Abstract

A photonic method to generate binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals using a dual-polarization dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-DPMZM) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The upper DPMZM driven by a radio frequency (RF) signal acts as an optical wavelength shifter, while the lower DPMZM is used to generate a binary phase shift key (BPSK) or quadrature phase shift key (QPSK) signal. By combining the wavelength-shifted optical sideband and phase-modulated optical carrier, both binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals can be generated. Such signals with the carrier frequency of 10 GHz and 15 GHz are demonstrated. The pulse compression performance is also investigated.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Phase-coded microwave signals have been widely used in modern radar and communication systems, due to their pulse compression capability. Conventionally, phase-coded microwave signals are generated in the electrical domain, which limits the operation frequency and time-bandwidth product of the system. Photonic methods to generate phase-coded microwave signals have attracted great attentions in the past few years, due to their advantages in term of small size, light weight, low insertion loss, immunity to electromagnetic interference and large time-bandwidth products [1–3].

So far, various photonic methods have been investigated to generate phase-coded microwave signals. In general, they can be divided into two categories: one is realized by optical spectral shaping followed by frequency-to-time mapping (FTTM) [4–7], the other is based on optical heterodyning [8–15]. In the first category, arbitrary waveform generation can be realized by utilizing an optical wave shaper together with a dispersive element. However, the system is bulk and not flexible for reconfiguration. In the second category, the basic idea is to heterodyne two phase-correlated optical wavelengths with different phase modulations. In order to separate the two phase-correlated optical wavelengths, an optical filter [8,9] or a length of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) [10] is always used, which would reduce the flexibility of the system. To overcome this problem, phase-coded microwave signals can also be generated by utilizing different modulators, such as cascaded polarization modulators (PolMs), dual-polarization modulator, dual-polarization quadrature phase shift-keying (DP-QPSK) modulator, or dual-polarization dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-DPMZM) [11–15].

The schemes discussed above are mostly used to generate binary phase-coded microwave signals. However, these methods are quite sensitive to the Doppler frequency shift. Moreover, compared with binary codes, polyphase codes exhibit better Doppler tolerance and sidelode characteristics [16,17]. In [18–20], the quaternary phase-coded microwave signals are generated by utilizing a phase modulator (PM) with 4-level drive signals. However, higher residual chirps may be introduced in the generated signals, which may reduce the tolerance against chromatic dispersion and nonlinear impairments [21].

In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic method to generate binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals using a DP-DPMZM. The upper DPMZM driven by a radio frequency (RF) signal is used as an optical wavelength shifter, while the lower DPMZM driven by two independent electrical signals is used to generate a binary phase shift key (BPSK) or quadrature phase shift key (QPSK) signal. By combining the wavelength-shifted optical sideband and phase-modulated optical carrier, both binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals can be generated. In the proof-of-concept experiment, a 5-Gb/s phase-coded signal with the carrier frequency of 10 GHz and a 7.5-Gb/s phase-coded signal with the carrier frequency of 15 GHz are obtained.

2. Principle

Figure 1(a) shows the schematic diagram of the proposed binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals generation system, which consists of a LD, a DP-DPMZM, a polarizer, an EDFA and a PD. A linearly polarized optical wave from a LD is sent into a DP-DPMZM which is an integrated device consisting of a 90° polarization rotator (PR), two DPMZMs and a polarization beam combiner (PBC) [22]. The upper DPMZM consists of two push-pulled sub-MZMs and an optical phase shift as shown in Fig. 1(b), which can be used as an optical wavelength shifter. A RF signal from a microwave signal generator (MSG) is equally divided into two paths with 90° phase shift: one is applied to sub-MZM1, the other is applied to sub-MZM2. When the two sub-MZMs are biased at the minimum transmission point, the optical field at the output of the upper DPMZM can be expressed as

