Abstract

Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have emerged as a new class of two-dimensional (2D) material for novel optoelectronic applications. In particular, 2D TMDCs are viewed as intriguing and appealing materials to construct Q-switching and mode-locked modulators, due to their broadband saturable absorption even of photon energy below their excitonic energies. However, the dynamics and mechanism of saturable absorption inside TMDCs has yet to be investigated. In this paper, the relaxation dynamics of monolayer tungsten disulphide (WS2) was investigated considering different excitonic transitions. WS2 illustrates dramatic changes in optical responses when excited by intense laser pulses, which are characterized by the broadband photo-induced nonresonance absorption and the giant excitonic bands renormalization process. The experimental results show that strong photo-induced restructuring of excitonic bands has picosecond lifetime and full recovery of optical responses takes hundreds of picosecond. Additionally, our observations reveal that heavy renormalization and overlap of excitonic bands are induced by strong many-body Coulomb interactions. Moreover, the broadband absorption feature of WS2 opens up new applications in broadband saturable absorbers and ultrafast photonic devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Atomically thin TMDCs have triggered a surge of research interest owing to their intriguing electronic and optical properties [1–6]. One remarkable application of TMDCs is the saturable absorber based on mode-locking or Q-switching, which acts as passive optical switches in laser cavity to enable short-pulse generation. Different from the conventional semiconductor saturable absorbers mirrors (SESAMs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which only allow for narrowband operation, monolayer and few-layer TMDCs have showed broadband saturable absorption behaviors from visible [7,8] to infrared range [9–12]. Interestingly, few-layer TMDCs with excitonic energies greater than 1 eV are experimentally observed to exhibit saturable absorption even at the wavelength of 2μm (photon energy of 0.62 eV) [9, 11, 13]. In case of excitation photon energies greater than the excitonic energy, saturable absorption mechanism is explained by single-photon absorption and Pauli blocking [9]. Though commonly inferred as absorption of longer wavelength induced by defect states, the mechanism of this novel sub-bandgap saturable absorption behavior has yet to be well understood [9–12].

Furthermore, with photon energy below the excitonic energy, the trapped carriers can be absorbed and excited from shallow defect states to conduction or valence band states. There should be an adequate concentration of defects in the monolayer and few-layer TMDCs, given the fact that they can exhibit obvious saturable absorption even for the photons with energy below their bandgap energies. As a matter of fact, we found that few-layer WS2 with less defect can also exhibit obvious saturable absorption, which is promising to generate mode-locked laser pulses at 2 μm in our previous work [12]. Thus, it is possible that other existing mechanisms are responsible for the novel broadband saturable absorption, in addition to the absorption induced by defects states.

The recent attempts to utilize the strong light-matter interaction inside 2D TMDCs for new generation broadband saturable absorbers, have attracted intense research efforts to explore the fundamental physical properties of these materials. A variety of novel approaches have been explored to alter the optical properties of such materials, including bandgap renormalization [14,15], ultrahigh-density responses [16] and ultrafast structural deformation [17]. In particular, the giant excitonic band renormalization phenomena caused by strong Coulomb interaction between interband carriers, may be employed in the broadband modulation of TMDCs. However, the relevant dynamics of the excitonic structure renormalization and its application in broadband absorbers have been little studied.

The necessity to clarify the fundamental mechanism has motivated extensive studies in aspect of ultrafast spectroscopies. In case of low-dimensional semiconductors, excitonic quasi-particles appear as pronounced resonances in optical responses due to extraordinarily weakened dielectric screening and strong Coulomb interactions [18]. Especially for monolayer TMDCs, two efficient excitonic transitions, namely A and B excitons, are derived from the conduction band (CB) and spin-orbit split valence band (VB) around the K (K’) point in the Brillouin zone [18]. To better unravel the excitonic band renormalization process, there is an urgent need for a clear understanding of the ultrafast exciton and charge dynamics in TMDCs.

In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the evolution of A and B excitons after photoexcitation in the monolayer WS2. Specifically, the broadband transient absorption spectroscopy is measured to characterize the mechanisms of giant excitonic band structure renormalization and related photo-induced ultrafast broadband nonlinear absorption. We comprehensively analyze the evolutions of A and B excitons, and their contributions to the excitonic band structure renormalization. A dramatic excitonic energy shrinking is also observed, which stems from the heavy overlap of A and B excitonic bands induced by the strong Coulomb interactions between photoexcited carriers. Our studies indicate that in the monolayer WS2 the photoinduced excitonic band structure renormalization occurs within a few picoseconds, while the full recovery takes hundreds of picoseconds. Moreover, the interactions between photoexcited carriers and phonons, as well as the resulting transient increase of the lattice temperature, have been demonstrated to make a better illustration of the overall scenario of this physical process.

