Abstract

Engineering light absorption in graphene has been the focus of intensive research in the past few years. In this paper, we show numerically that coherent perfect absorption can be realized in monolayer graphene in the near infrared range by harnessing resonances of dielectric nanostructures. The asymmetry of the structure results in different optical responses for light illuminated from the top side and the substrate side and enables asymmetric interferometric light-light control. The absorbed and scattered light exhibit interesting nonlinear behavior, allowing switching a strong optical signal output with a weak light. This work may stimulate potential applications including new types of sensors, coherent photodetectors and all-optical logical devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Graphene shows remarkable optical properties and great potentials for applications in photonics and optoelectronics [1]. It has been explored for a variety of devices including photodetectors [2], modulators [3], light emitters [4] and so on. However, monolayer graphene absorbs only about 2.3% of the incident light in the visible and near-infrared range [5–7] which limits the performances of many graphene-based devices. Thus many approaches have been proposed to enhance the light-graphene interactions [8–13] such as placing graphene in cavities [14,15], using resonant metallic [16–18] or dielectric nanostuctures [19–24], integrating graphene with optical waveguides and parttening graphene into nanostructures to excite its surface plasmons within the infrared and THz ranges [25–28]. Another method to enhance and modulate light absorption in graphene is utilizing the so called-coherent perfect absorption (CPA) [29,30]. CPA relies on the interplay of absorption and interference effects and provides an interesting way to controlling light with light without nonlinearity [31,32]. It was first demonstrated in a silicon slab [33] and then in a planar metamaterial [34]. Since then, CPA in many other systems have been studied and a variety of interesting applications have been proposed [35–43]. CPA in graphene have also been intensively studied [44–52]. Most of them focus on the mid-infrared to THz ranges where CPA in graphene can be realized by exploiting the graphene plasmons [53,54] or in the microwave range where graphene can be highly conductive and absorptive [55,56]. However, in the visible and near-infrared ranges, CPA in graphene cannot be easily achieved due to its low absorption. Recently, it was shown that CPA could be realized in graphene integrated with metallic nanostructures with plasmonic resonances [52]. However, a large proportion of light is absorbed in the metals. Visible to near-infrared CPA in graphene has also been realized at oblique incidence [57]. But the big incidence angle limits the practical realization and applications. Here we combine graphene with lossless resonant dielectric nanostructures and show that tunable CPA can be realized in graphene in the near infrared range at normal incidence.

2. Results and discussion

In the general case of coherent illumination, we have two counter-propagating coherent beams (see Fig. 1, I1 and I2) vertically incident on the absorption material (blue block). O1 and O2 are the intensities of output beams (i.e. scattering beams) from each side. The relation between the incident and scattering beams can be written as:

S1=r1E1ei(φr1+φ0)+t2E2eiφt2
S2=t1E1ei(φt1+φ0)+r2E2eiφr2
Here Ei(i = 1, 2) and Si are the electric amplitude of the incident and scattering field, respectively. ri and ti are the reflection and transmission coefficients of the incident beams E1 and E2. φti and φri (i = 1, 2) are the reflection and transimission phases of E1 and E2. φ0 is the phase difference between E1 and E2. Equations (1) and (2) can be described by a complex scattering matrix S :
[S1S2]=S[E1E2],S=[S11S12S21S22]
where S11 = r1ei(φr1 +φ0), S12 = t2et2, S21 = t1ei(φt1 +φ0), S22 = r2er2.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic of coherent perfect absorption and asymmetric interferometric light-light control in graphene integrated with a resonant dielectric grating. The inset on the right side shows the details of the structure.

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The scattering energy from the absorption material can be written as:

O1=Z02S1*S1=Z02[(r1E1)2+(t2E2)2+2r1t2E1E2cos(φr1+φ0φt2)]
O2=Z02S2*S2=Z02[(t1E1)2+(r2E2)2+2t1r2E1E2cos(φt1+φ0φr2)]

Z0 is the impedance of the media around absorb material. Considering the energy conservation, we can get the absorption of the material:

A=I1+I2O1O2=Z02(E1*E1+E2*E2S1*S1S2*S2)

From Eqs. (4)(6), we can notice that the scattering and absorption energy are influenced by E1, E2, ϕ0, ri, ti, ϕri and ϕti. For realistic realizations, ri, ti, ϕri and ϕti are determined as constants by the properties of the system. By properly designing the system, we can achieve certain ri, ti, φri and φti to realize absorption enhancement. For instance, from Eq. (3) we can notice that CPA occurs when the scattering matrix S reaches 0, and this requires:

r1r2e(φr1+φr2)=t1t2e(φt1+φt2)