Eupper(t)=28E0exp(jωct)[exp(jmcos(ωRt)+jπ)+exp(-jmcos(ωRt))+exp(jφ)(exp(jmsin(ωRt)+jπ)+exp(-jmsin(ωRt)))]
where E0and ωcare the amplitude and angular frequency of the optical carrier, m=πVR/Vπ is the modulation index of the two sub-MZMs, VR and ωR are the amplitude and angular frequency of the RF signal, Vπ is the half voltage of the sub-MZMs, φis the phase difference between MZM1 and MZM2. Applying the Bessel function expansion to Eq. (1), Eupper(t)could be written as
Eupper(t)28E0exp(jωct)[J0(m)jJ1(m)exp(jωRt)jJ1(m)exp(jωRt)+J0(m)jJ1(m)exp(jωRt)jJ1(m)exp(jωRt)exp(jφ)(J0(m)+J1(m)exp(jωRt)J1(m)exp(jωRt))+exp(jφ)(J0(m)J1(m)exp(jωRt)+J1(m)exp(jωRt))]
where Jnis the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind. When φ=π/2, Eq. (2) can be rewritten as

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the proposed binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals generation scheme. The structure of the (b) U-DPMZM and (c) L-DPMZM. LD, laser diode; DP-DPMZM, dual-polarization dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator; PC, polarization controller; Pol., polarizer; EDFA, erbium doped fiber amplifier; PD, photodetector; PR, polarization rotator; RF, radio frequency; PBC, polarization beam combiner.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Eupper(t)22jJ1(m)E0exp(j(ωc+ωR)t)

In the lower DPMZM, both the sub-MZMs are driven by the independent electrical coding signals generated from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) as shown in Fig. 1(c). When the two sub-MZMs are biased at the minimum transmission point, and the phase difference between them is set as π/2, the optical field at the output of the lower DPMZM can be written as

Elower(t)=28E0exp(jωct)[exp(jm1s1(t)+jπ)+exp(-jm1s1(t))+exp(jπ2)(exp(jm2s2(t)+jπ)+exp(-jm2s2(t)))]
where s1(t)and s2(t)are the polar binary coded data (i.e. + 1, −1), m1=πV1/Vπand m2=πV2/Vπ are the modulation index of MZM3 and MZM4 respectively, V1andV2are the amplitudes of the electrical coding signals. When V1=V2, Eq. (4) can be rewritten as

Elower(t)={12E0|sin(m1)|expj(ωctπ4)(s1(t)=1,s2(t)=1)12E0|sin(m1)|expj(ωct+π4)(s1(t)=1,s2(t)=1)12E0|sin(m1)|expj(ωct+3π4)(s1(t)=1,s2(t)=1)12E0|sin(m1)|expj(ωct3π4)(s1(t)=1,s2(t)=1)

As can be seen from Eq. (5), quaternary phases (i.e. −45°, 45°, −135°, 135°) have been generated by properly setting the two polar binary coded data. Then the modulated signals from the two DPMZMs are combined by a PBC with a 90° PR employed at one input port. The output signals are sent to a polarizer with its principal axis oriented an angle of 45° to one principal axis of DP-DPMZM. The optical field at the output of the polarizer can be expressed as

EPol.=22Eupper(t)+22Elower(t)

When the output optical signal is sent to a square-law PD, we can obtain

i(t)=REPol.(t)*EPol.(t)*={24RJ1(m)E02|sin(m1)|cos(ωRtπ4)(s1(t)=1,s2(t)=1)24RJ1(m)E02|sin(m1)|cos(ωRt+π4)(s1(t)=1,s2(t)=1)24RJ1(m)E02|sin(m1)|cos(ωRt+3π4)(s1(t)=1,s2(t)=1)24RJ1(m)E02|sin(m1)|cos(ωRt3π4)(s1(t)=1,s2(t)=1)
where R is the responsivity of the PD. As can be seen from Eq. (7), a quaternary phase-coded microwave signal with the carrier frequency of ωRis generated.

3. Experimental setup and results

To verify the proposed scheme, we build an experimental setup as shown in Fig. 1. A continuous optical wave generated from a tunable laser source (TLS, Yenista optics) with the center wavelength of 1549.3nm and power of 11 dBm is sent to a DP-DPMZM (FUJITSU, FTM7977). A RF signal with the frequency of 10 GHz and power of 15 dBm generated from a MSG (Anritsu, MS2840A) is applied to the two branches of the upper DPMZMM with a 90° electrical hybrid between them. The two electrical coding signals generated from an AWG (M8195A) are amplified by an electrical amplifier (EA, SHF 100 AP) and then sent to the lower DPMZM. The output of the DP-DPMZM is sent to a polarizer via a polarization controller (PC). The optical signal at the output of the polarizer is amplified by an EDFA (Amonics) and then detected by a PD (Agilent 11982A) with the 3-dB bandwidth of 15 GHz. The current at the output of PD is monitored by a digital storage oscilloscope (Keysight, DSOZ634A) with the bandwidth of 65 GHz and the sampling rate of 160 GSa/s. The optical spectra are measured by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA, Yokogawa, AQ6370D) with the resolution of 0.02 nm.

