Abstract

We propose a broadband tunable metamaterial absorber with near-unity absorption in the terahertz regime based on a target-patterned graphene sheet. Due to gradient diameter modulation of the graphene sheet and circular symmetry of the unit cell, broadband and polarization-independent properties are achieved in the absorber. A full-wave numerical simulation is performed, and the results show that the absorber’s bandwidth of 90% terahertz absorption reaches 1.57 THz with a central frequency of 1.83 THz under normal incidence. At oblique incidence, the broadband absorption of the absorber remains more than 75% over a wide incidence angles up to 60°for the transverse electric (TE) mode and 75°for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode. Furthermore, tunable property is implemented and the peak absorption of the absorber can be tuned from 19% to near 100% by changing the Fermi energy of the graphene sheet from 0 to 0.9 eV via electrostatic doping. The absorber is scalable to the infrared and visible frequencies, which could be used as tunable sensors, filters and photovoltaic devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Metamaterial perfect absorbers (MPAs), a branch of metamaterials, currently have raised extensive interests as they are becoming a crucial component of high-resolution imaging, sensing and detecting systems in the terahertz regime [1–3]. MPAs are often realized by using lossy materials in periodic structures, and the basic mechanism of MPAs is that the incident electromagnetic fields are firmly confined and consumed inside the lossy materials [4–6]. As the first experimental demonstration of MPAs was implemented by Landy et al. in 2008 [6], where a classical sandwiched structure was presented and the incident electric and magnetic fields were independently absorbed by metamaterial resonators. From then on, large amount of structures of MPAs were proposed, but plenty of them were narrow in bandwidth [7–9].

The broadband property of MPAs is of great importance to the practical applications of optoelectronic devices, such as bolometers and solar energy-harvesting devices [10–13]. To achieve broadband absorption, various approaches have been investigated. One common strategy is to utilize multi-resonances by embracing multiple resonators with small differences in geometry size in one unit cell, and the continuously small different resonance frequencies can be merged to form a broadband absorption spectra [14–16]. Another approach of effective broadband structures is to overlay the multi-layered pattern with different geometry parameters separated by dielectric with different thicknesses [17–19]. Meanwhile, the tunable property of absorbers is more attractive in practice due to flexibility [20–22]. Compared with other new materials, graphene is a two-dimensional crystal composed of a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice and it is extensively adapted due to its fantastic electromagnetic properties [23–27]. Another remarkable property of graphene is that its Fermi level can be dynamically changed by applying an external gate voltage [28,29]. Up to now, multiple graphene-based structures of MPAs have been proposed in the microwave, infrared and terahertz regime [16,19,30–32], and polarization-independent and angle-insensitive broadband absorbers have attracted enormous interest.

On basis of previous work, a novel polarization-independent broadband absorber with near-unity absorption in the terahertz regime is presented here. By combining the gradient diameter of the graphene sheet with circular symmetry of the unit cell, polarization-independent and broadband properties are achieved simultaneously. The results show that the absorber’s normalized bandwidth with 90% terahertz absorption reaches 1.57 THz when the Fermi energy of graphene sheet is set as 0.7 eV under normal incidence. To better understand the mechanism of broadband absorption, the electric field distribution and surface current distribution of the structure are studied and discussed. Furthermore, the tunable property of the absorber is investigated and the peak absorption can be tuned from 19% to 100% by changing the Fermi energy of graphene from 0 to 0.9 eV via electrostatic doping.

