Abstract

An approach to microwave photonics frequency-to-time mapping (MWP FTM) is proposed based on a Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator (FDML OEO). In this approach, a relationship between the frequency of the input microwave signal and the time difference of the output pulses is established with the help of the fast frequency scanning capability of the FDML OEO. The ability to measure the microwave spectral information in the time domain using the proposed system has the potential to enable new metrology and signal processing schemes with a superior performance in terms of real-time bandwidth and operation speed compare with traditional approaches. As an application example, single and multi-tone microwave frequency measurement are experimentally demonstrated based on the proposed MWP FTM system.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Real-time microwave measurements are widely used in civil and defense applications, such as communications, medical, traffic control, astronomy, radar and electronic warfare systems. Traditional measurements based on electronic methods keep the advantages of very high resolution and flexibility. However, with the rapid development of high-speed wireless communications, internet of things and new generation of radar receivers, electronic methods suffer from difficulty and complexity for the realization of the expected measurements with real-time bandwidth as large as several gigahertz [1–3]. For example, the maximum real-time bandwidth of the state-of-art microwave signal analyzers is only about 500 MHz, which is much lower than the demanded value [2].

Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field that enables the generation, processing, distribution as well as measurement of microwave signals using photonic techniques [4,5]. Microwave measurements based on MWP methods enable the operation to be realized over large bandwidths, and have also provided advantages include light weight, low loss and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Several MWP methods have been developed for microwave frequency measurement in recent years, including by mapping the unknown microwave frequency to the electrical or optical power [6–20] and based on frequency-to-time mapping [21–23]. The electrical power mapping schemes constructing an amplitude comparison function (ACF) by the microwave power ratio of two radio-over-fiber channels with the help of a dispersion element. A relatively high resolution with a large measuring frequency range have been achieved [6–14]. The optical power mapping methods have been reported by using optical filters with sinusoidal spectral response, which have relative simple structure and avoid the use of expensive microwave power meters [15–20]. However, the majority of the two methods discussed above can only be used for measuring single-tone microwave signals. In practical applications, it is highly desirable to measure multi-tone signals, because various unknown frequency components may exist in the received signal. The frequency-to-time mapping method is capable of measuring multiple frequencies. The basic idea of this method is to establish a relationship between the frequency of the unknown signals and the electrical time delay, by the use of dispersion-induced time delay [21] or frequency shifting recirculating delay line (FS-RDL) [22,23]. Nevertheless, the resolution of the reported schemes is larger than hundreds of MHz, which is limited by the speed of the optical time gate.

In this paper, we propose a microwave photonics frequency-to-time mapping (FTM) method based on a Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator (FDML OEO). The frequency of the received microwave signal is mapped to the time difference of output pulses with the help of the frequency scanning capability of the FDML OEO. The ability to measure the microwave spectral information in the time domain has the potential to enable new metrology and signal processing schemes with a superior performance in terms of real-time bandwidth and operation speed compare with traditional approaches. As an application example, single and multiple-tone microwave frequency measurement with a low measurement error of ± 60 MHz are experimentally demonstrated using the proposed MWP FTM system.

2. Principle

The schematic diagram of the proposed MWP FTM system is shown in Fig. 1(a). The input microwave signals are injected into a bidirectional frequency scanning FDML OEO [24,25]. A portion of the beat-note or sum-note between the input microwave signals fi and the frequency scanning signal of the FDML OEO is selected by an electrical filter with a fixed passband of ffilter. Two pairs of pluses can be observed at the output for two simultaneous signals. Figure 1(b) shows the operation principle when a portion of the beat-note is selected. Only the beat-notes between the input signals fi and the frequency scanning components ffilter+fi are matched with the passband of the electrical filter, which can be observed at the output. A relationship between the frequency of the input microwave signals fi in the frequency domain and the time difference ΔT of output pulses in the time domain is established with the help of the FDML OEO, thus FTM is achieved.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic and operation principle of the proposed microwave photonics frequency-to-time mapping (MWP FTM) system. (a) Schematic diagram. The input microwave signals are injected into a bidirectional frequency scanning Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator (FDML OEO), an electrical filter with a fixed passband is used to select a portion of the beat-note or sum-note between the input signal and the frequency scanning signal. Two pairs of pluses can be observed at the output for two simultaneous signals. (b) Operation principle when a portion of the beat-note is selected. Only the beat-notes between the input signals fi and the frequency scanning components ffilter+fi are matched with the passband of the electrical filter.