2. Samples characterization and experimental methods

The growth of WS2 monolayers was performed on sapphire substrate via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) [19]. From the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of Fig. 1(a), one can see that the monolayer WS2 almost covers the whole sapphire substrate, which is suitable for transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy measurements. In addtion, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) result shown in Fig. 1(b) indicates that the thickness of WS2 sample is ~ 0.7 nm, which confirms the monolayer thickness of the sample. For completeness, the Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurements were also performed, with their results illustrated in Figs. 1(c) and 1(d), respectively. The difference between E2g1 (in-plane vibration) and A1g  (out-of-plane vibration) Raman modes is 61.25 cm1, in agreement with previous observations of monolayer WS2 [20]. The PL spectrum of WS2 sample excited by a 405 nm laser peaks at ~2.02 eV, confirming the PL feature of monolayer WS2 [21].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of WS2 monolayer samples on sapphire substrate. (b) AFM image of monolayer WS2. Inset: Height profile of the white line marked in (b). (c) Raman spectra of the WS2 sample. (d) PL spectra of the smaple under 405 nm laser excitation.

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In order to investigate the ultrafast photoexcited carrier dynamics of monolayer WS2, the femtosecond pump-probe technique [22–24] is performed. With a broadband white-light probe, the measurements can extend to the entire visible and near infrared spectrum, and thus cover the broadband saturable absorption range of monolayer WS2. The research aim is to verfity that under large photo-injected condition the excitonic band structure renormalization within monolayer WS2 is an alternative reason that contributes to the ultrafast broadband saturable absorption. Therefore, it is of great significance to investigate the different evolution processes of the excitonic band structure within WS2 monolayer, considering both linear and saturable excitation condition. In this context, the pump fluence was set from 50 μJ/cm2 up to 1200 μJ/cm2, covering the linear to saturable absorption region of monolayer WS2. According to the report of H. Zhao et al. [25], the range of excited carrier density is from 1.7×1013 cm−2 to 4.08×1014 cm−2, covering experiemntal conditions from normal photoexcitation to extremely large photoexcitation.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 TA spectra of WS2 at linear and saturable absorption region

The dependence of TA results of monolayer WS2 on the probe photon energy and time delay, is presented in Fig. 2(a). Here, a pump photo energy of 3.1 eV with fluence of 75 μJ/cm2 is employed, at the temperature of T = 78 K. It can be easily derived that the spectra in Fig. 2(a) are characterized by two positive (red) and two negative (navy) features. The common factors that contribute to the above phenomena include photo-induced enhanced or reduced absorption, excitonic resonance, and the shift of the absorption peak [26]. Precisely, a positive feature may be attributed to photo-induced absorption (PA) [27, 28] and a negative feature may indicate a photo-induced bleach (PB) [13] of the pump-induced excited states.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Differential absorption (ΔA/A0) map of monolayer WS2 as the function of both delay time and probe photon energy with the pump photon energy of 3.1 eV at average pump fluence of 75 μJ/cm2 and probe with the supercontinum white light at T = 78 K. (b) TA spectra of monolayer WS2 at different time delays, absorption spectra adapted from Y. Li et al [28]. and PL spectra for the same monolayer WS2. (c) ΔA/A0 map of monolayer WS2 at average pump fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2 at T = 78 K. (d) TA spectra of monolayer WS2 at different time delays with pump fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2.

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Based on the previous discussion [18], the four features of excitonic nature at ~1.95 eV, 2.03 eV, 2.28 eV and 2.40 eV represent PA and PB of A and B exciton of WS2 monolayer, respectively, as marked in Fig. 2(a). The PB features in TA spectra are usualy caused by the state filling effect [13]. After the photon absorption, hot electrons cool down and fully occupy the states near the photon energy, preventing further absorption. According to Pauli’s exclusion principle, it is impossible to have two identical electrons filling the same state, rendering the occurrence of the bleach of light absorption. This explains why the negative PB signal in TA spectra appears. Furthermore, the two bleaching signals in TA measurements of Fig. 2(a) are in good agreement with the absorption peaks of monolayer WS2 observed in the steady line absorption spectra, which is illustrated in Fig. 2(b). Another significant finding is that due to the Stark effect [14, 29], the peak of absorption spectra will slightly shift, resulting in the positive PA signal near the PB signal. Last but not least, since no obvious defect absorption feature is observed in TA and PL spectra of WS2, we can assume that the defect states play an insignificant role in optical absorption.