2. Design and simulation

This designed unit cell of the metamaterial absorber is illustrated in Fig. 1. Figure 1(b) shows that the proposed absorber is a classical sandwich structure, which is composed of a target-patterned graphene resonator on the top layer and a continuous metallic ground plate spaced by a dielectric substrate. Gold is selected as the ground plate, whose conductivity is described by Drude model with a plasma frequencyωp=4.35π×1015rad/s and collision frequencyωc=13π×1012rad/s [33], and the thickness isn=200nm. For the dielectric material, we adopt the low loss TOPAS polymer with permittivityε=2.35 [34] and the thickness ish=27μm. As shown in the Fig. 1(b), the target-patterned graphene layer consists of one circle disk with radiusR=23μm, and an annulus with inner radiusR11=24μmand outer radiusR12=35μm, which is separated by a gapg=1μm. The perspective view is presented in Fig. 1(c). Graphene is chosen as the material of top layer and its conductivity can be expressed as σgr=σintra+σinter(unit:S/m)with the intraband and interband contributions from the Kubo formula [35,36]. In the Terahertz range, the photo energy ωEf,EfkBT, that the contribution of the interbandσinteris negligible compared with the intrabandσintrawhich can be expressed as:

σintra(ω,μc,Γ,Τ)=je2π2(ωj2Γ)0(fd(ξ,μc,Τ)ξfd(ξ,μc,Τ)ξ)ξdξ,
where fd(ξ,μc,Τ)=(e(ξμc/kBT)+1)1is the Fermi-Dirac distribution, kBis the Boltzmann’s constant, is the reduced Plank’s constant. Andωis the radian frequency, e is the charge of an electron, ξis energy, μcis the chemical potential, Γis the phenomenological scattering rate, Τis the absolute temperature, andΓ=2τ1, andτis the relaxation time.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Proposed broadband metamaterial absorber with a target-patterned graphene layer. (a) Schematic of the proposed broadband tunable metamaterial absorber. (b) Top view of the unit cell, (c) Perspective view of the unit cell. The geometry parameters of the proposed structure are set as (unit:μm): p=75,h=27,R=23,R11=24,R12=35,g=1,n=0.2.

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In the modeling and simulation, frequency domain solver was selected and the simulated frequency range was set as 0.1 to 3.5 THz. In the boundary condition setting, the x-direction and y-direction were both set as unit cell and the two-sides of the z-direction were Floquet ports. To simulate the graphene more accurately, as the graphene is in fact a single-layer carbon atom material, the graphene sheet was modeled as an equivalent 2D surface impedance layer without thickness which was built from a closed planar circular curve extruding to a surface. Here, we assume the initial chemical potential of graphene is 0.7 eV, relaxation time τ=0.1ps, and the absolute temperatureT=300K.The absorption of the absorber can be calculated asA(ω)=1|S11(ω)|2|S21(ω)|2,which can be simplified asA(ω)=1|S11(ω)|2.The transmissionS21=0is due to the thickness of the golden ground layer (n=200nm) is much thicker than the skin depth of the incident terahertz wave. TheSparameters can be obtained in the CST Microwave Studio simulation.

3. Results and discussion

To study the absorption spectra of the proposed broadband tunable metamaterial absorber, a numerical full-wave simulation has been performed based on the finite integration algorithm of CST Microwave Studio. We firstly investigate the absorption spectra under normal incidence with and without the graphene sheet, and the results are shown in Fig. 2. From the red curve(absorption spectra with graphene sheet), as expected, broadband absorption is observed that 90% absorption of the absorber reaches 1.57 THz, starting fromfmin=0.95THz tofmax=2.52THz, when the Fermi energy of graphene is set as 0.7 eV. When the graphene sheet is removed from the structure, zero absorption is noted, which is represented by the blue curve.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Simulated absorption spectra of the absorber under normal incidence when the chemical potential of graphene is set to beμc=0.7eV.

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Additionally, we also investigate the influence of the thickness of TOPAS dielectric layer on the absorption. As shown in Fig. 3. The absorption curves appear a red shift when the thickness of TOPAS spacer increases from 24 to 30μm, and the peak absorption keeps increasing. Adhering to the principle of high absorption in a continuous bandwidth, we choose the thickness of h=27μmas the best value. It should be noted that, in our calculation, we ignore the loss of TOPAS material itself because it is very low across the THz band.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Absorption spectra of the absorber under different thickness of TOPAS dielectric spacer.