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The detail of the proposed MWP FTM system is shown in Fig. 2. The input microwave signals are injected into the FDML OEO cavity through a power combiner. The FDML OEO contains three parts, an electrical and an optical gain medium, a long optical fiber delay line, and a fast frequency-scanning microwave photonics filter (MPF). The MPF is based on phase modulation using a phase modulator (PM) and phase-modulation to intensity-modulation (PM-IM) conversion using an optical notch filter [26]. The passband of the MPF is determined by the frequency difference of the laser diode (LD) and the notch filter. Thus, the frequency scanning of the MPF can be achieved by sweeping the wavelength of the LD, which is driven by a saw-tooth current. By synchronizing the scanning period Tfilter drive of the MPF to the round-trip time Troundtrip of propagating signals in the OEO cavity to achieve Fourier domain mode locking operation [24], i.e.

Troundtrip=n×Tfilter drive
where n is an integer, a fast frequency scanning microwave waveform can be generated by the FDML OEO. It should be mentioned that a bidirectional frequency scanning signal is generated by the FDML OEO because of the limited bandwidth of the LD driving circuit, although a saw-tooth driving current is applied. This bidirectional frequency scanning property may be unwanted in some applications, but is crucial in our proposed MWP FTM scheme. The frequency scanning property of the FDML OEO can be obtained by calculating the real-time frequency distribution of the generated microwave waveform using short-time Fourier transform (STFT).

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Experimental setup. The key is a frequency scanning FDML OEO. The input microwave signals are injected into the FDML OEO cavity through a power combiner, an external electrical filter is used to select a portion of the beat or sum frequency at the ouput of the PD.

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The beat-note or sum-note between the input microwave signals and the frequency scanning signal generated by the FDML OEO is detected by a photodetector (PD). The bandwidth of the beat-note or sum-note is equal to the bandwidth of the frequency scanning signal generated by the FDML OEO. By properly adjusting the frequency position of the electrical filter and the frequency scanning signal generated by the FDML OEO, two pulses can be observed by an oscilloscope at the output of the electrical filter within one scanning period for a single-tone input microwave signal. For example, when a portion of the beat-frequency is measured, the total beat-note can be expressed as

fbeat=fscanfi
where fscan is the frequency scanning signal generated by the FDML OEO. Due to the bidirectional frequency scanning property of the FDML OEO, two pulses can be observed at the output of the electrical filter in a single sweep period, one corresponds to the beat-note between the input signal and the down-scanning signal, another originates from the beat-note between the input signal and the up-scanning signal. The frequency of the selected beat-note can be expressed as
fbeat|t=t1=fbeat|t=t2=ffilter
where t2 and t1 corresponds to the exact time when the selected frequency is observed by the oscilloscope. The time difference between the two pulses can be expressed as
ΔT=t2t1
The frequency of the input signal can be expressed as
fi=fffilterΔT
where f=fscan|t=t1=fscan|t=t2 represent the instantaneous frequency of the scanning microwave signal when the selected beat-frequency is observed by the oscilloscope. Clearly, the time difference ΔT between the two pulses is related to the frequency of the input single-tone microwave signal fi, thus the frequency of the input signal is mapped to the time difference of the two output pulses. Similarly, when a multiple-tone microwave signal is injected into the FDML OEO cavity, multiple pairs of pulses can be observed at the output, FTM can also be achieved.

The large scanning bandwidth of the FDML OEO enables a large real-time bandwidth of MWP FTM process. Besides, the spectral information can be acquired in the time domain with a time scale equals to the scanning period of the FDML OEO (as short as tens of ns), thus a high operation speed can be expected using the proposed approach. It should be noted that a similar function can also be achieved by replacing the FDML OEO with a pure electrical frequency scanning microwave source, such as an electrical voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). The key advantage of the FDML OEO is the ultra-wide bandwidth offered by photonics technology, since broadband frequency scanning microwave signals can be easily generated. On the contrary, the electronic methods suffer from limited bandwidth or complicated structure. Moreover, the phase noise of FDML OEO is low and does not degrade with the increasing of microwave frequency [24].

