Abstract

A planar metasurface composed of electronically tunable meta-atoms incorporating voltage-controlled varactor diodes is proposed as a reconfigurable meta-mirror for wavefronts control in microwave antenna applications. The dispersion responses of the cells are individually tailored in the reconfigurable metasurface so as to overcome the bandwidth limitations of passive metasurfaces and also to control the phase characteristics. By controlling the bias voltage of the varactor diodes on the planar metasurface, the phase characteristics of reflectors can be engineered. The reconfigurable meta-mirror is utilized to implement three different types of reflectors. As such, a reflectarray, a cylindrical parabolic reflector and a dihedral reflector are numerically verified in microwave regime through finite element method. Moreover, experimental measurements are performed on a fabricated prototype to validate the proposed device. Frequency agility, beam deflection and beam focusing are the main functionalities demonstrated from the proposed reconfigurable meta-mirror.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Artificial composites formed by subwavelength microstructures known as metamaterials, can possess arbitrary values of permittivity and permeability and can thus offer the possibility to manipulate light in an unprecedented manner. Thanks to their unusual electromagnetic properties, negative refraction [1] sub-diffraction imaging [2] and invisibility cloaking [3] are among the most striking applications that have been made possible through the use of metamaterials. Recently, metasurfaces that are ultra-thin and planar versions of metamaterials, have been proposed to exhibit various light manipulation capabilities [4]. Metasurfaces present the main advantage of having reduced profile and losses, and also being conformable on curved objects. The fact that metasurfaces consist generally in thin sheets materials greatly facilitates their fabrication compared to that of three-dimensional (3D) bulky metamaterials. The possibility to tailor and control the reflection and transmission characteristics of metasurfaces has led to other fascinating device applications in the microwave as well as the optical domains. By controlling the reflection and/or transmission characteristics of metasurfaces, anomalous reflection and refraction have been made possible [5–11]. Applications to flat lenses [12–18], propagating to surface waves transformers [19] and waveplates [20–22] have also been proposed and validated. In the field of microwave antennas, metasurfaces have been successfully implemented in planar lens antennas [23–26], cavity antennas [27–29] and leaky-wave antennas [30] to achieve high directivity.

In the microwave regime, reflector antennas [31–35] are among the most widely applied antennas and have extensively been used due to their high-gain properties for applications related to remote sensing, satellite communications, radio astronomy, radars, and global positioning system (GPS). The conventional reflector is generally made of a metallic surface or grid having a parabolic, dihedral or trihedral shape that forms the diameter of the antenna. Dihedral and trihedral reflectors also known as corner reflectors are generally used as radar targets, in calibrating test equipment. Such antennas present the main disadvantage of being bulky due to mainly their non-planar profile. In this letter, we propose a planar meta-mirror where the phase characteristics can be reconfigured to act as an interesting alternative to non-planar reflectors. Voltage-controlled electronic elements are inserted in the reflective metasurface to engineer desired phase profiles of reflectors for wavefronts control. Such a tunable meta-mirror also allows achieving reconfigurability mechanisms that cannot be obtained from classical continuous metallic reflectors. As such, phase profiles can be easily tailored over a broad frequency range simply by changing the spatial distribution of bias voltage of each varactor diode, in order to have a frequency agile reflector. Furthermore, deflection of the radiated beam to off-normal directions can be achieved. Moreover, the phase profile can be dynamically modified to transform the radiated beam of an antenna at will, depending on the working context.