Additional insights into the contribution of nonlinear effects to the TA spectra are provided by the evolution of the saturable absorption response of monolayer WS2, the corresponding contour map being presented in Fig. 2(c). We have investigated the monolayer WS2 under a pump photo energy of 3.1 eV with fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2, at the temperature of T = 78 K. Different from the case of linear excitation discussed above, four different processes can be identified in the TA spectra of Fig. 2(c), including rise, decay, recover and steady. Firstly, after excitation two PB and two PA features appear within the initial 1 ps. Then, three features disappear during 2~10 ps, where only the PB feature of A exciton is found. However, in the third stage (10~150 ps), the PB feature of B exciton gradually appears again. Finally, the TA spectra recover to the four features configuration, reaching a stready state. To conclude, the evolution of exciton features is a rise-decay-recover-steady process. To obtain an in-depth understanding of the above four processes, four typical TA spectra at the delay time of 0.2 ps, 2.1 ps, 72 ps and 320 ps, are shown in Fig. 2(d). One main conclusion is that under strong photoexcitation the light absorption is enhanced significantly within the whole spectra, when compared with the linear excitation case shown in Fig. 2(b). Importantly, the curves of Fig. 2(d) exhibit the photo-induced broadband absorption of the monolayer WS2.

Since the broadband absorption mechnism is a crucial factor characterizing the WS2-based devices, we proceeded to analyze in more in-depth the evolution processes of A and B excitons. The results of this study, determined for the rise-decay and recover processes, are presented in Fig. 3. Here, the delay time of 0.2 ps (i.e., the earliest time ΔA signal occurs) is selected as the reference. From Fig. 3, one can observe the relative absorption difference measured with different delay times, considering pump fluences of 400 μJ/cm2, 800 μJ/cm2 and 1200 μJ/cm2.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Absorption difference spectra at time delay range from (a) 0.3 ps to 1.5 ps and (b) 1.5 ps to 60 ps with the pump fluence of 400 μJ/cm2. Difference spectra at time delay from (c) 0.3 ps to 1.5 ps and (d) 1.5 ps to 60 ps with the pump fluence of 800 μJ/cm2. Difference spectra at time delay from (e) 0.3 ps to 1.5 ps and (f) 1.5 ps to 60 ps with the pump fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2. (a), (c) and (e) are results during the rising process of TA spectra. (b), (d) and (f) are results during the recovering process of TA spectra.

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One remakable finding is that the resonances of A and B excitons gradually disappear with the increasing pump fluence during the rise-decay process, as shown in Figs. 3(a), 3(c) and 3(e). Moreover, these resonances reappear during the recovering process shown in Figs. 3(b), 3(d) and 3(f), indicating that the photo-induced broadband absorption process of WS2 is reversible.

Importantly, for monolayer TMDCs, the high order Auger recombination process takes place within the first several ps after excitation. The hot carrier density rapidly deduces, resulting in weakening of the bleach effect, which can be contributed to the extra absorption. From Fig. 3(b), one can see the recovering process of TA spectra within the following 70 ps time scale, under the pump fluence of 400 μJ/cm2. Interestingly, the absorption features at A exciton’s resonance increases with delay times, whereas at B exciton’s resonance the absorption feature almost remains unchanged. Additionally, the resonance peaks of A and B excitons turn farther apart, with the whole rising intensity curve exhibiting blueshift. Next, with the decrease of carrier density, the interexcitonic interaction becomes weaker and the exciton bandgap recovers. However, when considering the rising process under the pump fluence of 800 μJ/cm2 shown in Fig. 3(c), only absorption peaks at A exciton resonance (~2.01 eV) occur, which may be caused by strong interexcitonic interaction and totally overlap between A and B excitons. On the other hand, the absorption peaks at resonances of A and B excitons gradually appear again within 70 ps, as shown in Fig. 3(d). A reasonable explanation for this phenomenon is the recovery process of renormalized excitonic band structure. When it comes to even stronger photoexcitation, as shown in Fig. 3(e), neither of the two resonance absorption peaks appears, inferring the dramatic change of band structure in monolayer WS2. Due to the extremely large photoexcited carrier density, energy bands of A and B excitons may overlap with each other to a great extent, probably forming a new energy band with a uniform electron distribution. During the Auger recombination process (i.e., first 2 ps), the bleaching effect of the excited carriers fades, leading to an extra absorption in TA spectra. The recovering process of TA spectra shown in Fig. 3(f) reveals the recovery process of WS2’s band structure, which takes about 50 ps.

