was measured by using a toroidally bent GaAs (400) crystal (2d = 11.28 Å) and an in-vacuum x-ray CCD detector. The toroid was 27 mm × 10 mm and had bending radii of 450 and 305.9 mm in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The crystal was located 244 mm away from the target. For the central x-ray photon energy of Eph = 4511 eV, a Bragg angle of Θ = 77.06° was chosen. An x-ray CCD detector was placed on the Rowland circle, 439 mm away from the crystal. The x-ray optical depth of titanium in this energy range is 20 μm, larger than the target thicknesses, thus x-ray emissions from the whole bulk of foil could be detected. As shown in Fig. 1, simultaneous one-dimensional spatial imaging (Δx = 10 μm) in the vertical direction and one-dimensional spectral dispersion (E/ΔE ~15,000) in the horizontal direction for the x-ray source were achieved [22]. For the given size of the crystal, a spatial extent of ~1 mm and a spectral window of 4500–4540 eV were covered.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental setup (not scaled).

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Figure 2(a) shows the x-ray CCD images for Kα emission from 10, 5, and 1 μm targets. For each case, 100 images were averaged. The vertical axis represents the spatial extent on the target surface (hereafter, referred to as the y position for convenience, with y = 0 being the position of laser focus), and the horizontal axis represents the spectral dispersion. The FWHM size​s of Kα1 and Kα2 were in the range of 85–100 μm, which were a factor of 5.5–6.5 greater than the size of the laser spot. These x-ray to laser spot size ratios are also consistent with earlier investigations under similar prepulse conditions [26,27].

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Averaged Kα emission image (top), (b) spectra from different lateral target positions (middle), and (c) Able-inverted experimental spectra of the warm dense titanium foils of 10, 5, and 1 μm thicknesses (bottom). Kα1 emission strengths are normalized to the unity. For clarity, vertical offsets are applied.

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The horizontal lineout at a given y represented the emission from a sliced strip, y μm away from the laser focus [Fig. 2(b)]. For the 10 μm target, the emission profiles at y = 70–90 μm were close to the typical cold Kα line shape. As the center was approached (y = 0–23 μm), a smooth wing on the high-energy side of Kα1 (~4515 eV) developed and the gap between the two peaks was filled. For thinner targets, these effects were more pronounced. In particular, for a 1 μm target, blue wings were observed in the y ~70 μm region and the emitted photon energy extended to ~4530 eV.

To obtain the radial distribution of the x-ray emission, the Abel deconvolution was applied to the spectra in Fig. 2(b) using the method described in the reference [23]. We assumed that the hot-electron distribution as well as the x-ray emission were radially symmetric on the target plan. The emission zone was divided into concentric circles in increments of 22.5 μm in radius. The normalized Abel-inverted spectra are shown in Fig. 2(c). Vertical offsets are applied for clarity.

Overall, the radially resolved spectra display the effect of blue wings and more clearly exhibit the merging of the two peaks. It is noted that, from thick (5 and 10 μm) targets, the highest energy photons (4520 eV) are emitted from the central region (r ~0). However, from the thin 1 μm target, the highest energy photons (~4530 eV) are mainly emitted in the r = 23–45 um region, while being limited to ~4525 eV in the central region. Because higher energy Kα photons indicate more ionization of the M shell, these experimental results indicate a quite different bulk temperature distribution between thin (1 μm) and thick (5 and 10 μm) targets.

3. Simulation

To gain deeper physical insight, Ti Kα emissions are modeled using the atomic kinetics and spectroscopy code, SCFLY [28]. The spectral module of SCFLY includes the relativistic configuration of atoms, and can provide the detailed emission structures from the various charge states configurations in the complex environment. In the simulation, we include two electron populations. The first is the fast electrons directly accelerated by the intense laser pulse. They represent a small fraction of total electrons (<1% of valence electrons), but they are energetic enough to knock off K electrons by collision, which leads to Kα emission. The hot-electron temperature of Thot = 0.5 MeV is estimated by using the Wilks formula Tpm=0.511(1+I17λμm2/11.31) MeV [8]. The second population comprises most of the valence electrons (or bulk electrons). They have a low temperature, Tbulk = 0–50 eV, but affect the ionization states, in particular the degree of M-shell ionization. The effects of each temperature and their population ratio on the Kα doublet are tested.

Though the hot electron temperature and fraction affect the number of Kα photons emitted, the line shape shows very little dependency. In contrast, the line shape shows a strong dependency on the bulk electron temperature. In Fig. 3, the calculated Kα line shapes at different Tbulk values are shown. When Tbulk < 5 eV, no significant effect is observed. The blue wing around 4515 eV starts to develop when Tbulk > 5 eV. As Tbulk increases beyond 10 eV, the wing extends to higher energy. Kα2 gets weaker and the gap between the two peaks fills up. At > 20 eV, the Kα1 peak begins to shift to higher energy, and structures near the Kα2 peak are smeared out. In the experiment, similar trends were observed as it approaches to the laser focus or the thinner target was shot.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The Ti Kα spectra at different bulk electron temperatures. Bulk temperature in eV are indexed to each curve. The spectra are peak-normalized.