2. Design of the reconfigurable meta-mirror

A schematic view of the proposed meta-mirror is shown in Fig. 1(a). The structure is composed of copper strips printed on a low loss (tan δ = 0.003) copper-backed ARLON AD450 dielectric substrate with relative permittivity εr = 4.5 and thickness 1.52 mm. The copper strips have a width w = 0.5 mm and are separated by a gap g = 1.9 mm. When oriented perpendicular to the incident electric field, the strips play the role of a capacitive grid. On the other face, and in order to get a higher efficiency of the reflected wave, a continuous ground plane is printed. Additionally, the ground plane plays the role of an inductive grid. Classically, the resonant frequency of the LC unit cell can be changed by varying geometrical dimensions of the structure. However, such operation mode is not really practical, particularly when we need to dynamically control the dispersion characteristics. Here, our main goal is to perform an electronic control of the meta-mirror by incorporating electronic components in the unit cells. Thus, varactor diodes are integrated between two consecutive strips in the capacitive grid. By applying a reversed bias DC voltage, the capacitance of each unit-cell can be tuned leading to a shift in the resonant frequency. In our case, Aeroflex MGV 125-08 varactor diodes that present a dynamic capacitance varying from 0.055 pF to 0.6 pF are used. A prototype of the proposed meta-mirror is realized and a photography of the physical device together with the electronic bias system is presented in Fig. 1(b). The structure is composed of 30 columns, each containing 30 resonant unit cells.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic design of the reconfigurable meta-mirror. The unit cell has geometrical dimensions: p = 6 mm, w = 0.5 mm and g = 1.9 mm and DC biased incorporated a varactor diode. (b) Photography of the fabricated reconfigurable meta-mirror and electronic bias system.

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The meta-mirror is characterized experimentally in an anechoic chamber. The experimental setup shown in Fig. 2(a), consists in using two horn antennas in order to measure the reflection responses of the meta-mirror as shown in Fig. 2(a). Measurements are performed for different bias voltages that are applied similarly through the whole structure. The magnitude and phase responses for the different applied bias voltages are reported in Figs. 2(b)-2(e). The results show that the tunable meta-mirror allows to control the intrinsic dispersions of the structure for a reconfigurability mechanism. As shown in Figs. 2(b) and 2(d), the resonance frequency of the meta-mirror shifts from 8.35 GHz to 11.6 GHz when the bias voltage varies from 0.5 V to 20 V, corresponding to a capacitance of 0.6 pF and 0.055 pF respectively. The highest phase gradient which is close to 290° is achieved at 9 GHz.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Setup of measurement of the reflection coefficient of the meta-mirror. Measured reflection responses of the meta-mirror for different bias voltages: (b) and (d) Magnitude, and (c) and (e) Phase.

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In order to validate the reconfigurability mechanism, the proposed meta-mirror is used to design reflector antennas that are described in the following section.

3. Wavefronts control in microwave antenna applications

Since the response of the reflected wave on the meta-mirror can be dynamically controlled as desired, we propose to use it for the design of three different configurations of reflector antennas in order to demonstrate the various potentialities of the proposed structure.

3.1 Reflectarray

As a first functionality, we consider the meta-mirror as a reconfigurable reflectarray antenna. Since the generalization of the reflection and/or refraction laws [5], we can predict accurately the wave deflection by considering local phase variation. Therefore, the meta-mirror can be a good alternative to classical reflectarrays. However, metasurfaces generally suffer from a very low bandwidth due to the intrinsic response of resonant unit cells. This point has been discussed in [36], where the authors have proposed to overcome this problem by incorporating lumped electronic elements in the structure so as to achieve a broadband operation. However, it should be noted that a passive phase gradient was applied in the metasurface and the implementation of lumped elements allows only to control the working frequency. Here in this study, to allow a broad operating frequency bandwidth, we propose a meta-mirror that is totally agile and that allows to control beam steering and working frequency.

For the proof of concept, the far-field radiation patterns measurement setup illustrated in Fig. 3(a) has been established in an anechoic chamber. The incident wave is generated by an X-band (8.2 GHz – 12.4 GHz) horn antenna which is positioned along the normal in front of the meta-mirror and both are fixed on a rotating plate. When the rotating plate moves, both the sample and horn antenna rotate together, in order to keep the meta-mirror illuminated by a normal incident electromagnetic wave. A second broadband horn antenna is placed in the far-field in order to measure the radiation pattern. The two horn antennas are connected to an Agilent 8722ES network analyzer.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Far-field measurement setup of the reflectarray antenna. (b) Applied phase gradients (Δϕ = 15°, 30°, 45°) along the meta-mirror used for the beam steering at 9 GHz. (c) Applied bias voltage corresponding for the different configurations. (d) Simulated and measured far-field radiation patterns, where the performances obtained from the meta-mirror are normalized to that of a metal sheet. Due to the phase gradient applied along the meta-mirror, anomalous reflection is observed when illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave.