3.2 excitonic band structure renormalization of WS2 at saturable region

As discussed above, the rising process of TA spectra occurs within the first 1.5 ps after excitation. An important aspect pertaining to the mechanism of nonresonance broadband absorption is to study the TA spectra within this time period in details. To fulfill this goal, TA spectra at 0.8 ps under different pump fluence are investigated, as shown in Fig. 4(a). Variations of exctonic band structure can be extracted from the absorption features [30]. The photo-induced absorption feature around 1.85 eV corresponds to the change of A exciton band, whereas the PA feature at ~2.2 eV is relative to B exciton band. Redshift of PA features is due to the decrease of exciton energy, while blueshift of PA features is usually caused by the increase of exciton energy. One significant finding from Figs. 4(b) and 4(c) is that under higher pump fluence PA feature of A exciton shows redshift, while PA feature of B exciton exhibits a redshift first, followed by a blueshift. To demonstrate this, the excitonic band structure of monolayer WS2 is presentedin Fig. 4(d). Notably, the valence band and conduction band are referred as VB and CB, respectively, with Δ denoting the binding energy of quasiparticals. The splitting of VB, resulting in v1 and v2, is attributed to the spin-orbit coupling effect [31]. After photoexcitation, A and B excitons are rapidly formed by electrons in the minimum of CB and holes in the maximum of split VB [18]. The energy of A and B excitons will slightly reduce because of the existance of excited carriers [2, 15]. Addtionally, the energy degradation with regard to A and B excitons turns stronger when more excited carriers are generated, along with overlap of these two excitons, as dipicted in Fig. 4(d). The maximum of the v2 band submerges in the v1 band, where only holes exist. Therefore, electrons in lower position of the v2 band give rise to PA signal of B exciton, which contributes to the abnormal blueshift of PA feature at B exciton, as displayed in Fig. 4(c).

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) TA spectra of monolayer WS2 under different pump fluence from 40 to 1080 μJ/cm2 at time delay of 0.8 ps after excitation. Position for the PA feature of (b) A exciton and (c) B exciton as the function of pump irradiance. (d) Schematic illustration of WS2 band structure at equilibrium and at small and high photoexcited carrier density.

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Key parameters on the dynamics of excitions are the time constant and reduction of exciton energies. Here, we have measured the PA and PB features of A and B excitons, which is shown in Fig. 5. One important conclusion is that the exciton energy of A exciton shows a fast decay, by ~230 meV, whereas B exciton exhibits more complex behaviours. According to the description of Fig. 4(d), the bands of A and B excitons largely overlap with each other, especially at high carrier density. During the recombination process of excited carriers, the PA features of B exciton will undergo a blueshift-redshift-recover process, which is in reverse to what is presented in Fig. 4(d). The shift of PB features at A and B excitons reveals the warming and cooling process of lattice. As shown in Fig. 5, when at highter temperature, PB features of both A and B excitons show redshift, followed by the cooling process that is responsible for the blueshift phenomenon. Equally important, when excited by different pump fluence, redshift behaviours are observed at PB features of A and B excitons within various time scales, namely 0.7 ps, 1 ps, and 7 ps. These characteristic times indicate the variation of lattice warming process at different excited carrier densities.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 The shift of the PA and PB features of A and B excitons as the function of time delay after excitation at T = 78 K with pump fluence of (a) 400 μJ/cm2, (b) 800 μJ/cm2 and (c) 1200 μJ/cm2, respectively.

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3.3 The electron-phonon interaction process

The influence of pump fluence is studied for the relaxation process of A exciton, with TA kinetics shown in Fig. 6(a). In case of linear photoexcitation, the decay curves of A exciton show a monotonous decline. However, when pump fluence exceeds 800 μJ/cm2, these decay curves exhibit a drop-upraise-decline process. Notably, the TA dynamics under linear photoexcitation condition are fitted by a third-order multi-exponential decay function and the singular value decomposition (SVD). Three time constants of 0.44 ps, 7.60 ps, and 126.8 ps can be extracted from Fig. 6(a), which are in good agreement with reported time constants [25, 27, 30, 32]. To be more specific, the fast component t1 is typically assigned to the fast Auger scattering [27, 32]. The second time component t2 of 7.60 ps may be contributed by electron-phonon interaction process [30] or slow Auger scattering [33], whereas the final component t3 is related to radiative recombination, whose reported results range from hundreds of ps to nanoseconds [27, 32, 34, 35]. Moreover, the proportions of these three time components are about 80%, 10% and 10%, respectively. This suggests that the majority of photoexcited carriers are recombined in the fast Auger scattering process (t1). Additionally, t3 accounts for less than 10% of the signal intensity on average, which is consistent with the low-quantum yield of emission observed from monolayer TMDCs [20, 27].

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a) Decay curves for the bleach of A exciton with pump fluence between 80 μJ/cm2 and 1200 μJ/cm2 at T = 78 K. (b) Decay curves for the bleach of A exciton of monolayer WS2 with the pump fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2 at T = 78 K, 200 K and 300 K. (c) Temperature dependence for TA spectra of WS2 monolayer at 3 ps after excitaiton with the pump fluence of 50 μJ/cm2. (d) Schematic illustration of the overall scenario after optical excitation of the WS2 monolayer, consistent with the observed photo-induced changes in optical responses.