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To better understand the absorption mechanism, we further investigate the electric field distribution and surface current distribution of the absorber, as shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, respectively. Figure 4(a) displays the electric field distribution of the absorber at 0.2, 0.8, 1.6, 2.2 THz in the TE mode, which are represented by the pictures from left to right, respectively. As shown from the first two pictures in Fig. 4(a), weak electric field appears in the structure at 0.2 THz, while a strong electric filed is concentrated on the circle gap and the space between two unit cells along the y-axis at 0.8 THz, respectively. It is easy to find, at 0.2 and 0.8 THz, there exists a classical absorption mechanism that consists of an electric resonance (realized by the top graphene layer) and a magnetic resonance (realized by the top and ground layer). It matches well with the results published in [6], Landy et al, and can be further verified by the following current distribution displayed in Fig. 5. When it comes to 1.6 and 2.2 THz, we can find from the next two pictures in the Fig. 4(a) that the graphene localized surface plasmon resonance is stimulated by the incident electromagnetic wave. Compared with the situation at 0.2 and 0.8 THz, the electric field spreads from the gap to almost the entire graphene pattern with a comparable lower electric field maximum amplitude, but the electric field among the graphene pattern is more uniform and stronger which agrees well with the absorption spectra given above. Figure 4(b) shows the electric field distribution in the TM mode, which is same as that in Fig. 4(a) when rotated by 90°.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Electric field distribution of the proposed absorber at 0.2, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.2 THz, (a) for the TE mode, and (b) the TM mode, when under normal incidence with the chemical potential of graphene μc=0.7eV.

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Surface current distribution of the proposed absorber at 0.2, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.2 THz, (a) on the front layer; and (b) the back ground layer, when under normal incidence with the chemical potential of graphene μc=0.7eV.

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The surface current distribution on the front graphene layer and back ground layer is next investigated to further verify the results described by the electric field distribution. As shown in Fig. 5, at 0.2 and 0.8 THz, the maximum current on the top layer flow from bottom to top while it is inversed on the back ground layer, the current at 0.8 THz is larger than that at 0.2 THz, which agrees well with the electric field distribution described above. When it comes to the 1.6 THz, the surface current on the back ground layer is much different with the distribution at 0.8 and 0.2 THz. On the front graphene layer, the current emits from the bottom and converge on the top mainly along the center graphene and gap, and the current in the back ground layer keeps the same flow direction with the top layer, which is different with the magnetic resonance shown at 0.8 and 0.2 THz. The surface current distribution is mainly resulted by the graphene plasmon resonance which is consistent with the results described in [28], Vakil and Nader Engheta.

The absorption spectra of absorbers under different polarization angles and oblique incidence angles are essential to applicable devices. Firstly, the influence of polarization angles to the absorption of the absorber is investigated. As shown in Fig. 6, we can see that the absorption curve remains highly consistent when the polarization angles vary from 0°to 90°with a step width 10°. The polarization-independent property of the absorber is mainly attributed to the circular symmetry of the unit cell, which consists of a cubic substrate and nummular pattern.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Simulated absorption spectra of the absorber for different polarization angles from 0° to 90° with step width 10° under normal incidence.

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Next, the absorption spectra under oblique incidence in both the TE and TM modes are studied, as shown in Fig. 7(a) and Fig. 7(b), respectively. In the simulation, the incidence angles vary from 0°to 80°with the step width of 10°. We can see the peak absorption keeps larger than 90% up to 70°incidence angles for the TE mode and 65°for the TM mode, respectively. Besides, the broadband absorption remains more than 75% with a bandwidth of 1.6 THz over a wide range of incidence angles up to 60°for the TE mode and 75°for the TM mode, respectively. Meanwhile, the absorption spectra occur a blue shift with increasing incidence angles.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Absorption contour map of the absorber as a function of incidence angles and frequency under oblique incident angels from 0°to 80°with the step width 10°,(a) for the TE mode, and (b) for the TM mode. where μc=0.7eV.