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First, we demonstrate the control of the direction of the reflected beam. For that, we select three angles of 15°, 30° and 45° at a fixed frequency of 9 GHz and the corresponding phase gradients Δϕ that should be applied are calculated by the generalized law of reflection [5]:

nrsin(θr)nisin(θi)=λ02πΔφΔx
In our case, nr = ni = 1, θi = 0°, θr varies from 15° to 45° by 15° step. The calculated phase values Δϕ required for the different beam steering angles are shown in Fig. 3(b) and are set by applying the corresponding bias voltages for each cell presented in Fig. 3(c). The measured radiation pattern corresponding to each case is presented in Fig. 3(d). All the measured radiations patterns are normalized with respect to the reflection of a metal sheet of similar size which is illuminated by a horn antenna placed at an off-normal incidence of 10°. The results show a deflection of the main beam to the different considered angles. Simulations of the structure have been performed by using high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) finite element method (FEM) based commercial code by ANSYS [37]. Measurements data are in good agreement with simulation results. However, we can observe that in simulation the radiation patterns are narrower than in measurements. This is due to the use of an incident plane wave in numerical simulations which is more directive than the horn antenna used as wave launcher in the experimental tests.

Furthermore, it is also possible to obtain the off-normal radiation at other frequencies between 9 and 11 GHz. In order to exhibit such frequency agility mechanism, θr is fixed to 30° and the phase gradients are calculated at 9 GHz, 9.5 GHz, 10 GHz, 10.5 GHz and 11 GHz. The corresponding phase gradients and bias voltages are presented in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b), respectively. The simulated and measured results are shown in Figs. 4(c)-4(g). The radiation patterns are also normalized to the one obtained for a metal sheet. The scattering angles are 30° deflecting from the normal of the meta-mirror, which is in good agreement with the calculations from (1). As it can be clearly observed, operation spanning from 9 GHz to 11 GHz with low level of specular reflections is obtained. However, above 11 GHz, the scanning angle will be less since the phase gradient is smaller.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Demonstration of frequency agility in the reflectarray meta-mirror. (a) Applied phase gradients. (b) Applied bias voltage corresponding to the different configurations. (c) - (g) Simulated and measured performances for the frequency agile anomalous reflection, where the radiation diagrams are normalized to that of a metal sheet.

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On the overall, the experimental data validate the use of the meta-mirror as a reflectarray antenna. Reconfigurability mechanisms of the proposed electronically tunable meta-mirror, namely frequency agility and beam steering properties have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the meta-mirror reflector shows an efficiency of more than 55%, which is quite remarkable when considering the integration of lumped electronic components.

3.2 Parabolic reflector antenna

In the previous section, beam steering and frequency agility have been demonstrated by electronically controlling the reflection phase profile of the planar meta-mirror. In addition, the phase of the meta-mirror can be controlled to emulate a reflector with a non-planar geometry. This second functionality consists in using the designed meta-mirror as a parabolic reflector antenna. To validate such functionality, a cylindrical parabolic phase profile is applied along the meta-mirror. The planar reflector must take into account the phase shift that exists between the planar surface and a parabolic one:

ϕ(x)=2πλ((xx0)24f)+ϕ0
where λ is the free space operating wavelength, f = 3 cm is the focal distance and φ0 is the reflection phase shift at x0. A direct coaxial-fed microstrip patch antenna designed for a 10 GHz operation is used as primary source and is placed at the focal point f. Since the varactor diodes are addressed in a column configuration, the designed meta-mirror allows to apply a phase modulation in only the xOz plane, corresponding to a cylindrical parabolic profile.