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An additional important factor in the electron-phonon interaction is temperature. To start with, the decay curves of PB features at A exciton under saturable excitation, measured at different temperatures, are presented in Fig. 6(b). Precisely, the density of excited A excitons accumulates within ~600 fs, followed by fast decay within ~2 ps. The fast Auger scattering effect is responsible for the strong interaction among a large number of hot carriers in this period. This results in the carrier temperature is much higher than the lattice temperature [36]. The following important process is the electron-phonon interaction, whose energy is transferred from hot carriers to lattice, resulting in the cooling of hot carriers and warming of lattice [37]. The lattice warming process may lead to the anomaly rise for the decay curve from 2 ps to 20 ps after excitation. For completeness, TA spectra measurements of monolayer WS2 under the linear excitation condition (pump fluence of 50 μJ/cm2) are performed at different temperature, as shown in Fig. 6(c). Particularly, the processes of thermalization and relaxation inside WS2 occur within several ps in this case. The thermalization and relaxation process generally occur within < 1 ps at small photoinjecting condition, therefore electrons share the same temperature with lattice at 3 ps, when at temperatures of 78 K, 200 K, and 300 K shown in Fig. 6(c). Moreover, the PB peak values of A exciton increases at lower lattice temperature. In other words, the lower temperature lattice remains, the larger value of the ΔA feature for A exciton’s PB peak might be. Therefore, the lattice warming phenomenon provides a reasonable explanation for the upraising process of the decay curves from 2 ps to 20 ps, as illustrated in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b). The lattice warming process may take longer time at lower experimental temperature for it will cost longer time to cool down, consistent with temperature dependent results for the rising process in Fig. 3(b), in which the corresponding time scales are 18.8 ps, 25.4 ps and 34 ps at 300 K, 200 K and 78 K, respectively.

The overall scenario of monolayer WS2 under strong photoexcitation is presented in Fig. 6(d). Firstly, the pump-generated excitons would induce the bleaching effect at the exciton resonance, accompanied by the blueshift of energy for both A and B excitons. Then, a majority of excitons (~80%) would recombine in a fast time scale of ~2 ps, which is dominated by high order Auger-type recombination. Additionally, with the weakening of bleaching effect, an extra broadband absorption is found in the TA spectra. Next, at the time scale of ~7 ps, energy is transferred from carriers to the lattice via electron-phonon interaction, leading to an increase of local lattice temperature and the redshift of PB features for both A and B excitons. In the final stage, the lattice cooling process and rediative reconbination process would occur at ~200 ps. Importantly, the two processes play an opposite role on the amplitude of PB features in TA spectra. In particular, the competition between such two processes may lead to an abnormal rising behaviour of A exciton’s decay curve, within the time scale of ~20 ps.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have presented a comprehensive analysis of atomically thin WS2 by performing femtosecond white-light pump-probe measurements, with injected electron-hole pair density varying between 1.7×1013 and 4.08×1014 cm−2. We have investigated not only the femtosecond time-resolved TA spectra, but also the dynamics of excited carriers. Under linear excitation, the monolayer WS2 exhibits strong excitonic resonances, suggesting that the defects have little influence on optical absorption response. On the other hand, with strong photoexcitation, the WS2 monolayer shows different optical responses, which are contributed by the broadband photo-induced absorption, giant optical bandgap renormalization of hundreds of meV, and ultralong lattice heating process. The experimental results reveal that the strong photo-induced change of optical responses in WS2 monolayers has ps lifetime, and their full recovery undergoes hundreds of ps. Moreover, the heavy overlap of A and B excitonic bands is observed in monolayer WS2. In addition, strong Coulomb interactions is assumed to play a crucial role on band structure renormalization and interactions between photoexcited carriers and phonons. This work provides deep insight into the ultrafast dynamics of excited carriers and excitonic band structure of WS2 monolayers, which are prerequisites for applying TMDCs in ultrafast light-emitting and light-harvesting devices. Furthermore, the features of broadband absorption and saturable absorption render WS2 excellent potential for broadband optical modulators and absorbers operating from visible to mid-infrared region.

Funding

Scientific Research Foundation, National University of Defense Technology (No. zk16-03-59).