Apart from this, considering ri, ti and Ei are positive real numbers, Eqs. (1) and (2) indicate that CPA also needs:

φr1+φ0=φt2+π
φt1+φ0=φr2+π

Taking Eqs. (7)(9) back into Eqs. (1) and (2), and under the condition S1 = S2 = 0, we can find that the incident intensity requirement for CPA is:

r1I1=t2I2andt1I1=r2I2

Equations (710) give the structural requirements (ri, ti, ϕri, ϕti) and incident requirements (Ii, ϕ0) for vertically illuminated CPA. Thus to realize CPA, we need to carefully choose the materials and design the structures to get proper ri, ti, ϕri, ϕti, and the parameters of the incident light (intensity and phase difference) also matter. As Eq. (10) shows, by choosing unsymmetrical structures, we can realize CPA with asymmetrical illumination [58].

To achieve absorption enhancement in monolayer graphene, we combine graphene with a subwavelength dielectric grating and investigate its absorption with vertical coherent illumination. Figure 1 shows the schematic of the structure under investigation. A monolayer graphene is sandwiched between a 1D dielectric grating (lossless, refractive index n1 = 1.5) and a dielectric slab (lossless, refractive index n2 = 2) with thickness t. The period of the dielectric gating is p. The width and the height of each grating block are w and h, respectively. It is well-known that subwavelength dielectric gratings are able to support guided mode resonances [20, 21]. Here we carefully designed the structure parameters of the system as p = 1000nm, h = 200nm, t = 150nm, w = 700nm to fulfill the CPA conditions shown in Eqs. (7)(10). Numerical simulations are conducted using a fully three-dimensional finite element technique (in Comsol MultiPhysics). In our simulations, graphene is modelled as an conductive surface with an optical conductance of G0 = e2/(4ħ) ≈ 6.08 × 10−5 Ω−1 which corresponds to the absorption of about 2.3% for a free standing film. We choose the direction of the nano-grating to be along x direction, and linearly polarized plane waves are used as the incident light.

Figure 2 shows the simulated reflection, transmission and absorption of the structure under the illumination of only one beam at normal incidence. For x-polarized light, there is a resonance at the wavelength of around λ = 1382 nm. When the light is illuminated from the top side, the resonant reflection, transmission and absorption are R = 32.0%, T = 25.9% and A = 42.1%, respectively (Fig. 2(a)). When the light is illuminated from the bottom side, the resonant reflection, transmission and absorption are R = 15.5%, T = 25.9% and A = 58.6%, respectively (Fig. 2(b)). The difference in the reflection and absorption for light incident from difference side is attributed to the asymmetry of the structure.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Simulated reflection, transmission and absorption of the studied hybrid structure under the illumination of one beam at normal incidence from the (a) top side (grating) and (b) bottom side (substrate). The electric field of incident light is polarized along x direction.

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We now study CPA in the proposed structure. Two counter-propagating coherent beams are illuminated on the structure at normal incidence. The intensities of the two beams are I2 = 2I1 = I0, and the relative phase is Δϕ = 1.3π. Here we define Δϕ = ϕ1ϕ2 where ϕ1 is the phase of beam 1 at the position of h above graphene and ϕ2 is the phase of beam 2 at the position of h below graphene (h > 200 nm to avoid the influence of substrate and grating). Please note that here the relative phase is not the phase difference of the two incident beams at the graphene film. Figure 3(a) shows the absorption (A, black solid line) and scattering (O1, red dashed line, O2, blue dotted line) spectra of the structure with E along x direction. At the resonance wavelength of 1382nm, the absorption of the system reaches over 99% (which is also the absorption of graphene, for the top and bottom dielectric materials are lossless), indicating that CPA in monolayer graphene is achieved with unsymmetrical (I2 = 2I1) vertical coherent illumination. For electric field E along y direction, it does not lead to absorption enhancement and the absorption of graphene keeps less than 2% in the wavelength range we investigated.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Coherent perfect absorption in the structure with asymmetric illuminations. (a) Absorption and scattering spectra. (b) Field (Ex) distributions at the CPA wavelength (1382nm). (c) Field (Ex) distributions at the non-CPA wavelength (1360nm). The electric field of incident light is polarized along x direction. The intensities of the two beams are I2 = 2I1 = I0, and the relative phase is Δϕ = 1.3π.