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We applied the calculated results to the Abel-inverted spectra. But most of experimental spectra have both high and low temperature features together, and were hardly reproduced with single Tbulk calculations. For example, a spectrum from a 10 μm target [Fig. 4(a)] has both a sharp slope beyond 4511 eV and a tail beyond 4520 eV. A spectrum from 1 μm target [Fig. 4(b)] has a large blue wing as well as a significant emission at cold Kα1 (4511 eV). This comparison led us to consider the Tbulk distribution [18, 24, 29]. Mixed spectra with two different Tbulk values, 5 eV + 15 eV in a 5:5 ratio, and 13 eV + 34 eV in 5:5 provide better agreements with the experimental data in Fig. 4(a) and (b). The ratios are arbitrarily chosen. The reason for choosing such a temperature distribution is to account for gradients in the plasma parameters. Not only are there gradients in the radial direction, but there are also gradients between the target front and back sides that can contribute. The temporal evolution of plasma temperature over the duration of Kα emission is also a factor.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Experimental data (red solid line) for (a) 10 μm and (b) 1 μm targets compared with simulations. Single temperature spectra (black dash lines), and best-fits by mixing two spectra (black solid line).

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Finally, the bulk temperature distributions for three different targets are compared as shown in Fig. 5. At each radius, a weighted average of two bulk temperatures is determined based on the previous bi-temperature analysis (Tbulkavg=a  Tbulkhigh+(1a) Tbulklow). For the thick (5 and 10 μm) foils, the average temperature decreases linearly as a radius increases and near r ~100 μm, it is about 50% of the hottest region near the laser focus. The high and low temperatures contributions are nearly the same in the whole range. It should be noted that because the calculated spectra do not exhibit much difference at low-temperature regime and the temperature below 5 eV could not be well-determined Therefore, Tbulklow at r > 40 μm of 10 μm foil, r > 80 μm of 5 μm foil are set to be 2.5 eV, which is the half of 5 eV. For the thin (1 μm) foil, overall higher temperatures across a large radius is found. The highest Tbulkhigh, 40 eV is found at r ~40 μm. Although it might be yet premature to conclude the highest temperature regime is located away from the laser focus in consideration of a large uncertainty at the center of symmetry caused by Abel transformation, the off-center regime in a thin target could be heated effectively compared to thicker targets. Hot electron refluxing could be a possible mechanism of the lateral energy transport [30, 31]. As a result, the relatively uniform average temperatures (Tbulkavg ~20 eV) can be achieved in a large regime, which is about 10 times of the laser spot.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Electron temperature distributions for three targets of different thicknesses. The average bulk temperatures (square - solid line) were determined with two different values of Tbulk (grey shade). The 5 eV lines shows the low-limit of Kα diagnostics as a temperature sensor, and temperatures below this line are not shown.

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4. Conclusion

In this paper, we have presented Kα spectra from various thick (1-10 μm) warm dense titanium foils created by ultrashort multi-terawatt laser pulses using an x-ray spectrometer with a toroidally bent crystal that enables us to obtain one-dimensional spatial and one-dimensional spectral images simultaneously. By applying the Abel deconvolution, we could obtain radially resolved spectra on account of our assumption that the electron temperature distribution is radial symmetric in the target plane. The atomic kinetics and spectroscopy code SCFLY with relativistic atomic configurations provide the detailed variation of Ti Kα line shapes at different conditions. In this simulation, we observed that the Kα line shape is strongly dependent on the bulk electron temperature, while the fast electrons lead to Kα emission by ionizing the K electrons. We compared the Abel-inverted spectra to theoretical calculations for the one-temperature case, and it exhibits discordance at the ‘blue’ wing of the spectrum. Therefore, we applied a two-temperature model taken with different weights for each calculated spectrum, and best-fit modeled spectra could be obtained successfully. As a result, the radial distributions of bulk temperature in the foils with various thicknesses are determined. In thick targets (5, 10 μm), a strong temperature gradient in radial direction is observed. In a thin target (1 μm), a relatively uniform average temperature distribution over 10 time of the laser spot is observed.

Funding

Institute for Basic Science (IBS-R012-D1); National Research Foundation (NRF-2015R1A5A1009962, NRF-2016R1A2B4009631, NRF-2016H1A2A1909533, and NRF-2017K1A3A7A09016379) of Korea; Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Contract No. SF00515.

Acknowledgments

Portions of this research were conducted at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. LCLS is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Stanford University.