As an application example, microwave frequency measurement can be easily performed using the proposed MWP FTM system. In this case, the input signals of the MWP FTM system are the unknown microwave signals. The microwave frequency measurement range is fscanffilter or fscan+ffilter when a portion of the beat frequency is measured, which is depends on the relative spectrum position of the microwave signal under measurement and the frequency scanning signal of the FDML OEO. The real-time bandwidth of the frequency measurement system is equals to the bandwidth of the frequency scanning signal generated by the FDML OEO. The microwave frequency measurement system is also reconfigurable, since the bandwidth and center frequency of the frequency scanning signal can be easily tuned by the changing the driving current [24]. The reconfiguration of the microwave frequency measurement system with different frequency measurement range is summarized in Table 1, when the passband of the electrical filter ffilter is 5 GHz.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Reconfiguration of the MWP FTM-based microwave frequency measurement system.

3. Results and discussions

An experiment based on the setup shown in Fig. 2 is performed. The narrowband electrical band-pass filter has a center frequency of 5 GHz and a 3-dB bandwidth of 60 MHz. The LD is a distributed feed-back (DFB) laser with an output power of 13 dBm. A LD controller and an electrical signal generator are used to drive the LD. The PM has a bandwidth of 20 GHz and a half-wave voltage of 7 V. A phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PS-FBG) with an ultra-narrow notch at the middle of the reflection spectrum is used as the optical notch filter, in order to remove one of the two phase modulated sidebands. The optical gain medium is an Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a tunable gain and a noise figure of 3.3 dB. The optical fiber delay line has a total length of 4.5 km, which consists of a single-mode fiber and a dispersion compensating fiber with opposite dispersion of the same magnitude in order to reduce the impact of dispersion-induced power penalty. The residual dispersion of the optical fiber is only −0.848 ps/nm. The electrical gain medium is a low noise amplifier (LNA) with a gain of 22 dB and a noise figure of 6 dB. An amplified lightwave converter with a 3-dB bandwidth of 15 GHz and a conversion gain of 300V/W is used as the PD. The equivalent MPF has a bandwidth of 90 MHz, and a tunable passband with a center frequency up to 15 GHz.

A 45 kHz saw-tooth driving current is first applied to the LD to sweep its wavelength in the experiment. As mentioned above, a frequency scanning MPF is achieved accordingly, because the passband of the MPF is determined by the frequency difference of the LD and the optical notch filter. When the period of the driving signal Tfilter drive is equal to the roundtrip time Troundtrip, and the loop gain exceeds the loss, a fast frequency scanning microwave waveform can be generated by the FDML OEO. The scanning period is 22.22 μs, which is determined by the cavity length. Figure 3(a) shows the frequency scanning property of the FDML OEO in one scanning period. The frequency scanning range fscan is from about 5.5 GHz to 9.5 GHz, which is obtained by calculating the real-time frequency distribution of the generated microwave waveform at the output of the PD using STFT. The relationship between the time difference ∆T of the output pulses after the electrical filter and the frequency of the input microwave signals fi is shown in Fig. 3(b), when the beat-note between the input signal and the frequency scanning signal of the FDML OEO is measured by the oscilloscope. It can be seen that there is a positive relationship between the input microwave frequency and the time difference of the pulses, thus MWP FTM is achieved. For microwave frequency measurement using the FTM relationship shown in Fig. 3(b), the corresponding measurement range is from 0.5 GHz to 4.5 GHz.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Measured bidirectional frequency scanning property of the FDML OEO with a scanning range fscan from about 5.5 GHz to 9.5 GHz. (b) Corresponding MWP FTM relationship between the frequency of the input microwave signal fi and the time difference ∆T.