Firstly, the frequency of the upper DPMZM-driving RF signal is set to be 10 GHz. Two independent electrical encoding signals with the rate of 5 Gbit/s are fed to the lower DPMZM. The measured optical spectrum at the output of the upper DPMZM is depicted in Fig. 2(a). As can be seen that the + 1-order sideband is dominant, while the optical carrier and −1-order sideband are suppressed 10.6 dB and 33.2 dB respectively. Figure 2(b) shows the eye diagram at the output of the lower DPMZM measured by an optical sampling oscilloscope (Agilent, Infiniium, 86100C). A double intensity dip indicates the characteristic for QPSK modulation, and the period of the generated QPSK signal is measured to be 200 ps.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) The optical spectrum at the output of the upper DPMZM and (b) The eye diagram at the output of the lower DPMZM.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

At the output of the PD, the binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals are generated. Figures 3(a) and 3(b) show the electrical spectra of the generated binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signal, respectively. Figures 3(c) and 3(d) show the generated binary phase-coded microwave signal and extracted phase shift information corresponding to the encoding signal based on coherent demodulation in the duration of 6.4 ns. Two 32-bit binary signals are generated by the AWG with the same pattern of “1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1” (bit ‘1’ stands for polar binary ‘ + 1’, bit ‘0’ stands for ‘-1’). As can be seen that a phase shift of ~180° is observed between the symbols ‘00’ and ‘11’, which agrees well with the theoretical analysis. When we adjust one of the 32-bit binary signals to the pattern of “0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1”, the generated quaternary phase-coded microwave signal and extracted phase shift information corresponding to the encoding signal are shown in Figs. 3(e) and 3(f). As can be seen that the phase shift have four levels. Taking, for example, ‘10’ as a reference, then the symbols ‘11’, ‘01’ and ‘00’ are corresponding to a phase difference ~90°, ~180°, and ~270° respectively.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Electrical spectral of the generated 10 GHz (a) binary and (b) quaternary phase-coded signal. (c) Waveform of the generated 10 GHz binary phase-coded microwave signal, and (d) Extracted phase shift information from (c). (e) Waveform of generated 10 GHz quaternary phase-coded microwave signal, and (f) Extracted phase shift information from (e).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In order to implement the pulse compression of the generated binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals, a matched filter with the frequency response equals the complex conjugate of the signal is designed. The output of the filter is the inverse Fourier transform of the product of the generated signal spectrum and the matched filter response. The autocorrelation curves of the simulated binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signal are shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(c), respectively. The peak-to-sidelobe ratios (PSRs) are 6.4 dB and 5.8 dB and the corresponding pulse compression ratios (PCRs) are 64 and 62 respectively. Figures 4(b) and 4(d) show the autocorrelation curves of the measured binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signal. The PSRs are 5.31 dB and 5.14 dB, and the PCRs are 60 and 57. The measured results agree well with the simulated ones.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The autocorrelation of the binary phase-coded microwave signal: (a) simulated results and (b) experimental results, and the quaternary phase-coded microwave signal (c) simulated results and (d) experimental results.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