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Figures 3(b) and 3(c) shows the electric field Ex distributions at the wavelength of 1382nm (CPA) and 1360nm (non-CPA), respectively. From the electric distribution in Fig. 3(b) we can find that the electric field is highly confined around the graphene sheet (more than 10 times larger than the incident field E0), which would contribute to the absorption enhancement in graphene. While in the non-CPA situation, we can notice that the electric field is not as tightly trapped as in the CPA case, where a large proportion of energy escapes from the structure and forms a standing wave with the incident light. It should be noted that our subwavelength grating does not show any diffraction in the far field in the studied wavelength range.

The relative phase of the two counter-propagating coherent beams (Δϕ) plays a key role in the process of coherent perfect absorption. Thus we take the CPA point (λ = 1382nm) and non-CPA point (λ = 1360nm) to investigate the influence of Δϕ on graphene absorption. Equations (4)(6) tell us that the absorption and scattering of our system are related with φ0 (i.e. Δϕ) by cosine function, and this matches well with our simulation results as shown in Fig. 4. In Fig. 4(a), we can notice that the absorption of graphene is modulated by φ0 between less than 10% and nearly 100%. It means that by simply change the phase difference of the two coherent incident beams, we can continuously switch graphene from highly transparent to strongly absorptive. This may lead to potential applications like graphene photodetectors and modulators. For non-CPA situation [see Fig. 4(b)], the absorption of graphene keeps at a low level. While interestingly, it can be seen from the scattering curves that when we adjust the phase difference of the incident light, the major output energy can be tuned from either O1 or O2, and this may contribute to the application of all optical switches or optical logical devices [59].

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Interferometric light-light control by phase difference. (a) CPA modulation at the resonance wavelength, λ = 1382nm. (b) Non-CPA modulation, λ = 1360nm. The intensities of the two beams are I2 = 2I1 = I0.

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Besides phase difference, the incident intensity also affects the coherent absorption process in our structure. As shown in Eqs. (4) and (5), when changing the value of ϕ0, the scattering can be tuned with a range of:

ΔO1=max(O1)min(O1)=2Z0r1t2E1E2=2r1t2I1I2
ΔO2=max(O2)min(O2)=2Z0t1r2E1E2=2t1r2I1I2

Here we define γi = ΔOi/I1, and we have:

γ1=ΔO1/I1=2r1t2I2/I1
γ2=ΔO2/I1=2t1r2I2/I1

Since we do not consider the nonlinearity of materials, the ratio between I1 and I2 matters more than their individual absolute values. We fix I2 = 1 and vary I1. Figures 5(a)–5(c) show dependence of scattering and absorption on I1 for different relative phases between the two coherent beams with interesting nonlinear character similar to previously reported results in planar metallic metamaterials [59]. For a fixed value of I2 = 1 and I1, ΔO1, ΔO2 and ΔA represent the modulation amplitude of scattering and absorption by the variation of relative phase and ΔO1/I1, ΔO2/I1 and ΔA/I1 shows the modulation depth relative to the intensity of beam 1. From Eqs. (13) and (14) we can see that the scattering control ratio ΔO1/I1 and ΔO2/I1 increase as the incident intensity of beam 1 (I1) deceases. As shown in Fig. 5(d), the scattering and absorption control ratio can be much larger than 1 when I1 is small, which leads to an amplification of the power and makes it possible to control a strong optical signal output with a weak light [58,59].

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Nonlinear character of interferometric light-light control in the structure. (a–c) Dependence of scattering from the grating and substrate sides as well as absorption on incident intensity (I1) and phase difference with I2 = 1 and λ = 1382nm, respectively. (d) Dependence of scattering and absorption control ratio on incident intensity I1.

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3. Conclusions

In conclusion, we realized tunable CPA in graphene by harnessing the guided mode resonance of a subwavelength dielectric grating. The lack of loss in dielectrics leads to 100% absorption in the graphene. The asymmetry of the structure enables asymmetric interferometric light-light control. The absorbed energy in graphene as well as the scattered energy exhibit interesting nonlinear behavior, allowing switching a strong optical signal output with a weak light. The studied structure can be experimentally realized on a silicon nitride membrane with similar fabrication process that has been previously demonstrated [23]. The proposed design can be applied in a broad spectral range from visible to infrared ranges. Potential applications include sensors, coherent photodetectors and all-optical logical devices.

Funding

The Science and Technology Planning Project of Hunan Province (2017RS3039, 2018JJ1033); National Natural Science Foundation of China (11304389, 11674396).