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A single frequency microwave signal from a signal generator with an output power of 10 dBm is then injected into the FDML OEO. The measured pulse envelopes in one scanning period on the oscilloscope with different frequencies is shown in Fig. 4. As expected, two pulses with different pulse width are observed on the oscilloscope, representing a portion of the beat-note between the input signal and the frequency scanning signal that matches with the passband of the electrical filter. The power of the input microwave signals should be larger than 0 dBm in the experiment, in order to have a pair of output pulses. The sensitivity of the proposed system is mainly limited by the efficiency of the frequency mixing process between the input microwave signals and the frequency scanning signal, which can be further improved, for example, by the use of electrical preamplifiers. By measuring the time difference between the two pulses, the frequency of the input microwave signals can be estimated using the FTM relationship shown in Fig. 3(b). Figure 5 shows the measurement results and errors for different frequency microwave signals. The total frequency measurement range is extended to 15 GHz by change the relative spectrum position of the microwave signal under measurement and the frequency scanning signal generated by the FDML OEO. This is done in the experiment by simply tune the DC bias and amplitude variation range of the driving current to change the frequency of the generated frequency scanning signal. The maximum measurable frequency is mainly limited by the bandwidth of the PD used in the experiment. Besides, the frequency of the input microwave signal should be different from the center frequency of the electrical filter, in order to have a pair of output pulses as a reference for frequency estimation. The measurement errors are no more than 60 MHz, which verifies the high accuracy of our method. The measurement error mainly comes from the wavelength drift of the LD and the notch filter. A higher accuracy can be expected with the help of a feedback control loop to reduce the wavelength drift.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Measured pulse envelopes on the oscilloscope after the electrical filter for a single frequency microwave signal with different frequencies is injected into the FDML OEO cavity.

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Frequency measurement results and errors for different frequency microwave signals. The measurement range is 15 GHz and the measurement errors are no more than 60 MHz.

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Two microwave signals generated by two signal generators are combined using an electrical power combiner and injected into the FDML OEO cavity, to demonstrate the multiple-frequency measurement capability of the proposed FTM-based microwave frequency measurement system. Figure 6 shows the measured pulse envelopes on the oscilloscope. As expected, two pairs of pulses can be observed within one scanning period. Clearly, the time difference of the pulses is dependent on the frequencies of the injected microwave signals. Again, the frequencies of the input signals can be estimated with the help of the FTM relationship established by the FDML OEO.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Measured pulse envelopes on the oscilloscope after the electrical filter when two microwave signals are applied to the PM.

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The electrical filter is the key to select the desired beat-note or sum-note in the proposed frequency measurement system. When a portion of the beat-note is measured, the output signal of the electrical filter can be expressed as:

Hout(f)=Hbeat(f)Hfilter(f)
where Hbeat(f) is the Fourier transform of the beat-note and Hfilter(f) is the frequency response of the electrical filter. The beat-note is a frequency scanning signal, which can be expressed as
Hbeat(f)2πTBexp[j(2πf)2TB]
where T is the period and B is the scanning bandwidth. For an electrical filter with a Lorenzian line shape, the output signal can be further expressed as
Hout(f)2πTBexp[j(2πf)2TB]jΓ/2fffilterjΓ/2
where Γ is the 3-db bandwidth of the electrical filter and ffilter is the center frequency. Figure 7 shows the zoom-in view of the simulated output pulse envelopes when two microwave signals with a frequency difference of 60 MHz is injected into the proposed system. As can been seen, the power in the saddle between the two output signals is only related to the 3-dB bandwidth of the electrical filter. So the resolution is determined by the bandwidth of the electrical filter used in our experiment, which is 60 MHz. A higher resolution can be expected by using an electrical filter with narrower bandwidth. Besides, as can be seen from Fig. 7, the pulse width is reduced by increasing the chirp-rate of the frequency scanning signal, which would result in a lower measurement error.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Simulated output pulse envelopes of the proposed system. The frequency difference of the two input microwave signals is 60 MHz. (a)-(d) are the simulated results for different 3-dB bandwidth of the electrical filter and different chirp-rate of the frequency scanning signal. The power in the saddle between the two output signals is only related to the 3-dB bandwidth of the electrical filter.