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21. W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. R. Chen, X. Zheng, and T. Jiang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and ultra-long exciton relaxation time of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7507–7519 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. K. Wei, Z. Xu, R. Chen, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence excited by two-photon absorption in perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3821–3824 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. K. Wei, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, C. Shen, and T. Jiang, “Observation of Ultrafast Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1993–1997 (2016). [CrossRef]  

25. N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014). [CrossRef]  

26. N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013). [CrossRef]  

27. S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016). [CrossRef]  

28. Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014). [CrossRef]  

29. A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. H. Wang, C. Zhang, and F. Rana, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Defect-Assisted Electron-Hole Recombination in Monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 339–345 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. G. Moody, J. Schaibley, and X. Xu, “Exciton dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(7), C39–C49 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

36. M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. Qin, Y. Gao, Z. Qiao, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Atomic-Layered MoS2 as a Tunable Optical Platform,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1429–1456 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. L. Zhuang and R. G. Hennig, “Computational Search for Single-Layer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Photocatalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(40), 20440–20445 (2013).
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  4. H. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Zhang, and T. Jiang, “Ultrafast Interfacial Energy Transfer and Interlayer Excitons in Monolayer WS2/CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots Heterostructure,” Nanoscale, in press.
  5. X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, X. Cheng, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2.,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15616–15623 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Wei, Y. Liu, H. Yang, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Large range modification of exciton species in monolayer WS2,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6251–6255 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “All-fiber thulium/holmium-doped mode-locked laser by tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 27(1), 015102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Ramasubramaniam, “Large excitonic effects in monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115409 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. R. Chen, X. Zheng, and T. Jiang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and ultra-long exciton relaxation time of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7507–7519 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. K. Wei, Z. Xu, R. Chen, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence excited by two-photon absorption in perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3821–3824 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. K. Wei, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, C. Shen, and T. Jiang, “Observation of Ultrafast Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1993–1997 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. H. Wang, C. Zhang, and F. Rana, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Defect-Assisted Electron-Hole Recombination in Monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 339–345 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. G. Moody, J. Schaibley, and X. Xu, “Exciton dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(7), C39–C49 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “All-fiber thulium/holmium-doped mode-locked laser by tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 27(1), 015102 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, X. Zheng, and T. Jiang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and ultra-long exciton relaxation time of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7507–7519 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (9)

G. Moody, J. Schaibley, and X. Xu, “Exciton dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(7), C39–C49 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wei, Z. Xu, R. Chen, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence excited by two-photon absorption in perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3821–3824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wei, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, C. Shen, and T. Jiang, “Observation of Ultrafast Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1993–1997 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, Y. Liu, H. Yang, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Large range modification of exciton species in monolayer WS2,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6251–6255 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Qin, Y. Gao, Z. Qiao, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Atomic-Layered MoS2 as a Tunable Optical Platform,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1429–1456 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, X. Cheng, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2.,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15616–15623 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, C. Zhang, and F. Rana, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Defect-Assisted Electron-Hole Recombination in Monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 339–345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Zhuang and R. G. Hennig, “Computational Search for Single-Layer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Photocatalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(40), 20440–20445 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ramasubramaniam, “Large excitonic effects in monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115409 (2012).
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Aleithan, S. H.

S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016).
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Berkdemir, A.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
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Bertolazzi, S.

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, A. J.

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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Briane, A.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brivio, J.

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broch, K.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butkus, J.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
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Butler, S. Z.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ceballos, F.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chase, T.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

Chen, Y.

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
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Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
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Chenet, D. A.

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
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Cheng, X.

Chernikov, A.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
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A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
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A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
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Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, L.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coffee, R.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crespi, V. H.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M. F.

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Q.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

da Jornada, F. H.

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dal Conte, S.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Fazio, D.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deschler, F.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Lieto, A.

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, J.

Du, K.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duerloo, K.-A.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dürr, H. A.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eda, G.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elías, A. L.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eperon, G. E.

A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ernst, F.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, W.

D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fry, A. R.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, B.

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, T.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

C. Qin, Y. Gao, Z. Qiao, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Atomic-Layered MoS2 as a Tunable Optical Platform,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1429–1456 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ghorannevis, Z.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giustino, F.

A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberger, J. E.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, J. A.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutiérrez, H. R.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpert, J. E.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, N.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hast, C.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, D.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, J.

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, X.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hennig, R. G.

H. L. Zhuang and R. G. Hennig, “Computational Search for Single-Layer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Photocatalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(40), 20440–20445 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herz, L. M.

A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hettel, R.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, H. M.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hodgkiss, J. M.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hollen, S. M.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. S.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, P.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hussain, Z.

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ismach, A. F.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jellicoe, T. C.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jena, D.

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, Q.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, S.

C. Qin, Y. Gao, Z. Qiao, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Atomic-Layered MoS2 as a Tunable Optical Platform,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1429–1456 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, B.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, T.

Johnston, M. B.

A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston-Halperin, E.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, J.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khadka, S.