Figure 5(a) presents the schematic principle of using the meta-mirror as a cylindrical parabolic reflector antenna. Two different mechanisms are studied from the planar parabolic reflector. As a first mechanism, the frequency agility performance of the reflector antenna is experimentally tested. Figure 5(b) presents the phase profile calculated using (2) for x0 = 0 at four different frequencies (9 GHz, 10 GHz, 11 GHz and 12 GHz), where we are able to secure enough reflection phase variation along the meta-mirror so as to provide the required parabolic phase profile. The profiles are symmetric with respect to the middle plane of the metasurface (x0 = 0) containing the focal point. For the experimental validation, far-field radiation patterns of the antenna system are measured in an anechoic chamber and are presented in Fig. 5(c). Compared to the antenna pattern of the feeding source alone, the reflector antenna shows a directive beam. After reflection on the meta-mirror, the cylindrical wave fronts emanating from the feeding source are flattened and transformed into quasi-planar waves, producing a highly directive radiation at the four tested frequencies.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) Schematic principle of using the proposed meta-mirror as a parabolic reflector antenna. (b) Calculated cylindrical parabolic phase profile at 9 GHz, 10 GHz, 11 GHz and 12 GHz. (b) Measured far-field radiation patterns of the planar parabolic reflector antenna compared to that of the feeding source alone. A highly directive beam is observed in the xOz plane.

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The second tested mechanism consists in electronically steering the radiated beam of the reflector antenna system. In conventional parabolic reflector antennas, beam steering is generally achieved by moving laterally the feeding source in the focal plane [38–40]. In our case, both the meta-mirror and the feeding source are physically kept fixed. Therefore, instead of mechanically moving the reflector, only by using the reconfigurable cells, we are able to shift electronically the phase profiles such that the feeding source is virtually displaced in the focal plane. Three different phase profiles are considered at 10 GHz as presented in Fig. 6(a). The reference reflection phase is laterally shifted along the x-direction on the meta-mirror, such that φ0 lies at x0 = 6 mm, 12 mm and 48 mm. The feeding source is kept fixed at x = 0. The corresponding measured radiation patterns of the antenna system are presented in Fig. 6(b). A beam steering can be clearly observed where the deflection angle can reach 55° for a phase profile shift by 48 mm. It is worthwhile to note that in our case the phase profile shift is limited by the lateral dimensions of the meta-mirror. A larger structure will therefore allow increasing the latter shift, and also potentially achieving higher beam deflection. The proposed meta-mirror thus offers an interesting alternative to design planar parabolic reflector antennas that present the possibility to be reconfigured.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Beam steering mechanism in the parabolic reflector antenna configuration. (a) Considered cases where phase profiles are shifted along x-direction on the meta-mirror, with φ0 lying at x0 = 6 mm, 12 mm and 48 mm. (b) Measured far-field radiation patterns showing off-normal radiation of the beam.

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3.3 Corner reflector antenna

Finally, we propose to use the meta-mirror as a dihedral reflector antenna, commonly known as corner reflector antenna. In order to obtain such functionality, we apply the corresponding phase profile by taking into account the phase shift that exists between the planar surface and a corner reflector one, as shown in Fig. 7(a). The corresponding phase profile is given as:

ψ(x)=2πλ0(cotan(α2)|x|)+ψ0
where λ0 is the free space operating wavelength, α is the internal angle of the corner reflector and ψ0 is the reflection phase shift at x0. A direct coaxial-fed 1.5 cm long dipole antenna designed for a 10 GHz operation is used as driven source and is placed at the distance s = 0.7λ0 from the vertex. For proper operation, each reflecting surface of a classical corner reflector must have a length L equal to twice the feed-to-vertex distance s, as illustrated in Fig. 7(a). Therefore, the size of the meta-mirror acting as reflector has been reduced to 82 mm × 180 mm by applying electromagnetic absorbers on the borders of the meta-mirror.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 (a) Schematic diagram of the planar reconfigurable meta-mirror used as a corner reflector antenna. The internal angle α can be reconfigured by electronically modifying the phase profile. (b) Engineered phase profile for internal angles α = 90° and α = 120°. (c) Measured radiation patterns in xOy plane. (d) Measured radiation patterns in yOz plane.