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Furthermore, the electrically tunable property of the broadband absorber is investigated at the end. Graphene is one kind of tunable material which is often used to tune the absorption amplitude. The surface conductivity of graphene sheet relates largely to its Fermi energy, which can be controlled by electrostatic doping or applying bias voltage [28,37]. Here, we implement the dynamically tunable property of the broadband absorber by varying the Fermi level of the graphene sheet located on the top layer of the unit cell. As shown in Fig. 8, the absorption amplitude changes from 19% to near 100% absorption with the Fermi energy varying from 0 to 0.9 eV. Here, the wide range of Fermi energy of graphene sheet can be modulated by sol-gel top gating method [37].

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Absorption spectra of the absorber with different Fermi energy of graphene sheet from 0 to 0.9 eV.

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4. Conclusion

We proposed and demonstrated a broadband tunable metamaterial absorber which effectively takes advantage of the graphene surface plasmon resonance in the terahertz regime. Some valuable properties are found in the absorber, such as polarization-independence and angle-insensitivity. According to the full-wave numerical simulation, the results show a broadband width of 1.57 THz with a central frequency 1.83 THz under normal incidence when the Fermi level of graphene sheet is set as 0.7 eV. Besides, the absorption of the absorber remains unchanged for almost any polarization angles, and the broadband absorption remains more than 75% over a wide range of incidence angles up to 60°for the TE mode and 75°for the TM mode. Additionally, we performed analysis of the electric field distribution and surface current distribution of the absorber to better understand the mechanism of broadband absorption in the structure. The tunable property of the absorber is also investigated by controlling the Fermi level of graphene sheet located on the top layer, and the peak absorption can be tuned from 19% to near 100% by changing the chemical potential from 0 to 0.9 eV via sol-gel top gating method. The proposed absorber is designed with a compact single-layered graphene pattern which enables the ease of fabrication, and it can be scalable to the infrared and visible frequencies for many promising applications such as tunable sensors, filters and photovoltaic devices.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (51777023); China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF) (2017M622963, 2017M620411).

Acknowledgment

X. H. acknowledges the sponsorship of the China Scholarship Council.

References

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4. L. Huang and H. T. Chen, “A brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” THz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).

5. H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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9. B. X. Wang, G. Z. Wang, and L. L. Wang, “Design of a novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Plasmonics 11(2), 523–530 (2016). [CrossRef]  

10. H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

11. B. Mulla and C. Sabah, “Multiband metamaterial absorber design based on plasmonic resonances for solar energy harvesting,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1313–1321 (2016). [CrossRef]  

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13. N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017). [CrossRef]  

15. W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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19. A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

20. Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017). [CrossRef]  

21. J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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25. X. He, P. Gao, and W. Shi, “A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10388–10397 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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References

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  1. C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. I. Stantchev, D. B. Phillips, P. Hobson, S. M. Hornett, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Compressed sensing with near-field THz radiation,” Optica 4(8), 989–992 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Chen, L. Singh, N. Xu, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14089–14097 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. Huang and H. T. Chen, “A brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” THz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).
  5. H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. Yao, F. Ling, J. Yue, C. Luo, J. Ji, and J. Yao, “Dual-band tunable perfect metamaterial absorber in the THz range,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1518–1527 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. X. Wang, G. Z. Wang, and L. L. Wang, “Design of a novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Plasmonics 11(2), 523–530 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).
  11. B. Mulla and C. Sabah, “Multiband metamaterial absorber design based on plasmonic resonances for solar energy harvesting,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1313–1321 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).
  13. N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Xiong, Y. B. Wu, J. Dong, M. C. Tang, Y. N. Jiang, and X. P. Zeng, “Ultra-thin and broadband tunable metamaterial graphene absorber,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1681–1688 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).
  20. Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. E. S. Torabi, A. Fallahi, and A. Yahaghi, “Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(3), 1464–1467 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. X. He, “Tunable terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 82, 229–237 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. X. He, P. Gao, and W. Shi, “A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10388–10397 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. X. He, F. Liu, F. Lin, and W. Shi, “Graphene patterns supported terahertz tunable plasmon induced transparency,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9931–9944 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. C. Shi, X. He, F. Liu, F. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Investigation of graphene-supported tunable asymmetric terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(3), 575–581 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  33. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
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  35. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).
  37. C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (4)