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References

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  1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-m. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839 (2009).
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  24. Y. S. Fan, C. C. Guo, Z. H. Zhu, W. Xu, F. Wu, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Monolayer-graphene-based perfect absorption structures in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 25, 13079 (2017).
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  25. S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 12 (2012).
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  26. F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, W. Liu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Towards photodetection with high efficiency and tunable spectral selectivity: graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering,” Nanoscale 7, 13530–13536 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
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  30. S. Longhi, “Coherent perfect absorption in a homogeneously broadened two-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A. 83, 1–4 (2011).
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  31. E. Plum, K. F. MacDonald, X. Fang, D. Faccio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling the optical response of 2d matter in standing waves,” ACS Photonics 4, 3000–3011 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17064 (2017).
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  33. W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-Reversed Lasing and Interferometric Control of Absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e18 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 2246–2254 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. S. Dutta-Gupta, O. J. Martin, S. D. Gupta, and G. Agarwal, “Controllable coherent perfect absorption in a composite film,” Opt. Express 20, 1330–1336 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. X. Fang, M. L. Tseng, J. Y. Ou, K. F. Macdonald, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast all-optical switching via coherent modulation of metamaterial absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141102 (2014).
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  38. G. Nie, Q. Shi, Z. Zhu, and J. Shi, “Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 201909 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. Shi, X. Fang, E. T. Rogers, E. Plum, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent control of snell law at metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 22, 21051–21060 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7031 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. O. Kotlicki and J. Scheuer, “Wideband coherent perfect absorber based on white-light cavity,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6624–6627 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. M. Papaioannou, E. Plum, E. T. Rogers, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-optical dynamic focusing of light via coherent absorption in a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17157 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  43. A. Krasnok, D. G. Baranov, A. Generalov, S. Li, and A. Alù, “Coherently enhanced wireless power transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 143901 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. G. Pirruccio, L. Martin Moreno, G. Lozano, and J. Gomez Rivas, “Coherent and broadband enhanced optical absorption in graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 4810–4817 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. S. M. Rao, J. J. F. Heitz, T. Roger, N. Westerberg, and D. Faccio, “Coherent control of light interaction with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5345–5347 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  46. J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent perfect absorption and transparency in a nanostructured graphene film,” Opt. Express 22, 12524–12532 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. F. Liu, Y. D. Chong, S. Adam, and M. Polini, “Gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” 2d Mater. 1, 031001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  48. Y. Fan, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6269–6272 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. X. Hu and J. Wang, “High-speed gate-tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption using a split-ring graphene,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5538–5541 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. V. Thareja, J. H. Kang, H. Yuan, K. M. Milaninia, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable coherent optical absorption in graphene with ion gel,” Nano Lett. 15, 1570–1576 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13956 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. Y. Ning, Z. Dong, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Tunable polarization-independent coherent perfect absorber based on a metal-graphene nanostructure,” Opt. Express 25, 32467–32474 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  53. A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 749–758 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  54. T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” Acs Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  55. S. Li, Q. Duan, S. Li, Q. Yin, W. Lu, L. Li, B. Gu, B. Hou, and W. Wen, “Perfect electromagnetic absorption at one-atom-thick scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 1–6 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  56. S. Li, J. Luo, S. Anwar, S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Hang, Y. Lai, B. Hou, M. Shen, and C. Wang, “Broadband perfect absorption of ultrathin conductive films with coherent illumination: Superabsorption of microwave radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 220301 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  57. F. Xiong, J. Zhou, W. Xu, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, J. Zhang, and S. Qin, “Visible to near-infrared coherent perfect absorption in monolayer graphene,” J. Opt. 20, 095401 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  58. H. Zhao, W. S. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 1–5 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  59. X. Fang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light with light using coherent metadevices: All-optical transistor, summator and invertor,” Light. Sci. Appl. 4, 1–7 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