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The DC bias voltage is applied to each column such that capacitance value and thus phase value can be varied only along the x-axis. In this configuration, the incident field impinging on the meta-mirror must also have its electric component oriented along x-direction. Therefore, the driven dipole element is placed horizontally as shown in Fig. 7(a).The proposed reconfigurable meta-mirror allows modifying the internal angle α electronically. To illustrate the properties of the planar meta-mirror reflector as a reconfigurable corner reflector, two configurations are tested: α = 90° and α = 120°. The bias voltages are set so as to apply the required phase profiles shown in Fig. 7(b). The far-field radiation patterns of the corner reflector antenna system in both xOy and yOz planes are measured in an anechoic chamber and presented in Figs. 7(c) and 7(d), respectively. The radiation patterns at 10.3 GHz are normalized with respect to those of the driven dipole. Compared to the antenna patterns of the driven source alone, the reflector antenna shows only a forward radiated beam where a gain increase of approximately 4 dB is observed.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we designed a varactor-loaded reconfigurable meta-mirror where the reflection phase is engineered through an electronic control of the capacitance. The designed electronically tunable meta-mirror has been characterized experimentally and used to design three different reflector antennas. First, a reconfigurable reflectarray has been designed. Beam steering functionality has been demonstrated by applying different phase gradients along the meta-mirror at a fixed frequency. Then, broadband anomalous reflection has been electronically controlled over 20% frequency bandwidth around 10 GHz. Furthermore, reflection phase is controlled to mimic non-planar reflectors. As such, in a second functionality the planar meta-mirror is used to design a parabolic profile reflector, where a broadband high directive beam has been obtained over 28% frequency bandwidth around 10.5 GHz. Beam steering mechanisms have also been demonstrated by electronically shifting the phase profile along the meta-mirror. Finally, we have shown that by engineering the geometry of the phase profile, the meta-mirror allows to mimic a dihedral corner reflector where the internal angle can be further reconfigured.

In this study, we have shown the potentials of the tunable structure, where a single meta-mirror can be judiciously reconfigured to design different reflectors for microwave antenna applications. Other reflector geometries can also be engineered by correctly applying the corresponding phase profiles. This planar structure constitutes an interesting alternative to non-planar reflectors with the additional possibility to reconfigure the operating frequency and the reflection direction. Furthermore, such reconfigurable metasurface design concept can be extended to the optical domain. Technologies such as nano-optomechanical and phase-change can be exploited for the reconfigurability mechanism. Magneto-electric changes in optical response can be tailored in a metasurface by the Lorentz force on simultaneous application of external electric and magnetic fields [41]. Phase change medium such as chalcogenide compound constitutes an interesting technology that enables nonvolatile switching of optical properties [42-43].