2017 (10)

D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. S. Torabi, A. Fallahi, and A. Yahaghi, “Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(3), 1464–1467 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Stantchev, D. B. Phillips, P. Hobson, S. M. Hornett, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Compressed sensing with near-field THz radiation,” Optica 4(8), 989–992 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, L. Singh, N. Xu, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14089–14097 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yao, F. Ling, J. Yue, C. Luo, J. Ji, and J. Yao, “Dual-band tunable perfect metamaterial absorber in the THz range,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1518–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. X. Wang, G. Z. Wang, and L. L. Wang, “Design of a novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Plasmonics 11(2), 523–530 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

B. Mulla and C. Sabah, “Multiband metamaterial absorber design based on plasmonic resonances for solar energy harvesting,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1313–1321 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. He, P. Gao, and W. Shi, “A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10388–10397 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, “Tunable terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 82, 229–237 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. Huang and H. T. Chen, “A brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” THz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).

S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).

2012 (4)

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudouris, B. W.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

Brar, V. W.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camara, N.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
[Crossref]

Centeno, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

L. Huang and H. T. Chen, “A brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” THz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Chen, T.

S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).

Cheng, Q.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Crommie, M. F.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, F.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Elorza, A. Z.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallahi, A.

E. S. Torabi, A. Fallahi, and A. Yahaghi, “Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(3), 1464–1467 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fang, N. X.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraji, M.

M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fardoost, A.

A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, K. H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, P.

X. He, P. Gao, and W. Shi, “A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10388–10397 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godignon, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Groby, J. P.

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, W.

Han, T.

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, S.

S. He and T. Chen, “Broadband THz absorbers with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterial films,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 757–763 (2013).

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, X.

Hendry, E.

Hess, O.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

Hillenbrand, R.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hobson, P.

Hornett, S. M.

Horng, J.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

L. Huang and H. T. Chen, “A brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” THz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).

Huth, F.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, J.

Jiang, Y. N.

Jiménez, N.

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Kästel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, L.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppens, F. H.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
[Crossref]

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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Ling, F.

Liu, F.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
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X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
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W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016).
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C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
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T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1086–1101 (2014).
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Luo, X.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauser, K. W.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moravvej-Farshi, M. K.

M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
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B. Mulla and C. Sabah, “Multiband metamaterial absorber design based on plasmonic resonances for solar energy harvesting,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1313–1321 (2016).
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Nguyen, B. H.

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

Nguyen, V. H.

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

Novoselov, K. S.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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Osmond, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagneux, V.

N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, C. H.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pesquera, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, D. B.

Polini, M.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, S.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
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N. Jiménez, V. Romero-García, V. Pagneux, and J. P. Groby, “Rainbow-trapping absorbers: Broadband, perfect and asymmetric sound absorption by subwavelength panels for transmission problems,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13595 (2017).
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Sabah, C.

B. Mulla and C. Sabah, “Multiband metamaterial absorber design based on plasmonic resonances for solar energy harvesting,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1313–1321 (2016).
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Safian, R.

A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Segalman, R. A.

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
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Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Shi, W.

X. He, F. Liu, F. Lin, and W. Shi, “Graphene patterns supported terahertz tunable plasmon induced transparency,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9931–9944 (2018).
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X. He, P. Gao, and W. Shi, “A further comparison of graphene and thin metal layers for plasmonics,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10388–10397 (2016).
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Singh, R.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Song, J.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
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Spasenovic, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stantchev, R. I.