Y. Fan, C. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Xu, F. Wu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Monolayer-graphene-based broadband and wide-angle perfect absorption structures in the near infrared,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13709 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Papaioannou, E. Plum, E. T. Rogers, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-optical dynamic focusing of light via coherent absorption in a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17157 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Krasnok, D. G. Baranov, A. Generalov, S. Li, and A. Alù, “Coherently enhanced wireless power transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 143901 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xiong, J. Zhou, W. Xu, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, J. Zhang, and S. Qin, “Visible to near-infrared coherent perfect absorption in monolayer graphene,” J. Opt. 20, 095401 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Y. Ning, Z. Dong, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Tunable polarization-independent coherent perfect absorber based on a metal-graphene nanostructure,” Opt. Express 25, 32467–32474 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Fan, C. C. Guo, Z. H. Zhu, W. Xu, F. Wu, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Monolayer-graphene-based perfect absorption structures in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 25, 13079 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, K. F. MacDonald, X. Fang, D. Faccio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling the optical response of 2d matter in standing waves,” ACS Photonics 4, 3000–3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

C.-c. Guo, Z.-h. Zhu, X.-d. Yuan, W.-m. Ye, K. Liu, J.-f. Zhang, W. Xu, and S.-Q. Qin, “Experimental demonstration of total absorption over 99% in the near infrared for monolayer-graphene-based subwavelength structures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1955–1960 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, W. S. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

X. Fang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light with light using coherent metadevices: All-optical transistor, summator and invertor,” Light. Sci. Appl. 4, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Q. Duan, S. Li, Q. Yin, W. Lu, L. Li, B. Gu, B. Hou, and W. Wen, “Perfect electromagnetic absorption at one-atom-thick scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Li, J. Luo, S. Anwar, S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Hang, Y. Lai, B. Hou, M. Shen, and C. Wang, “Broadband perfect absorption of ultrathin conductive films with coherent illumination: Superabsorption of microwave radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 220301 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hu and J. Wang, “High-speed gate-tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption using a split-ring graphene,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5538–5541 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Thareja, J. H. Kang, H. Yuan, K. M. Milaninia, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable coherent optical absorption in graphene with ion gel,” Nano Lett. 15, 1570–1576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Grande, M. A. Vincenti, T. Stomeo, G. V. Bianco, D. de Ceglia, N. Aközbek, V. Petruzzelli, G. Bruno, M. De Vittorio, M. Scalora, and A. D’Orazio, “Graphene-based perfect optical absorbers harnessing guided mode resonances,” Opt. Express 23, 21032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xiong, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Ultrabroadband, more than one order absorption enhancement in graphene with plasmonic light trapping,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, W. Liu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Towards photodetection with high efficiency and tunable spectral selectivity: graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering,” Nanoscale 7, 13530–13536 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Cho, J. H. Ryoo, C.-H. Park, P. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. Lee, Y. Li, S.-N. Park, Y. S. Yoo, D. Yoon, V. E. Dorgan, E. Pop, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, S. H. Chun, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, M. H. Bae, and Y. D. Park, “Bright visible light emission from graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (15)

A. Manjavacas and F. J. García de Abajo, “Tunable plasmons in atomically thin gold nanodisks,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Piper and S. Fan, “Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance,” ACS Photonics 1, 347–353 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. García De Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14, 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Grande, M. A. Vincenti, T. Stomeo, G. V. Bianco, D. de Ceglia, N. Aközbek, V. Petruzzelli, G. Bruno, M. De Vittorio, M. Scalora, and A. D’Orazio, “Graphene-based absorber exploiting guided mode resonances in one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 22, 31511 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Piper, V. Liu, and S. Fan, “Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 483 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Kotlicki and J. Scheuer, “Wideband coherent perfect absorber based on white-light cavity,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6624–6627 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fang, M. L. Tseng, J. Y. Ou, K. F. Macdonald, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast all-optical switching via coherent modulation of metamaterial absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141102 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Nie, Q. Shi, Z. Zhu, and J. Shi, “Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 201909 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Shi, X. Fang, E. T. Rogers, E. Plum, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent control of snell law at metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 22, 21051–21060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rao, J. J. F. Heitz, T. Roger, N. Westerberg, and D. Faccio, “Coherent control of light interaction with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5345–5347 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent perfect absorption and transparency in a nanostructured graphene film,” Opt. Express 22, 12524–12532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Liu, Y. D. Chong, S. Adam, and M. Polini, “Gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” 2d Mater. 1, 031001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6269–6272 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” Acs Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

G. Pirruccio, L. Martin Moreno, G. Lozano, and J. Gomez Rivas, “Coherent and broadband enhanced optical absorption in graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 4810–4817 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, K. Shi, and Z. Lu, “Greatly enhanced ultrabroadband light absorption by monolayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4342–4345 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Q. Chen, L. Jin, and F. Sun, “Great light absorption enhancement in a graphene photodetector integrated with a metamaterial perfect absorber,” Nanoscale 5, 9615–9619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12, 5626–5631 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-T. Liu, N.-H. Liu, J. Li, X. Jing Li, and J.-H. Huang, “Enhanced absorption of graphene with one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 052104 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 12 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e18 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 2246–2254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dutta-Gupta, O. J. Martin, S. D. Gupta, and G. Agarwal, “Controllable coherent perfect absorption in a composite film,” Opt. Express 20, 1330–1336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-Reversed Lasing and Interferometric Control of Absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Longhi, “Coherent perfect absorption in a homogeneously broadened two-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A. 83, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-m. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” IOP science 012004, 5 (2008).