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References

  • View by:

  1. R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284(5419), 1488–1493 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-magnetic-field and fast-electron current-layer formation by ultraintense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 265002 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(9), 1383–1386 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic laser-plasma interaction by multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1880–1886 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. J. MacFarlane, P. Wang, J. Bailey, T. A. Mehlhorn, R. J. Dukart, and R. C. Mancini, “Analysis of K α line emission from aluminum plasmas created by intense proton beams,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 47(4), 2748–2758 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Nakano, A. A. Andreev, and J. Limpouch, “Femtosecond x-ray line emission from multilayer targets irradiated by short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79(4), 469–476 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. Nakano, A. A. Andreev, and J. Limpouch, “Femtosecond x-ray line emission from multilayer targets irradiated by short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79(4), 469–476 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-magnetic-field and fast-electron current-layer formation by ultraintense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 265002 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284(5419), 1488–1493 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic laser-plasma interaction by multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1880–1886 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. J. MacFarlane, P. Wang, J. Bailey, T. A. Mehlhorn, R. J. Dukart, and R. C. Mancini, “Analysis of K α line emission from aluminum plasmas created by intense proton beams,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 47(4), 2748–2758 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(9), 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdallah, J.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aglitskiy, Y.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Akli, K. U.

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Chen, M. H.

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. N.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, B. I.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H. K.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H.-K.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ciricosta, O.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, D.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Clark, E.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Clarke, R. J.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colgan, J.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, G.

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compant-La-Fontaine, A.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Correa, A. A.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowan, T. E.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creswell, A.

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

d’Humières, E.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dangor, A. E.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Davies, J. R.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Debayle, A.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditmire, T.

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doria, D.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Drake, R. P.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284(5419), 1488–1493 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dromey, B.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dukart, R. J.

J. J. MacFarlane, P. Wang, J. Bailey, T. A. Mehlhorn, R. J. Dukart, and R. C. Mancini, “Analysis of K α line emission from aluminum plasmas created by intense proton beams,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 47(4), 2748–2758 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyer, G.

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyer, G. M.

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dzelzainis, T.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Engelhorn, K.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, R. G.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Faenov, A. Y.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, X.

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Faure, J.

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fäustlin, R. R.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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Feldman, S.

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Franz, A.

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Freeman, R. R.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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Fuchs, J.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Fukuda, Y.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Gaillard, S.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Gauthier, J. C.

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Giuffrida, L.

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Glenzer, S. H.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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Glinsky, M. E.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
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Gobet, F.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Graves, C.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Green, J. S.

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Gregori, G.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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Gregory, C. D.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Guérin, S. M.

J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
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Guillou, P.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Habara, H.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Haines, M. G.

J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
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Hájková, V.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Hammer, J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
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Hannachi, F.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Hansen, S. B.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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Hanson, D.

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
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Hasegawa, N.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Heathcote, R.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Heimann, P. A.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Hey, D. S.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Higginbotham, A.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Highbarger, K.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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Hosokai, T.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
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S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Kämpfer, T.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
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M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
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J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
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U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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J. J. MacFarlane, P. Wang, J. Bailey, T. A. Mehlhorn, R. J. Dukart, and R. C. Mancini, “Analysis of K α line emission from aluminum plasmas created by intense proton beams,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 47(4), 2748–2758 (1993).
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S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
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S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, D.

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
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B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
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B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284(5419), 1488–1493 (1999).
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O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
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M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
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M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
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Sakaki, H.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Santala, M. I. K.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Schönlein, A.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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Schramm, U.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Schwegler, E.

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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Shepherd, R.

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singhal, R. P.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Skobelev, I. Y.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Šmíd, M.

O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spencer, I.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Springer, P.

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stambulchik, E.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(9), 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woerkom, L. V.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woodworth, J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
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Woolsey, N. C.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

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J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

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M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
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M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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Phys. Rev. E (3)

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S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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Science (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental setup (not scaled).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Averaged Kα emission image (top), (b) spectra from different lateral target positions (middle), and (c) Able-inverted experimental spectra of the warm dense titanium foils of 10, 5, and 1 μm thicknesses (bottom). Kα1 emission strengths are normalized to the unity. For clarity, vertical offsets are applied.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The Ti Kα spectra at different bulk electron temperatures. Bulk temperature in eV are indexed to each curve. The spectra are peak-normalized.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental data (red solid line) for (a) 10 μm and (b) 1 μm targets compared with simulations. Single temperature spectra (black dash lines), and best-fits by mixing two spectra (black solid line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Electron temperature distributions for three targets of different thicknesses. The average bulk temperatures (square - solid line) were determined with two different values of Tbulk (grey shade). The 5 eV lines shows the low-limit of Kα diagnostics as a temperature sensor, and temperatures below this line are not shown.

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