To verify the frequency tunability of the system, we adjust the frequency of the upper DPMZM-driving RF signal to be 15 GHz and set the rate of the two electrical encoding signals to be 7.5 Gbit/s. Figures 5(a) and 5(b) show the generated binary phase-coded microwave signal and corresponding phase shift information. As can be seen that the phase shift of the ~180° between the symbol ‘00’ and ‘11’. Figures 5(c) and 5(d) show the generated quaternary phase-coded microwave signal and corresponding phase shift generated information. It can be seen that the phase shift have four levels (i.e. −45°, 45°, −135°, 135°). The pulse compression capability is also studied as shown in Fig. 6. The PSRs are 4.94 dB and 4.73 dB and PCRs are 70 and 65.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) Waveform of generated 15 GHz binary phase-coded microwave signal, and (b) Extracted phase shift information from (a); (c) Waveform of generated 15 GHz quaternary phase-coded microwave signal, and (d) Extracted phase shift information form (b).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The autocorrelation of the generated (a) binary phase-coded microwave signal and (b) quaternary phase-coded microwave signal.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, a method to generate binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals has been proposed and demonstrated. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed scheme has a wide operation frequency range since no optical or electrical filters are used. The only limitation is the bandwidth of the DP-DPMZM and PD. Experimental results show that a10-GHz RF signal with the coding rate of 5 Gb/s and a 15-GHz RF signal with the coding rate of 7.5 Gb/s are obtained. Their autocorrelation results show a good pulse compression capability. The proposed scheme has a compact structure, wide operation bandwidth and great tolerance to the chromatic dispersion and nonlinearities, which can be used in modern radar systems.

Funding

National Basic Research Program of China (2013CBA01704); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61335005, 61771438, 61860206006); Ministry of Education United Foundation of Equipment Pre-Research (6141A020334).

References and links

1. A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4628–4641 (2006). [CrossRef]  

2. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]  

3. J. P. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009). [CrossRef]  

4. I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005). [CrossRef]  

5. C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Phase-coded millimeter-wave waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1493–1495 (2012). [CrossRef]  

6. J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012). [CrossRef]  

7. F. Zhang, X. Ge, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Photonic generation of pulsed microwave signals with tunable frequency and phase based on spectral-shaping and frequency-to-time mapping,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4256–4259 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011). [CrossRef]  

9. H. Y. Jiang, L. S. Yan, J. Ye, W. Pan, B. Luo, and X. Zou, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signals with tunable carrier frequency,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1361–1363 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. H. Chi and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded millimeter-wave signal using a polarization modulator,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 18(5), 371–373 (2008). [CrossRef]  

11. Y. Zhang and S. Pan, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals using a polarization-modulator-based photonic microwave phase shifter,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 766–768 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. F. Zhang, X. Ge, B. Gao, and S. Pan, “Phase-coded microwave signal generation based on a single electro-optical modulator and its application in accurate distance measurement,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21867–21874 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. X. Li, S. Zhao, S. Pan, Z. Zhu, K. Qu, and T. Lin, “Generation of a frequency-quadrupled phase-coded signal using optical carrier phase shifting and balanced detection,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 1151–1156 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. Y. Chen, A. J. Wen, and W. Zhang, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals through equivalent phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(16), 1371–1374 (2017). [CrossRef]  

15. S. Zhu, Z. Shi, M. Li, N. H. Zhu, and W. Li, “Simultaneous frequency upconversion and phase coding of a radio-frequency signal for photonic radars,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 583–586 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. J. Yang and T. K. Sarkar, “A novel Doppler-tolerant polyphase codes for pulse compression based on hyperbolic frequency modulation,” Digit. Signal Process. 17(6), 1019–1029 (2007). [CrossRef]  

17. A. K. Sahoo and G. Panda, “Doppler tolerant convolutional windows for radar pulse compression,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. Intemational Research Publication 4(1), 145–152 (2011).

18. W. Z. Li, F. Q. Kong, and J. P. Yao, “Arbitrary microwave waveform generation based on a tunable optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3780–3786 (2013). [CrossRef]  

19. Y. Chen, A. Wen, Y. Chen, and X. Wu, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with an ultra-wide frequency tunable range,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15618–15625 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016). [CrossRef]  