T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Optical conductivity of graphene in the visible region of the spectrum,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 1–8 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, S.

F. Liu, Y. D. Chong, S. Adam, and M. Polini, “Gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” 2d Mater. 1, 031001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G.

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. García De Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14, 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aközbek, N.

Alù, A.

A. Krasnok, D. G. Baranov, A. Generalov, S. Li, and A. Alù, “Coherently enhanced wireless power transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 143901 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. M.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anwar, S.

S. Li, J. Luo, S. Anwar, S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Hang, Y. Lai, B. Hou, M. Shen, and C. Wang, “Broadband perfect absorption of ultrathin conductive films with coherent illumination: Superabsorption of microwave radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 220301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” Acs Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-m. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, M. H.

Y. D. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Cho, J. H. Ryoo, C.-H. Park, P. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. Lee, Y. Li, S.-N. Park, Y. S. Yoo, D. Yoon, V. E. Dorgan, E. Pop, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, S. H. Chun, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, M. H. Bae, and Y. D. Park, “Bright visible light emission from graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baranov, D. G.

A. Krasnok, D. G. Baranov, A. Generalov, S. Li, and A. Alù, “Coherently enhanced wireless power transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 143901 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bianco, G. V.

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolduc, E.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

V. Thareja, J. H. Kang, H. Yuan, K. M. Milaninia, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable coherent optical absorption in graphene with ion gel,” Nano Lett. 15, 1570–1576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruno, G.

Cao, H.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-Reversed Lasing and Interferometric Control of Absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, D. E.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

S. Song, Q. Chen, L. Jin, and F. Sun, “Great light absorption enhancement in a graphene photodetector integrated with a metamaterial perfect absorber,” Nanoscale 5, 9615–9619 (2013).
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Cheong, H.

Y. D. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Cho, J. H. Ryoo, C.-H. Park, P. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. Lee, Y. Li, S.-N. Park, Y. S. Yoo, D. Yoon, V. E. Dorgan, E. Pop, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, S. H. Chun, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, M. H. Bae, and Y. D. Park, “Bright visible light emission from graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, Y.

Y. D. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Cho, J. H. Ryoo, C.-H. Park, P. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. Lee, Y. Li, S.-N. Park, Y. S. Yoo, D. Yoon, V. E. Dorgan, E. Pop, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, S. H. Chun, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, M. H. Bae, and Y. D. Park, “Bright visible light emission from graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, Y.

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-Reversed Lasing and Interferometric Control of Absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, Y. D.

F. Liu, Y. D. Chong, S. Adam, and M. Polini, “Gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” 2d Mater. 1, 031001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chun, S. H.

Y. D. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Cho, J. H. Ryoo, C.-H. Park, P. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. Lee, Y. Li, S.-N. Park, Y. S. Yoo, D. Yoon, V. E. Dorgan, E. Pop, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, S. H. Chun, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, M. H. Bae, and Y. D. Park, “Bright visible light emission from graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couteau, C.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

V. Thareja, J. H. Kang, H. Yuan, K. M. Milaninia, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable coherent optical absorption in graphene with ion gel,” Nano Lett. 15, 1570–1576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Orazio, A.

de Ceglia, D.

De Vittorio, M.

Deng, X.

Detz, H.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Z.

Dorgan, V. E.

Y. D. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Cho, J. H. Ryoo, C.-H. Park, P. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. Lee, Y. Li, S.-N. Park, Y. S. Yoo, D. Yoon, V. E. Dorgan, E. Pop, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, S. H. Chun, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, M. H. Bae, and Y. D. Park, “Bright visible light emission from graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, Q.

S. Li, Q. Duan, S. Li, Q. Yin, W. Lu, L. Li, B. Gu, B. Hou, and W. Wen, “Perfect electromagnetic absorption at one-atom-thick scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dutta-Gupta, S.

Englund, D.