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4. Conclusion

In conclusion, a MWP FTM approach is proposed based on a FDML OEO. In this approach, the optical carrier of FDML OEO is modulated by an input microwave signal. The frequency of the input microwave signal in the frequency domain is mapped to the time difference of the output pulses in the time domain, thanks to the bidirectional frequency scanning property of the FDML OEO. Single and multiple tone microwave frequency measurement using the proposed MWP FTM method is experimentally demonstrated. The measurement range is 15 GHz and the measurement errors are no more than 60 MHz. The ability to measure the spectral information in the time domain using the proposed MWP FTM system has the potential to enable new metrology and signal processing schemes with a superior performance in terms of real-time bandwidth and operation speed compare with traditional approaches.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61522509 and 61535012); Thousand Young Talent Program (Ming Li).

Acknowledgment

We thank Nuannuan Shi, Shuqian Sun, Xinyi Zhu and Hao Sun for comments and discussion.

References

1. P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. X. Zou, B. Lu, W. Pan, L. Yan, A. Stöhr, and J. Yao, “Photonics for microwave measurements,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(5), 711–734 (2016). [CrossRef]  

3. S. Pan and J. Yao, “Photonics-based broadband microwave measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3498–3513 (2017). [CrossRef]  

4. J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009). [CrossRef]  

5. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]  

6. L. V. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]  

7. X. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008). [CrossRef]  

8. X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009). [CrossRef]  

9. M. Attygalle and D. B. Hunter, “Improved photonic technique for broadband radio-frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 206–208 (2009). [CrossRef]  

10. X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5314–5320 (2009). [CrossRef]  

11. J. Zhou, S. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and C. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1069–1071 (2009). [CrossRef]  

12. N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014). [CrossRef]  

13. Y. Li, L. Pei, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Theory study on a range-extended and resolution-improved microwave frequency measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(7), 613–620 (2016). [CrossRef]  

14. H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014). [CrossRef]  

15. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008). [CrossRef]  

16. Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011). [CrossRef]  

17. J. S. Fandiño and P. Muñoz, “Photonics-based microwave frequency measurement using a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation and an InP integrated ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4316–4319 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. D. Feng, H. Xie, L. Qian, Q. Bai, and J. Sun, “Photonic approach for microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution using birefringence effect in highly non-linear fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17613–17621 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015). [CrossRef]  

20. M. Pagani, B. Morrison, Y. Zhang, A. Casas-Bedoya, T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, B. J. Eggleton, and D. Marpaung, “Low-error and broadband microwave frequency measurement in a silicon chip,” Optica 2(8), 751–756 (2015). [CrossRef]  

21. L. V. Nguyen, “Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 642–644 (2009). [CrossRef]  

22. T. A. Nguyen, E. H. W. Chan, and R. A. Minasian, “Photonic multiple frequency measurement using a frequency shifting recirculating delay line structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3831–3838 (2014). [CrossRef]  

23. T. A. Nguyen, E. H. W. Chan, and R. A. Minasian, “Instantaneous high-resolution multiple-frequency measurement system based on frequency-to-time mapping technique,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2419–2422 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. T. Hao, J. Tang, W. Li, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Tunable Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(21), 1842–1845 (2018).

26. W. Li and J. Yao, “A wideband frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(6), 1735–1742 (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. X. Zou, B. Lu, W. Pan, L. Yan, A. Stöhr, and J. Yao, “Photonics for microwave measurements,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(5), 711–734 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Pan and J. Yao, “Photonics-based broadband microwave measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3498–3513 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. V. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Attygalle and D. B. Hunter, “Improved photonic technique for broadband radio-frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 206–208 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5314–5320 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Zhou, S. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and C. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1069–1071 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Li, L. Pei, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Theory study on a range-extended and resolution-improved microwave frequency measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(7), 613–620 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. S. Fandiño and P. Muñoz, “Photonics-based microwave frequency measurement using a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation and an InP integrated ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4316–4319 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Feng, H. Xie, L. Qian, Q. Bai, and J. Sun, “Photonic approach for microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution using birefringence effect in highly non-linear fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17613–17621 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Pagani, B. Morrison, Y. Zhang, A. Casas-Bedoya, T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, B. J. Eggleton, and D. Marpaung, “Low-error and broadband microwave frequency measurement in a silicon chip,” Optica 2(8), 751–756 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. V. Nguyen, “Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 642–644 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. A. Nguyen, E. H. W. Chan, and R. A. Minasian, “Photonic multiple frequency measurement using a frequency shifting recirculating delay line structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3831–3838 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. A. Nguyen, E. H. W. Chan, and R. A. Minasian, “Instantaneous high-resolution multiple-frequency measurement system based on frequency-to-time mapping technique,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2419–2422 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T. Hao, J. Tang, W. Li, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Tunable Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(21), 1842–1845 (2018).
  26. W. Li and J. Yao, “A wideband frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(6), 1735–1742 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hao, J. Tang, W. Li, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Tunable Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(21), 1842–1845 (2018).