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References

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  1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
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  8. S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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  9. C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
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  10. H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, G. S. Kong, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of differently-polarized reflected waves by anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9605 (2015).
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  11. X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
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  12. X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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  13. F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(4), e72 (2013).
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  15. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
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  16. F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
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  18. N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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  19. S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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  20. L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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  21. X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
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  22. W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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  23. Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband planar Luneburg lens based on complementary metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181901 (2009).
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  24. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “A printed, broadband Luneburg lens antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(9), 3055–3059 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Dhouibi, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, and A. Priou, “Metamaterial-based half Maxwell fish-eye lens for broadband directive emissions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 024102 (2013).
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  26. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Controlling vector Bessel beams with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044012 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Ghasemi, S. N. Burokur, A. Dhouibi, and A. de Lustrac, “High beam steering in Fabry-Pérot leaky-wave antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 12, 261–264 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. N. Burokur, and A. de Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
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  29. A. Epstein, J. P. S. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. G. Minatti, M. Faenzi, E. Martini, F. Caminita, P. De Vita, D. Gonzalez-Ovejero, M. Sabbadini, and S. Maci, “Modulated metasurface antennas for space: synthesis, analysis and realizations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(4), 1288–1300 (2015).
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  31. C. C. Cutler, “Parabolic-antenna design for microwaves,” Proc. IRE 35(11), 1284–1294 (1947).
  32. Y.-B. Jung, A. V. Shishlov, and S.-O. Park, “Cassegrain antenna with hybrid beam steering scheme for mobile satellite communications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(5), 1367–1372 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. Kanso, R. Chantalet, M. Thevenot, E. Arnaud, and T. Monediere, “Offset parabolic reflector antenna fed by EBG dual-band focal feed for space application,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 9, 854–858 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  34. Z. A. Pour and L. Shafai, “Improved cross-polarization performance of a multi-phase-center parabolic reflector antenna,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 540–543 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. Mehrabani and L. Shafai, “Compact dual circularly polarized primary feeds for symmetric parabolic reflector antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 922–925 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  36. H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
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  37. ANSYS HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator), version 17 (2016).
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  39. A. W. Rudge and M. J. Withers, “Beam-scanning primary feed for parabolic reflectors,” Electron. Lett. 5(3), 39–41 (1969).
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  42. Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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2016 (4)

A. Epstein, J. P. S. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mehrabani and L. Shafai, “Compact dual circularly polarized primary feeds for symmetric parabolic reflector antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 922–925 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. Valente, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Minatti, M. Faenzi, E. Martini, F. Caminita, P. De Vita, D. Gonzalez-Ovejero, M. Sabbadini, and S. Maci, “Modulated metasurface antennas for space: synthesis, analysis and realizations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(4), 1288–1300 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, G. S. Kong, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of differently-polarized reflected waves by anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9605 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. A. Pour and L. Shafai, “Improved cross-polarization performance of a multi-phase-center parabolic reflector antenna,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 540–543 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Controlling vector Bessel beams with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

A. Ghasemi, S. N. Burokur, A. Dhouibi, and A. de Lustrac, “High beam steering in Fabry-Pérot leaky-wave antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 12, 261–264 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. N. Burokur, and A. de Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Dhouibi, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, and A. Priou, “Metamaterial-based half Maxwell fish-eye lens for broadband directive emissions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 024102 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(4), e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “A printed, broadband Luneburg lens antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(9), 3055–3059 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Kanso, R. Chantalet, M. Thevenot, E. Arnaud, and T. Monediere, “Offset parabolic reflector antenna fed by EBG dual-band focal feed for space application,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 9, 854–858 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Y.-B. Jung, A. V. Shishlov, and S.-O. Park, “Cassegrain antenna with hybrid beam steering scheme for mobile satellite communications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(5), 1367–1372 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband planar Luneburg lens based on complementary metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

A. W. Rudge and M. J. Withers, “Beam-scanning primary feed for parabolic reflectors,” Electron. Lett. 5(3), 39–41 (1969).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

Y. Lo, “On the beam deviation factor of a parabolic reflector,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 8(3), 347–349 (1960).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

C. C. Cutler, “Parabolic-antenna design for microwaves,” Proc. IRE 35(11), 1284–1294 (1947).

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnaud, E.

A. Kanso, R. Chantalet, M. Thevenot, E. Arnaud, and T. Monediere, “Offset parabolic reflector antenna fed by EBG dual-band focal feed for space application,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 9, 854–858 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, J.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burokur, S. N.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dhouibi, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, and A. Priou, “Metamaterial-based half Maxwell fish-eye lens for broadband directive emissions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 024102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghasemi, S. N. Burokur, A. Dhouibi, and A. de Lustrac, “High beam steering in Fabry-Pérot leaky-wave antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 12, 261–264 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. N. Burokur, and A. de Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, T.

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caminita, F.