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12, 5626–5631 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faccio, D.

E. Plum, K. F. MacDonald, X. Fang, D. Faccio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling the optical response of 2d matter in standing waves,” ACS Photonics 4, 3000–3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rao, J. J. F. Heitz, T. Roger, N. Westerberg, and D. Faccio, “Coherent control of light interaction with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5345–5347 (2014).
[Crossref]

Falkovsky, L. A.

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” IOP science 012004, 5 (2008).

Fan, S.

J. R. Piper and S. Fan, “Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance,” ACS Photonics 1, 347–353 (2014).
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J. R. Piper, V. Liu, and S. Fan, “Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 483 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, C. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Xu, F. Wu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Monolayer-graphene-based broadband and wide-angle perfect absorption structures in the near infrared,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13709 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Z. Wei, and H. Li, “Tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6269–6272 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Y. S.

Fang, X.

E. Plum, K. F. MacDonald, X. Fang, D. Faccio, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling the optical response of 2d matter in standing waves,” ACS Photonics 4, 3000–3011 (2017).
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X. Fang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light with light using coherent metadevices: All-optical transistor, summator and invertor,” Light. Sci. Appl. 4, 1–7 (2015).
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X. Fang, M. L. Tseng, J. Y. Ou, K. F. Macdonald, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast all-optical switching via coherent modulation of metamaterial absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141102 (2014).
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J. Shi, X. Fang, E. T. Rogers, E. Plum, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent control of snell law at metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 22, 21051–21060 (2014).
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Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. García De Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14, 299–304 (2014).
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Fegadolli, W. S.

H. Zhao, W. S. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

H. Zhao, W. S. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q.

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, Q.

Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13956 (2015).
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Furchi, M.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12, 5626–5631 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, G. Shi, Z. Jin, J. Shu, Q. Zhang, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Excitation and active control of propagating surface plasmon polaritons in graphene,” Nano Lett. 13, 3698–3702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12, 5626–5631 (2012).
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García de Abajo, F. J.

A. Manjavacas and F. J. García de Abajo, “Tunable plasmons in atomically thin gold nanodisks,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3548 (2014).
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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. García De Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14, 299–304 (2014).
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S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 12 (2012).
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F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, L.

H. Zhao, W. S. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-Reversed Lasing and Interferometric Control of Absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Optical conductivity of graphene in the visible region of the spectrum,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 1–8 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Generalov, A.

A. Krasnok, D. G. Baranov, A. Generalov, S. Li, and A. Alù, “Coherently enhanced wireless power transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 143901 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomez Rivas, J.

G. Pirruccio, L. Martin Moreno, G. Lozano, and J. Gomez Rivas, “Coherent and broadband enhanced optical absorption in graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 4810–4817 (2013).
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Grande, M.

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 749–758 (2012).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, B.

S. Li, Q. Duan, S. Li, Q. Yin, W. Lu, L. Li, B. Gu, B. Hou, and W. Wen, “Perfect electromagnetic absorption at one-atom-thick scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

Y. Fan, C. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Xu, F. Wu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Monolayer-graphene-based broadband and wide-angle perfect absorption structures in the near infrared,” Sci. Rep. 8, 13709 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, C. C.

Y. S. Fan, C. C. Guo, Z. H. Zhu, W. Xu, F. Wu, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Monolayer-graphene-based perfect absorption structures in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 25, 13079 (2017).
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Z. H. Zhu, C. C. Guo, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).
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Guo, C.-c.

C.-c. Guo, Z.-h. Zhu, X.-d. Yuan, W.-m. Ye, K. Liu, J.-f. Zhang, W. Xu, and S.-Q. Qin, “Experimental demonstration of total absorption over 99% in the near infrared for monolayer-graphene-based subwavelength structures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1955–1960 (2016).
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Gupta, S. D.

Halas, N. J.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. García De Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14, 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hang, Z. H.

S. Li, J. Luo, S. Anwar, S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Hang, Y. Lai, B. Hou, M. Shen, and C. Wang, “Broadband perfect absorption of ultrathin conductive films with coherent illumination: Superabsorption of microwave radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 220301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hatami, F.