Sun, W.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, M. C.

Thongrattanasiri, S.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torabi, E. S.

E. S. Torabi, A. Fallahi, and A. Yahaghi, “Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(3), 1464–1467 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tran, H. N.

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

Tsakmakidis, K. L.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

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A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Fardoost, F. G. Vanani, and R. Safian, “Design of a multilayer graphene-based ultrawideband terahertz absorber,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(1), 68–74 (2017).

Vu, D. L.

H. N. Tran, V. H. Nguyen, B. H. Nguyen, and D. L. Vu, “Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 013001 (2016).

Wang, B. X.

B. X. Wang, G. Z. Wang, and L. L. Wang, “Design of a novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Plasmonics 11(2), 523–530 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G. Z.

B. X. Wang, G. Z. Wang, and L. L. Wang, “Design of a novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Plasmonics 11(2), 523–530 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. L.

B. X. Wang, G. Z. Wang, and L. L. Wang, “Design of a novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Plasmonics 11(2), 523–530 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, X. C.

D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
[Crossref]

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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. B.

Xia, S.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

Xiong, H.

Xu, J.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

Xu, Y. L.

D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yahaghi, A.

E. S. Torabi, A. Fallahi, and A. Yahaghi, “Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(3), 1464–1467 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yao, G.

Yao, J.

Yi, D.

D. Yi, X. C. Wei, and Y. L. Xu, “Tunable Microwave Absorber Based on Patterned Graphene,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(8), 2819–2826 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. Faraji, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, and L. Yousefi, “Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 355, 352–355 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Zeng, X. P.

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Chen, C. H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
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C. Shi, X. He, F. Liu, F. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Investigation of graphene-supported tunable asymmetric terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(3), 575–581 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, O. Hess, R. W. Boyd, and X. Zhang, “Ultraslow waves on the nanoscale,” Science 358, 5196 (2017).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Commun. 382, 281–287 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

C. Zhang, C. Huang, M. Pu, J. Song, Z. Zhao, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber based on the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance and Helmholtz resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

X. Liu, C. Lan, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “molecules”,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X. Y.

Y. Pang, J. Wang, Q. Cheng, S. Xia, X. Y. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. J. Cui, and S. Qu, “Thermally tunable water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 104103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
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ACS Nano (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Proposed broadband metamaterial absorber with a target-patterned graphene layer. (a) Schematic of the proposed broadband tunable metamaterial absorber. (b) Top view of the unit cell, (c) Perspective view of the unit cell. The geometry parameters of the proposed structure are set as (unit: μm): p=75,h=27,R=23, R 11 =24, R 12 =35,g=1,n=0.2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated absorption spectra of the absorber under normal incidence when the chemical potential of graphene is set to be μ c =0.7eV.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption spectra of the absorber under different thickness of TOPAS dielectric spacer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electric field distribution of the proposed absorber at 0.2, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.2 THz, (a) for the TE mode, and (b) the TM mode, when under normal incidence with the chemical potential of graphene μ c =0.7eV.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Surface current distribution of the proposed absorber at 0.2, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.2 THz, (a) on the front layer; and (b) the back ground layer, when under normal incidence with the chemical potential of graphene μ c =0.7eV.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated absorption spectra of the absorber for different polarization angles from 0° to 90° with step width 10° under normal incidence.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Absorption contour map of the absorber as a function of incidence angles and frequency under oblique incident angels from 0°to 80°with the step width 10°,(a) for the TE mode, and (b) for the TM mode. where μ c =0.7eV.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Absorption spectra of the absorber with different Fermi energy of graphene sheet from 0 to 0.9 eV.

Equations (1)

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σ intra (ω, μ c ,Γ,Τ)= j e 2 π 2 (ωj2Γ) 0 ( f d (ξ, μ c ,Τ) ξ f d (ξ, μ c ,Τ) ξ ) ξdξ,

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