G. Minatti, M. Faenzi, E. Martini, F. Caminita, P. De Vita, D. Gonzalez-Ovejero, M. Sabbadini, and S. Maci, “Modulated metasurface antennas for space: synthesis, analysis and realizations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(4), 1288–1300 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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A. Kanso, R. Chantalet, M. Thevenot, E. Arnaud, and T. Monediere, “Offset parabolic reflector antenna fed by EBG dual-band focal feed for space application,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 9, 854–858 (2010).
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H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, G. S. Kong, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of differently-polarized reflected waves by anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9605 (2015).
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Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband planar Luneburg lens based on complementary metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181901 (2009).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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A. Ghasemi, S. N. Burokur, A. Dhouibi, and A. de Lustrac, “High beam steering in Fabry-Pérot leaky-wave antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 12, 261–264 (2013).
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A. Dhouibi, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, and A. Priou, “Metamaterial-based half Maxwell fish-eye lens for broadband directive emissions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 024102 (2013).
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X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
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C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
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X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
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A. Epstein, J. P. S. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. N. Burokur, and A. de Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

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A. Ghasemi, S. N. Burokur, A. Dhouibi, and A. de Lustrac, “High beam steering in Fabry-Pérot leaky-wave antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 12, 261–264 (2013).
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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
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C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Controlling vector Bessel beams with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044012 (2014).
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C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(4), e72 (2013).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanso, A.

A. Kanso, R. Chantalet, M. Thevenot, E. Arnaud, and T. Monediere, “Offset parabolic reflector antenna fed by EBG dual-band focal feed for space application,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 9, 854–858 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(4), e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, G. S.

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, G. S. Kong, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of differently-polarized reflected waves by anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9605 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C. Y.

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, H. F.

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, G. S. Kong, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of differently-polarized reflected waves by anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9605 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband planar Luneburg lens based on complementary metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, S.

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
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Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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G. Minatti, M. Faenzi, E. Martini, F. Caminita, P. De Vita, D. Gonzalez-Ovejero, M. Sabbadini, and S. Maci, “Modulated metasurface antennas for space: synthesis, analysis and realizations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(4), 1288–1300 (2015).
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Maddock, J.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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G. Minatti, M. Faenzi, E. Martini, F. Caminita, P. De Vita, D. Gonzalez-Ovejero, M. Sabbadini, and S. Maci, “Modulated metasurface antennas for space: synthesis, analysis and realizations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(4), 1288–1300 (2015).
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X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
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A. Mehrabani and L. Shafai, “Compact dual circularly polarized primary feeds for symmetric parabolic reflector antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 922–925 (2016).
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G. Minatti, M. Faenzi, E. Martini, F. Caminita, P. De Vita, D. Gonzalez-Ovejero, M. Sabbadini, and S. Maci, “Modulated metasurface antennas for space: synthesis, analysis and realizations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(4), 1288–1300 (2015).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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A. Kanso, R. Chantalet, M. Thevenot, E. Arnaud, and T. Monediere, “Offset parabolic reflector antenna fed by EBG dual-band focal feed for space application,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 9, 854–858 (2010).
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F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(4), e72 (2013).
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X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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J. Valente, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
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Y.-B. Jung, A. V. Shishlov, and S.-O. Park, “Cassegrain antenna with hybrid beam steering scheme for mobile satellite communications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(5), 1367–1372 (2009).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
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C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
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J. Valente, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
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Z. A. Pour and L. Shafai, “Improved cross-polarization performance of a multi-phase-center parabolic reflector antenna,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 540–543 (2014).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roy, T.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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A. W. Rudge and M. J. Withers, “Beam-scanning primary feed for parabolic reflectors,” Electron. Lett. 5(3), 39–41 (1969).
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A. W. Rudge and M. J. Withers, “New technique for beam steering with fixed parabolic reflectors,” in Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (1971), pp. 857–863.
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G. Minatti, M. Faenzi, E. Martini, F. Caminita, P. De Vita, D. Gonzalez-Ovejero, M. Sabbadini, and S. Maci, “Modulated metasurface antennas for space: synthesis, analysis and realizations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(4), 1288–1300 (2015).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. N. Burokur, and A. de Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
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A. Mehrabani and L. Shafai, “Compact dual circularly polarized primary feeds for symmetric parabolic reflector antennas,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 922–925 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. A. Pour and L. Shafai, “Improved cross-polarization performance of a multi-phase-center parabolic reflector antenna,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13, 540–543 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(4), e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaltout, A. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishlov, A. V.