21. D. Van Den Bome, “Robust optical transmission systems: modulation and equalization,” thesis (2008).

22. Y. Zhang, S. L. Pan, and S. Member, “Broadband microwave signal processing enabled by polarization based photonic microwave phase shifters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54(4), 0700112 (2018). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4628–4641 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. P. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Phase-coded millimeter-wave waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1493–1495 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Zhang, X. Ge, S. Pan, and J. Yao, “Photonic generation of pulsed microwave signals with tunable frequency and phase based on spectral-shaping and frequency-to-time mapping,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4256–4259 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Y. Jiang, L. S. Yan, J. Ye, W. Pan, B. Luo, and X. Zou, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signals with tunable carrier frequency,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1361–1363 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Chi and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded millimeter-wave signal using a polarization modulator,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 18(5), 371–373 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Zhang and S. Pan, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals using a polarization-modulator-based photonic microwave phase shifter,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 766–768 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. F. Zhang, X. Ge, B. Gao, and S. Pan, “Phase-coded microwave signal generation based on a single electro-optical modulator and its application in accurate distance measurement,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21867–21874 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. X. Li, S. Zhao, S. Pan, Z. Zhu, K. Qu, and T. Lin, “Generation of a frequency-quadrupled phase-coded signal using optical carrier phase shifting and balanced detection,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 1151–1156 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Chen, A. J. Wen, and W. Zhang, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals through equivalent phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(16), 1371–1374 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Zhu, Z. Shi, M. Li, N. H. Zhu, and W. Li, “Simultaneous frequency upconversion and phase coding of a radio-frequency signal for photonic radars,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 583–586 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Yang and T. K. Sarkar, “A novel Doppler-tolerant polyphase codes for pulse compression based on hyperbolic frequency modulation,” Digit. Signal Process. 17(6), 1019–1029 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. K. Sahoo and G. Panda, “Doppler tolerant convolutional windows for radar pulse compression,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. Intemational Research Publication 4(1), 145–152 (2011).
  18. W. Z. Li, F. Q. Kong, and J. P. Yao, “Arbitrary microwave waveform generation based on a tunable optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3780–3786 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Chen, A. Wen, Y. Chen, and X. Wu, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with an ultra-wide frequency tunable range,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15618–15625 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. Van Den Bome, “Robust optical transmission systems: modulation and equalization,” thesis (2008).
  22. Y. Zhang, S. L. Pan, and S. Member, “Broadband microwave signal processing enabled by polarization based photonic microwave phase shifters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54(4), 0700112 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

S. Zhu, Z. Shi, M. Li, N. H. Zhu, and W. Li, “Simultaneous frequency upconversion and phase coding of a radio-frequency signal for photonic radars,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 583–586 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. L. Pan, and S. Member, “Broadband microwave signal processing enabled by polarization based photonic microwave phase shifters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54(4), 0700112 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

X. Li, S. Zhao, S. Pan, Z. Zhu, K. Qu, and T. Lin, “Generation of a frequency-quadrupled phase-coded signal using optical carrier phase shifting and balanced detection,” Appl. Opt. 56(4), 1151–1156 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. J. Wen, and W. Zhang, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals through equivalent phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(16), 1371–1374 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

2012 (2)

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Phase-coded millimeter-wave waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1493–1495 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. K. Sahoo and G. Panda, “Doppler tolerant convolutional windows for radar pulse compression,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. Intemational Research Publication 4(1), 145–152 (2011).

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

H. Chi and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded millimeter-wave signal using a polarization modulator,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 18(5), 371–373 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Yang and T. K. Sarkar, “A novel Doppler-tolerant polyphase codes for pulse compression based on hyperbolic frequency modulation,” Digit. Signal Process. 17(6), 1019–1029 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z. Y.

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chi, H.

Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Chi and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded millimeter-wave signal using a polarization modulator,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 18(5), 371–373 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gao, B.

Gao, Y. S.

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ge, X.

Jiang, H. Y.

Kong, F. Q.

Li, M.

Li, W.

Li, W. Z.

W. Z. Li, F. Q. Kong, and J. P. Yao, “Arbitrary microwave waveform generation based on a tunable optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3780–3786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, I. S.

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.

Luo, B.

H. Y. Jiang, L. S. Yan, J. Ye, W. Pan, B. Luo, and X. Zou, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signals with tunable carrier frequency,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1361–1363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

McKinney, J. D.

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Member, S.

Y. Zhang, S. L. Pan, and S. Member, “Broadband microwave signal processing enabled by polarization based photonic microwave phase shifters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54(4), 0700112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pan, S.

Pan, S. L.

Y. Zhang, S. L. Pan, and S. Member, “Broadband microwave signal processing enabled by polarization based photonic microwave phase shifters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54(4), 0700112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pan, W.