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

X. Zou, B. Lu, W. Pan, L. Yan, A. Stöhr, and J. Yao, “Photonics for microwave measurements,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(5), 711–734 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, L. Pei, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Theory study on a range-extended and resolution-improved microwave frequency measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(7), 613–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

T. A. Nguyen, E. H. W. Chan, and R. A. Minasian, “Photonic multiple frequency measurement using a frequency shifting recirculating delay line structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3831–3838 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. A. Nguyen, E. H. W. Chan, and R. A. Minasian, “Instantaneous high-resolution multiple-frequency measurement system based on frequency-to-time mapping technique,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2419–2422 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

W. Li and J. Yao, “A wideband frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(6), 1735–1742 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Attygalle and D. B. Hunter, “Improved photonic technique for broadband radio-frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 206–208 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5314–5320 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, S. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and C. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1069–1071 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. V. Nguyen, “Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 642–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. V. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

Aditya, S.

J. Zhou, S. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and C. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1069–1071 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ashourian, M.

H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014).
[Crossref]

Attygalle, M.

M. Attygalle and D. B. Hunter, “Improved photonic technique for broadband radio-frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 206–208 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bai, Q.

Berizzi, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Capria, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casas-Bedoya, A.

Cen, Q.

T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, E. H. W.

Chi, H.

Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, J.

L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Emami, H.

H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fandiño, J. S.

Feng, D.

Fu, S.

J. Zhou, S. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and C. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1069–1071 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, D.

L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, X.

N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hao, T.

T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hao, J. Tang, W. Li, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Tunable Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(21), 1842–1845 (2018).

Harjanne, M.

He, M.

L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hunter, D. B.

M. Attygalle and D. B. Hunter, “Improved photonic technique for broadband radio-frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 206–208 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. V. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jiang, F.

L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.

X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kang, Z.

N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kapulainen, M.

Laghezza, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazzeri, E.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Y. Li, L. Pei, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Theory study on a range-extended and resolution-improved microwave frequency measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(7), 613–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

T. Hao, J. Tang, W. Li, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Tunable Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(21), 1842–1845 (2018).

T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

T. Hao, J. Tang, W. Li, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Tunable Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(21), 1842–1845 (2018).

T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li and J. Yao, “A wideband frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(6), 1735–1742 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, L. Pei, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Theory study on a range-extended and resolution-improved microwave frequency measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(7), 613–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

J. Zhou, S. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and C. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1069–1071 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, B.

X. Zou, B. Lu, W. Pan, L. Yan, A. Stöhr, and J. Yao, “Photonics for microwave measurements,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(5), 711–734 (2016).
[Crossref]

Malacarne, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marpaung, D.

Min, S.

L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

Minasian, R. A.

Morrison, B.

Muñoz, P.

Nguyen, L. V.

L. V. Nguyen, “Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 642–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. V. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. A.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Onori, D.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagani, M.

Pan, S.

Pan, W.

X. Zou, B. Lu, W. Pan, L. Yan, A. Stöhr, and J. Yao, “Photonics for microwave measurements,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(5), 711–734 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pei, L.

Y. Li, L. Pei, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Theory study on a range-extended and resolution-improved microwave frequency measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(7), 613–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pinna, S.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porzi, C.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, L.

Scaffardi, M.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scotti, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serafino, G.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, N.

N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shum, P. P.

J. Zhou, S. Fu, S. Aditya, P. P. Shum, and C. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using photonic technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1069–1071 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stöhr, A.

X. Zou, B. Lu, W. Pan, L. Yan, A. Stöhr, and J. Yao, “Photonics for microwave measurements,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(5), 711–734 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Tang, J.