Y.-B. Jung, A. V. Shishlov, and S.-O. Park, “Cassegrain antenna with hybrid beam steering scheme for mobile satellite communications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(5), 1367–1372 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, J.

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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A. Kanso, R. Chantalet, M. Thevenot, E. Arnaud, and T. Monediere, “Offset parabolic reflector antenna fed by EBG dual-band focal feed for space application,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 9, 854–858 (2010).
[Crossref]

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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Valente, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, G. S. Kong, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of differently-polarized reflected waves by anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9605 (2015).
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Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wen, D.

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref]

Withers, M. J.

A. W. Rudge and M. J. Withers, “Beam-scanning primary feed for parabolic reflectors,” Electron. Lett. 5(3), 39–41 (1969).
[Crossref]

A. W. Rudge and M. J. Withers, “New technique for beam steering with fixed parabolic reflectors,” in Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (1971), pp. 857–863.
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A. Epstein, J. P. S. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
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X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.-X.

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Tunable microwave metasurfaces for high-performance operations: dispersion compensation and dynamical switch,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38255 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youngs, I. J.

J. Valente, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7021 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, G.

Q. Wang, E. T. F. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yue, F.

X. Chen, M. Chen, M. Q. Mehmood, D. Wen, F. Yue, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Longitudinal multifoci metalens for circularly polarized light,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1201–1206 (2015).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic design of the reconfigurable meta-mirror. The unit cell has geometrical dimensions: p = 6 mm, w = 0.5 mm and g = 1.9 mm and DC biased incorporated a varactor diode. (b) Photography of the fabricated reconfigurable meta-mirror and electronic bias system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Setup of measurement of the reflection coefficient of the meta-mirror. Measured reflection responses of the meta-mirror for different bias voltages: (b) and (d) Magnitude, and (c) and (e) Phase.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Far-field measurement setup of the reflectarray antenna. (b) Applied phase gradients (Δϕ = 15°, 30°, 45°) along the meta-mirror used for the beam steering at 9 GHz. (c) Applied bias voltage corresponding for the different configurations. (d) Simulated and measured far-field radiation patterns, where the performances obtained from the meta-mirror are normalized to that of a metal sheet. Due to the phase gradient applied along the meta-mirror, anomalous reflection is observed when illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Demonstration of frequency agility in the reflectarray meta-mirror. (a) Applied phase gradients. (b) Applied bias voltage corresponding to the different configurations. (c) - (g) Simulated and measured performances for the frequency agile anomalous reflection, where the radiation diagrams are normalized to that of a metal sheet.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic principle of using the proposed meta-mirror as a parabolic reflector antenna. (b) Calculated cylindrical parabolic phase profile at 9 GHz, 10 GHz, 11 GHz and 12 GHz. (b) Measured far-field radiation patterns of the planar parabolic reflector antenna compared to that of the feeding source alone. A highly directive beam is observed in the xOz plane.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Beam steering mechanism in the parabolic reflector antenna configuration. (a) Considered cases where phase profiles are shifted along x-direction on the meta-mirror, with φ0 lying at x0 = 6 mm, 12 mm and 48 mm. (b) Measured far-field radiation patterns showing off-normal radiation of the beam.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic diagram of the planar reconfigurable meta-mirror used as a corner reflector antenna. The internal angle α can be reconfigured by electronically modifying the phase profile. (b) Engineered phase profile for internal angles α = 90° and α = 120°. (c) Measured radiation patterns in xOy plane. (d) Measured radiation patterns in yOz plane.

Equations (3)

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n r sin( θ r ) n i sin( θ i )= λ 0 2π Δφ Δx
ϕ( x )= 2π λ ( ( x x 0 ) 2 4f )+ ϕ 0
ψ( x )= 2π λ 0 ( cotan( α 2 )| x | )+ ψ 0

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