H. Y. Jiang, L. S. Yan, J. Ye, W. Pan, B. Luo, and X. Zou, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signals with tunable carrier frequency,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1361–1363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Panda, G.

A. K. Sahoo and G. Panda, “Doppler tolerant convolutional windows for radar pulse compression,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. Intemational Research Publication 4(1), 145–152 (2011).

Qu, K.

Sahoo, A. K.

A. K. Sahoo and G. Panda, “Doppler tolerant convolutional windows for radar pulse compression,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. Intemational Research Publication 4(1), 145–152 (2011).

Sarkar, T. K.

J. Yang and T. K. Sarkar, “A novel Doppler-tolerant polyphase codes for pulse compression based on hyperbolic frequency modulation,” Digit. Signal Process. 17(6), 1019–1029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A. J.

Shi, Z.

Wang, C.

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Phase-coded millimeter-wave waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1493–1495 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wen, A.

Wen, A. J.

Y. Chen, A. J. Wen, and W. Zhang, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals through equivalent phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(16), 1371–1374 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

Wu, X.

Xiang, S. Y.

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, L. S.

H. Y. Jiang, L. S. Yan, J. Ye, W. Pan, B. Luo, and X. Zou, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signals with tunable carrier frequency,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1361–1363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang and T. K. Sarkar, “A novel Doppler-tolerant polyphase codes for pulse compression based on hyperbolic frequency modulation,” Digit. Signal Process. 17(6), 1019–1029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Yao, J. P.

W. Z. Li, F. Q. Kong, and J. P. Yao, “Arbitrary microwave waveform generation based on a tunable optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3780–3786 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Phase-coded millimeter-wave waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1493–1495 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. P. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Chi and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded millimeter-wave signal using a polarization modulator,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 18(5), 371–373 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yao, N.

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, S.

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

H. Y. Jiang, L. S. Yan, J. Ye, W. Pan, B. Luo, and X. Zou, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signals with tunable carrier frequency,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1361–1363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yi, A. L.

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, W.

Y. Chen, A. J. Wen, and W. Zhang, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals through equivalent phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(16), 1371–1374 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. M.

Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, S. L. Pan, and S. Member, “Broadband microwave signal processing enabled by polarization based photonic microwave phase shifters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54(4), 0700112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang and S. Pan, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals using a polarization-modulator-based photonic microwave phase shifter,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 766–768 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, S.

Zhu, N. H.

Zhu, S.

Zhu, Z.

Zou, X.

Zou, X. H.

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Digit. Signal Process. (1)

J. Yang and T. K. Sarkar, “A novel Doppler-tolerant polyphase codes for pulse compression based on hyperbolic frequency modulation,” Digit. Signal Process. 17(6), 1019–1029 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Zhang, S. L. Pan, and S. Member, “Broadband microwave signal processing enabled by polarization based photonic microwave phase shifters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54(4), 0700112 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. (2)

H. Chi and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded millimeter-wave signal using a polarization modulator,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 18(5), 371–373 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Microw. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Chen, A. J. Wen, Y. S. Gao, N. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Chen, and S. Y. Xiang, “Photonic generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave waveforms with frequency quadrupling,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

Y. Chen, A. J. Wen, and W. Zhang, “Generation of phase-coded microwave signals through equivalent phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(16), 1371–1374 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Phase-coded millimeter-wave waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1493–1495 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. S. Yan, Z. Y. Chen, W. Pan, B. Luo, X. H. Zou, A. L. Yi, and S. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave phase-coded signals based on frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1527–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Z. Li, H. Chi, X. M. Zhang, and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tenability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. Intemational Research Publication (1)

A. K. Sahoo and G. Panda, “Doppler tolerant convolutional windows for radar pulse compression,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. Intemational Research Publication 4(1), 145–152 (2011).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