T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hao, J. Tang, W. Li, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Tunable Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(21), 1842–1845 (2018).

Vercesi, V.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Li, L. Pei, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Theory study on a range-extended and resolution-improved microwave frequency measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(7), 613–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

Yan, L.

X. Zou, B. Lu, W. Pan, L. Yan, A. Stöhr, and J. Yao, “Photonics for microwave measurements,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(5), 711–734 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.

L. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Yan, S. Min, M. He, D. Gao, and J. Dong, “Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Commun. 335, 266–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

T. Hao, Q. Cen, Y. Dai, J. Tang, W. Li, J. Yao, N. Zhu, and M. Li, “Breaking the limitation of mode building time in an optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1839 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pan and J. Yao, “Photonics-based broadband microwave measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3498–3513 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zou, B. Lu, W. Pan, L. Yan, A. Stöhr, and J. Yao, “Photonics for microwave measurements,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(5), 711–734 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Li and J. Yao, “A wideband frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a tunable microwave photonic filter based on phase-modulation to intensity-modulation conversion using a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(6), 1735–1742 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zou, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved measurement range and resolution based on simultaneous phase modulation and intensity modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5314–5320 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Chi, X. Zou, and J. Yao, “An approach to the measurement of microwave frequency based on optical power monitoring,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1249–1251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

Y. Li, L. Pei, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Theory study on a range-extended and resolution-improved microwave frequency measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(7), 613–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Z. Li, C. Wang, M. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a special fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 21(1), 52–54 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

N. Shi, Y. Gu, J. Hu, Z. Kang, X. Han, and M. Zhao, “Photonic approach to broadband instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with improved accuracy,” Opt. Commun. 328, 87–90 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, S.

X. Zhang, H. Chi, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, X. Jin, and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using an optical phase modulator,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(6), 422–424 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic and operation principle of the proposed microwave photonics frequency-to-time mapping (MWP FTM) system. (a) Schematic diagram. The input microwave signals are injected into a bidirectional frequency scanning Fourier domain mode locked optoelectronic oscillator (FDML OEO), an electrical filter with a fixed passband is used to select a portion of the beat-note or sum-note between the input signal and the frequency scanning signal. Two pairs of pluses can be observed at the output for two simultaneous signals. (b) Operation principle when a portion of the beat-note is selected. Only the beat-notes between the input signals f i and the frequency scanning components f filter + f i are matched with the passband of the electrical filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup. The key is a frequency scanning FDML OEO. The input microwave signals are injected into the FDML OEO cavity through a power combiner, an external electrical filter is used to select a portion of the beat or sum frequency at the ouput of the PD.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured bidirectional frequency scanning property of the FDML OEO with a scanning range f scan from about 5.5 GHz to 9.5 GHz. (b) Corresponding MWP FTM relationship between the frequency of the input microwave signal f i and the time difference ∆T.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured pulse envelopes on the oscilloscope after the electrical filter for a single frequency microwave signal with different frequencies is injected into the FDML OEO cavity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Frequency measurement results and errors for different frequency microwave signals. The measurement range is 15 GHz and the measurement errors are no more than 60 MHz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured pulse envelopes on the oscilloscope after the electrical filter when two microwave signals are applied to the PM.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated output pulse envelopes of the proposed system. The frequency difference of the two input microwave signals is 60 MHz. (a)-(d) are the simulated results for different 3-dB bandwidth of the electrical filter and different chirp-rate of the frequency scanning signal. The power in the saddle between the two output signals is only related to the 3-dB bandwidth of the electrical filter.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Reconfiguration of the MWP FTM-based microwave frequency measurement system.

Equations (8)

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T round trip = n × T filter drive
f beat = f scan f i
f beat | t = t 1 = f beat | t = t 2 = f filter
Δ T = t 2 t 1
f i = f f filter Δ T
H out ( f ) = H beat ( f ) H filter ( f )
H beat ( f ) 2 π T B exp [ j ( 2 π f ) 2 T B ]
H out ( f ) 2 π T B exp [ j ( 2 π f ) 2 T B ] j Γ / 2 f f filter j Γ / 2

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