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12, 5626–5631 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

Y. D. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Cho, J. H. Ryoo, C.-H. Park, P. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. Lee, Y. Li, S.-N. Park, Y. S. Yoo, D. Yoon, V. E. Dorgan, E. Pop, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, S. H. Chun, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, M. H. Bae, and Y. D. Park, “Bright visible light emission from graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12, 5626–5631 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heitz, J. J. F.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rao, J. J. F. Heitz, T. Roger, N. Westerberg, and D. Faccio, “Coherent control of light interaction with graphene,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5345–5347 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

Y. D. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Cho, J. H. Ryoo, C.-H. Park, P. Kim, Y. S. Kim, S. Lee, Y. Li, S.-N. Park, Y. S. Yoo, D. Yoon, V. E. Dorgan, E. Pop, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, S. H. Chun, H. Cheong, S. W. Lee, M. H. Bae, and Y. D. Park, “Bright visible light emission from graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676 (2015).
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Y. S. Fan, C. C. Guo, Z. H. Zhu, W. Xu, F. Wu, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Monolayer-graphene-based perfect absorption structures in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 25, 13079 (2017).
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H. Zhao, W. S. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 1–5 (2016).
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Y. Fan, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, Q. Fu, J. Li, C. Gu, and H. Li, “Tunable mid-infrared coherent perfect absorption in a graphene meta-surface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13956 (2015).
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Zhao, Z.

Zheludev, N. I.

M. Papaioannou, E. Plum, E. T. Rogers, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-optical dynamic focusing of light via coherent absorption in a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17157 (2018).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of coherent perfect absorption and asymmetric interferometric light-light control in graphene integrated with a resonant dielectric grating. The inset on the right side shows the details of the structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated reflection, transmission and absorption of the studied hybrid structure under the illumination of one beam at normal incidence from the (a) top side (grating) and (b) bottom side (substrate). The electric field of incident light is polarized along x direction.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Coherent perfect absorption in the structure with asymmetric illuminations. (a) Absorption and scattering spectra. (b) Field (Ex) distributions at the CPA wavelength (1382nm). (c) Field (Ex) distributions at the non-CPA wavelength (1360nm). The electric field of incident light is polarized along x direction. The intensities of the two beams are I2 = 2I1 = I0, and the relative phase is Δϕ = 1.3π.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Interferometric light-light control by phase difference. (a) CPA modulation at the resonance wavelength, λ = 1382nm. (b) Non-CPA modulation, λ = 1360nm. The intensities of the two beams are I2 = 2I1 = I0.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Nonlinear character of interferometric light-light control in the structure. (a–c) Dependence of scattering from the grating and substrate sides as well as absorption on incident intensity (I1) and phase difference with I2 = 1 and λ = 1382nm, respectively. (d) Dependence of scattering and absorption control ratio on incident intensity I1.

Equations (14)

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S 1 = r 1 E 1 e i ( φ r 1 + φ 0 ) + t 2 E 2 e i φ t 2
S 2 = t 1 E 1 e i ( φ t 1 + φ 0 ) + r 2 E 2 e i φ r 2
[ S 1 S 2 ] = S [ E 1 E 2 ] , S = [ S 11 S 12 S 21 S 22 ]
O 1 = Z 0 2 S 1 * S 1 = Z 0 2 [ ( r 1 E 1 ) 2 + ( t 2 E 2 ) 2 + 2 r 1 t 2 E 1 E 2 cos ( φ r 1 + φ 0 φ t 2 ) ]
O 2 = Z 0 2 S 2 * S 2 = Z 0 2 [ ( t 1 E 1 ) 2 + ( r 2 E 2 ) 2 + 2 t 1 r 2 E 1 E 2 cos ( φ t 1 + φ 0 φ r 2 ) ]
A = I 1 + I 2 O 1 O 2 = Z 0 2 ( E 1 * E 1 + E 2 * E 2 S 1 * S 1 S 2 * S 2 )
r 1 r 2 e ( φ r 1 + φ r 2 ) = t 1 t 2 e ( φ t 1 + φ t 2 )
φ r 1 + φ 0 = φ t 2 + π
φ t 1 + φ 0 = φ r 2 + π
r 1 I 1 = t 2 I 2 and t 1 I 1 = r 2 I 2
Δ O 1 = max ( O 1 ) min ( O 1 ) = 2 Z 0 r 1 t 2 E 1 E 2 = 2 r 1 t 2 I 1 I 2
Δ O 2 = max ( O 2 ) min ( O 2 ) = 2 Z 0 t 1 r 2 E 1 E 2 = 2 t 1 r 2 I 1 I 2
γ 1 = Δ O 1 / I 1 = 2 r 1 t 2 I 2 / I 1
γ 2 = Δ O 2 / I 1 = 2 t 1 r 2 I 2 / I 1

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