D. Van Den Bome, “Robust optical transmission systems: modulation and equalization,” thesis (2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the proposed binary and quaternary phase-coded microwave signals generation scheme. The structure of the (b) U-DPMZM and (c) L-DPMZM. LD, laser diode; DP-DPMZM, dual-polarization dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator; PC, polarization controller; Pol., polarizer; EDFA, erbium doped fiber amplifier; PD, photodetector; PR, polarization rotator; RF, radio frequency; PBC, polarization beam combiner.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The optical spectrum at the output of the upper DPMZM and (b) The eye diagram at the output of the lower DPMZM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electrical spectral of the generated 10 GHz (a) binary and (b) quaternary phase-coded signal. (c) Waveform of the generated 10 GHz binary phase-coded microwave signal, and (d) Extracted phase shift information from (c). (e) Waveform of generated 10 GHz quaternary phase-coded microwave signal, and (f) Extracted phase shift information from (e).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The autocorrelation of the binary phase-coded microwave signal: (a) simulated results and (b) experimental results, and the quaternary phase-coded microwave signal (c) simulated results and (d) experimental results.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Waveform of generated 15 GHz binary phase-coded microwave signal, and (b) Extracted phase shift information from (a); (c) Waveform of generated 15 GHz quaternary phase-coded microwave signal, and (d) Extracted phase shift information form (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The autocorrelation of the generated (a) binary phase-coded microwave signal and (b) quaternary phase-coded microwave signal.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E up p e r ( t ) = 2 8 E 0 exp ( j ω c t ) [ exp ( j m cos ( ω R t ) + j π ) + exp ( - j m cos ( ω R t ) ) +exp ( j φ ) ( exp ( j m sin ( ω R t ) + j π ) + exp ( - j m sin ( ω R t ) ) ) ]
E up p e r ( t ) 2 8 E 0 exp ( j ω c t ) [ J 0 ( m ) j J 1 ( m ) exp ( j ω R t ) j J 1 ( m ) exp ( j ω R t ) + J 0 ( m ) j J 1 ( m ) exp ( j ω R t ) j J 1 ( m ) exp ( j ω R t ) exp ( j φ ) ( J 0 ( m ) + J 1 ( m ) exp ( j ω R t ) J 1 ( m ) exp ( j ω R t ) ) +exp ( j φ ) ( J 0 ( m ) J 1 ( m ) exp ( j ω R t ) + J 1 ( m ) exp ( j ω R t ) ) ]
E up p e r ( t ) 2 2 j J 1 ( m ) E 0 exp ( j ( ω c + ω R ) t )
E l o w e r ( t ) = 2 8 E 0 exp ( j ω c t ) [ exp ( j m 1 s 1 ( t ) + j π ) + exp ( - j m 1 s 1 ( t ) ) +exp ( j π 2 ) ( exp ( j m 2 s 2 ( t ) + j π ) + exp ( - j m 2 s 2 ( t ) ) ) ]
E l o w e r ( t ) = { 1 2 E 0 | sin ( m 1 ) | exp j ( ω c t π 4 ) ( s 1 ( t ) = 1 , s 2 ( t ) = 1 ) 1 2 E 0 | sin ( m 1 ) | exp j ( ω c t + π 4 ) ( s 1 ( t ) = 1 , s 2 ( t ) = 1 ) 1 2 E 0 | sin ( m 1 ) | exp j ( ω c t + 3 π 4 ) ( s 1 ( t ) = 1 , s 2 ( t ) = 1 ) 1 2 E 0 | sin ( m 1 ) | exp j ( ω c t 3 π 4 ) ( s 1 ( t ) = 1 , s 2 ( t ) = 1 )
E P o l . = 2 2 E up p e r ( t ) + 2 2 E l o w e r ( t )
i ( t ) = R E P o l . ( t ) * E P o l . ( t ) * = { 2 4 R J 1 ( m ) E 0 2 | sin ( m 1 ) | cos ( ω R t π 4 ) ( s 1 ( t ) = 1 , s 2 ( t ) = 1 ) 2 4 R J 1 ( m ) E 0 2 | sin ( m 1 ) | cos ( ω R t + π 4 ) ( s 1 ( t ) = 1 , s 2 ( t ) = 1 ) 2 4 R J 1 ( m ) E 0 2 | sin ( m 1 ) | cos ( ω R t + 3 π 4 ) ( s 1 ( t ) = 1 , s 2 ( t ) = 1 ) 2 4 R J 1 ( m ) E 0 2 | sin ( m 1 ) | cos ( ω R t 3 π 4 ) ( s 1 ( t ) = 1 , s 2 ( t ) = 1 )

Metrics