S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kis, A.

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kloc, C.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, L.

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kordesch, M. E.

S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kumar, N.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuno, M.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Zhang, and T. Jiang, “Ultrafast Interfacial Energy Transfer and Interlayer Excitons in Monolayer WS2/CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots Heterostructure,” Nanoscale, in press.

Li, R.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lindenberg, A. M.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.-B.

D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
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Liu, M.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

K. Wei, Y. Liu, H. Yang, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Large range modification of exciton species in monolayer WS2,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6251–6255 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Zhang, and T. Jiang, “Ultrafast Interfacial Energy Transfer and Interlayer Excitons in Monolayer WS2/CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots Heterostructure,” Nanoscale, in press.

Liu, Z.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Livshits, M. Y.

S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

Lombardo, A.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Urías, F.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lotya, M.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louie, S. G.

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S. B.

Lv, R.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mannebach, E. M.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manzoni, C.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marini, A.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
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Marsili, M.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
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Mei, L.

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
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Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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Moody, G.

Nyby, C.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
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A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
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E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
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M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016).
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A. Ramasubramaniam, “Large excitonic effects in monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115409 (2012).
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H. Wang, C. Zhang, and F. Rana, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Defect-Assisted Electron-Hole Recombination in Monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 339–345 (2015).
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E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
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Rigosi, A.

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
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Rigosi, A. F.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
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A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
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A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Ruan, W.

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
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Sadhanala, A.

M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Sangalli, D.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
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Schaibley, J.

Shan, J.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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K. Wei, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, C. Shen, and T. Jiang, “Observation of Ultrafast Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1993–1997 (2016).
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E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
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Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Shi, S.-F.

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
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A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
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Spencer, M. G.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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Stinaff, E.

S. H. Aleithan, M. Y. Livshits, S. Khadka, J. J. Rack, M. E. Kordesch, and E. Stinaff, “Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD MoS2 monolayer,” Phys. Rev. B 94(3), 035445 (2016).
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W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
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Tang, D. Y.

Tang, Y.

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
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H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
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Terrones, M.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
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W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
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Tonelli, M.

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
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Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
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E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
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A. Chernikov, A. M. van der Zande, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, A. Velauthapillai, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(12), 126802 (2015).
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A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, C. Zhang, and F. Rana, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Defect-Assisted Electron-Hole Recombination in Monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 339–345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weathersby, S.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, K.

Wen, S. C.

Windl, W.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, A. D.

A. D. Wright, C. Verdi, R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, M. A. Pérez-Osorio, H. J. Snaith, F. Giustino, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11755 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, K.

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, L.

C. Qin, Y. Gao, Z. Qiao, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Atomic-Layered MoS2 as a Tunable Optical Platform,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1429–1456 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xing, H. G.

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Q.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

G. Moody, J. Schaibley, and X. Xu, “Exciton dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(7), C39–C49 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Yan, R.

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

Yang, N.

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, W.

D. Xiao, G.-B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, K.

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “All-fiber thulium/holmium-doped mode-locked laser by tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 27(1), 015102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D.

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “All-fiber thulium/holmium-doped mode-locked laser by tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 27(1), 015102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zalden, P.

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

H. Wang, C. Zhang, and F. Rana, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Defect-Assisted Electron-Hole Recombination in Monolayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 339–345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, K. K.

P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

Zhang, X.

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Broadband atomic-layer MoS2 optical modulators for ultrafast pulse generations in the visible range,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 547–550 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, X. Cheng, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2.,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15616–15623 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

H. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Zhang, and T. Jiang, “Ultrafast Interfacial Energy Transfer and Interlayer Excitons in Monolayer WS2/CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots Heterostructure,” Nanoscale, in press.

Zhao, G.

Zhao, H.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89(12), 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X.

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “All-fiber thulium/holmium-doped mode-locked laser by tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 27(1), 015102 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, X. Zheng, and T. Jiang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and ultra-long exciton relaxation time of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7507–7519 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wei, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, C. Shen, and T. Jiang, “Observation of Ultrafast Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1993–1997 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, Z. Xu, R. Chen, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence excited by two-photon absorption in perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3821–3824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, Y. Zhang, R. Chen, X. Cheng, Z. Xu, and T. Jiang, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2.,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15616–15623 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Zhang, and T. Jiang, “Ultrafast Interfacial Energy Transfer and Interlayer Excitons in Monolayer WS2/CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots Heterostructure,” Nanoscale, in press.

Zhuang, H. L.

H. L. Zhuang and R. G. Hennig, “Computational Search for Single-Layer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Photocatalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(40), 20440–20445 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (6)

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-induced bandgap renormalization governs the ultrafast response of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Ji, J. Ju, H. Yuan, J. Shi, T. Gao, D. Ma, M. Liu, Y. Chen, X. Song, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, and Z. Liu, “Controlled growth of high-quality monolayer WS2 layers on sapphire and imaging its grain boundary,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8963–8971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P.-H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of Electronic Structure in Atomically Thin Sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

C. Qin, Y. Gao, Z. Qiao, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Atomic-Layered MoS2 as a Tunable Optical Platform,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1429–1456 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, X. Zheng, X. Cheng, C. Shen, and T. Jiang, “Observation of Ultrafast Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1993–1997 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Kumar, J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Charge carrier dynamics in bulk MoS2 crystal studied by transient absorption microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133702 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

H. L. Zhuang and R. G. Hennig, “Computational Search for Single-Layer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Photocatalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(40), 20440–20445 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “All-fiber thulium/holmium-doped mode-locked laser by tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 27(1), 015102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

E. M. Mannebach, R. Li, K.-A. Duerloo, C. Nyby, P. Zalden, T. Vecchione, F. Ernst, A. H. Reid, T. Chase, X. Shen, S. Weathersby, C. Hast, R. Hettel, R. Coffee, N. Hartmann, A. R. Fry, Y. Yu, L. Cao, T. F. Heinz, E. J. Reed, H. A. Dürr, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Dynamic Structural Response and Deformations of Monolayer MoS2 Visualized by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6889–6895 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
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H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary Room-Temperature Photoluminescence in Triangular WS2 Monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
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M. B. Price, J. Butkus, T. C. Jellicoe, A. Sadhanala, A. Briane, J. E. Halpert, K. Broch, J. M. Hodgkiss, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8420 (2015).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

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Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
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P. Hu, J. Ye, X. He, K. Du, K. K. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, Z. Liu, H. Jiang, and C. Kloc, “Control of Radiative Exciton Recombination by Charge Transfer Induced Surface Dipoles in MoS2 and WS2 Monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24105 (2016).
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Other (1)

H. Li, X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Zhang, and T. Jiang, “Ultrafast Interfacial Energy Transfer and Interlayer Excitons in Monolayer WS2/CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots Heterostructure,” Nanoscale, in press.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of WS2 monolayer samples on sapphire substrate. (b) AFM image of monolayer WS2. Inset: Height profile of the white line marked in (b). (c) Raman spectra of the WS2 sample. (d) PL spectra of the smaple under 405 nm laser excitation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Differential absorption (ΔA/A0) map of monolayer WS2 as the function of both delay time and probe photon energy with the pump photon energy of 3.1 eV at average pump fluence of 75 μJ/cm2 and probe with the supercontinum white light at T = 78 K. (b) TA spectra of monolayer WS2 at different time delays, absorption spectra adapted from Y. Li et al [28]. and PL spectra for the same monolayer WS2. (c) ΔA/A0 map of monolayer WS2 at average pump fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2 at T = 78 K. (d) TA spectra of monolayer WS2 at different time delays with pump fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption difference spectra at time delay range from (a) 0.3 ps to 1.5 ps and (b) 1.5 ps to 60 ps with the pump fluence of 400 μJ/cm2. Difference spectra at time delay from (c) 0.3 ps to 1.5 ps and (d) 1.5 ps to 60 ps with the pump fluence of 800 μJ/cm2. Difference spectra at time delay from (e) 0.3 ps to 1.5 ps and (f) 1.5 ps to 60 ps with the pump fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2. (a), (c) and (e) are results during the rising process of TA spectra. (b), (d) and (f) are results during the recovering process of TA spectra.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) TA spectra of monolayer WS2 under different pump fluence from 40 to 1080 μJ/cm2 at time delay of 0.8 ps after excitation. Position for the PA feature of (b) A exciton and (c) B exciton as the function of pump irradiance. (d) Schematic illustration of WS2 band structure at equilibrium and at small and high photoexcited carrier density.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The shift of the PA and PB features of A and B excitons as the function of time delay after excitation at T = 78 K with pump fluence of (a) 400 μJ/cm2, (b) 800 μJ/cm2 and (c) 1200 μJ/cm2, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Decay curves for the bleach of A exciton with pump fluence between 80 μJ/cm2 and 1200 μJ/cm2 at T = 78 K. (b) Decay curves for the bleach of A exciton of monolayer WS2 with the pump fluence of 1200 μJ/cm2 at T = 78 K, 200 K and 300 K. (c) Temperature dependence for TA spectra of WS2 monolayer at 3 ps after excitaiton with the pump fluence of 50 μJ/cm2. (d) Schematic illustration of the overall scenario after optical excitation of the WS2 monolayer, consistent with the observed photo-induced changes in optical responses.

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