Abstract

Holographic AR display is a promising technology for head-mounted display devices. However, it usually has a complicated optical system and a large form factor, preventing it from widespread applications. In this work, we propose a flat-panel design to produce a compact holographic AR display, where traditional optical elements are replaced by two holographic optical elements (HOEs). Here, these two thin HOEs together perform the optical functions of a beam expander, an ocular lens, and an optical combiner. Without any bulky traditional optics, our design could achieve a compact form factor that is similar to a pair of glasses. We also implemented a proof-of-concept prototype to verify its feasibility. Being compact, lightweight and free from accommodation-convergence discrepancy, our design is promising for fatigue-free AR displays.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Augmented reality (AR) [1–3] and virtual reality [4] technologies have gained rapidly-growing popularity these days. Especially AR, which augments digital virtual information on the real world, is likely to become the next generation platform for human-machine interaction. Display is one of the most important components of an AR system. There are two types of see-through displays for AR applications [5]: The video-see-through type digitally adds virtual contents on real-world videos captured from cameras inside AR devices; and the optical-see-through type optically combines the virtual and the real using an optical combiner. The latter has much higher spatial resolution of the real world scene and thus provides more realistic experience, though, at the price of more complicated systems.

A few optical-see-through AR products have been released [6–9]. Most of them, however, are based on stereoscopic 3D display technology [10, 11], which fails to provide correct accommodation depth cue. The discrepancy between accommodation and vergence in those products would lead to eye-fatigue and discomfort [12, 13], which hinders the widespread application of AR technologies.

To produce fatigue-free 3D perception, several true 3D display methods, including multi-plane displays [14–21], light field displays [22–27], holographic displays [28–32], etc., have been employed in AR devices. Among them, holographic display holds great potential, because it can offer all depth cues that human eyes require by reproducing both light intensity and wave front. So far, several holographic AR displays employing computer-generated holograms (CGHs), have been reported [28, 32]. But these displays have relatively large form factors, due to the use of multiple traditional optical elements such as lenses and prism combiners.

Recently, holographic optical elements (HOEs) [33] have been proposed to replace traditional optics [34, 35], to achieve compact form factors. And some researchers have employed HOEs in holographic AR systems [29, 31, 36]. For example, Yeom et al. proposed a holographic head-mounted display (HMD) based on a waveguide and two HOEs [36]. Because of Bragg mismatch, light from the real world is mostly transmitted; while 3D holographic image light gets diffracted in and out of the waveguide, and finally directed to a viewer’s eye. Li et al. demonstrated a compact holographic see-through HMD employing a mirror-lens HOE, which achieves multiple functions as a mirror and a lens [29]. Nevertheless, in existing holographic AR systems, a key component, beam expander, is still made of bulky traditional optics.

In this study, we demonstrate a compact holographic AR display design, which is basically made of a spatial light modulator (SLM) and two HOEs, without any traditional optics. The two thin HOE films realize the functions of a beam expander, an ocular lens and an optical combiner. The two HOEs together expands the input laser beam in two dimensions, providing a light source for the SLM. The holographic 3D images generated by the SLM are then magnified and directed to pupil position, by the second HOE.

2. Working principle and device structure

The working principle and device structure of the proposed design are shown in Fig. 1. It is mainly made of two HOEs and a SLM. HOEs are fundamentally volume holograms, which diffract light when Bragg condition is satisfied [37, 38]. HOE 1 is a holographic grating, which deflects light; while HOE 2 is a dual-function element with two sub-holograms recorded by angular multiplexing [38]. In the system, Beam 1, which is generated from a laser with a small-diameter, is elongated in one dimension by HOE 1, and becomes an elliptically-shaped Beam 2. Next, as Beam 2 encounters the first sub-hologram on HOE 2, it is further elongated in a second dimension, generating a circularly-expanded Beam 3 with a larger diameter. Illuminated by Beam 3, the SLM generates a 3D image light beam (Beam 4). Then, the 3D image (beam 4) is magnified and directed into a viewer’s eye (Beam 5) as it encounters the second sub-hologram on HOE 2. Because of Bragg mismatch, most light from the real world passes through HOE 2 directly, and thus a viewer can see both the physical world and the virtual 3D image simultaneously. In our AR holographic display, the two thin HOE films together perform the optical functions of a beam expander, an ocular lens and an optical combiner. In Fig. 1, α is the slant angle between Beam 1 and the plane of HOE 1; and β is the slant angle between Beam 2 and the plane of HOE 2. If the slant angles α and β are small, the form factor of the display can be made very compact, similar to that of eyeglasses.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Working principle and device structure of the optical-see-through holographic AR display.

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3. Fabrication of HOEs

The two HOEs used in our AR display are fabricated based on holographic interference. Figures 2(a) and 2(b) illustrate the recording and reconstruction processes of HOE 1, respectively. As shown in Fig. 2(a), the reference beam (Beam 1) is derived from a 532 nm laser with a small diameter d1~0.1 cm. The slant angle between the reference beam and HOE plane α is ~2.3 o. Another beam (diameter D1~2.5 cm), obtained from a conventional beam expander, serves as the object beam. The overlap of the two beams on HOE 1 is a slim elliptic area where interference takes place. The parameters of beam sizes are correlated as:

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of HOE 1. BS is beam splitter.

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α=arctan(d1/D1).

During the reconstruction process as shown in Fig. 2(b), the reference beam illuminates the recorded hologram on HOE 1 in the y direction while the object beam in the x direction is blocked by a mechanical shutter. A collimated elliptically-shaped beam, Beam 2, with its major axis a1~2.5 cm and minor axis b1~0.1 cm is reproduced in the –x direction. Therefore, by employing HOE 1, one dimensional beam expansion has been achieved.

As for HOE 2, there are two sub-holograms recorded in a single film based on angular multiplexing of volume holograms. Every sub-hologram can only be read out by its original reference wave, due to Bragg selectivity [37, 38]. The process of recording the first sub-hologram on HOE 2 is shown in Fig. 3(a). Beam 2, which is produced by HOE 1, is used as the reference beam. Again, the expanded beam (diameter D2~2.5 cm) from a conventional beam expander serves as the object beam. Here, we set the slant angle β ~1.62 o, so that the overlap of Beam 2 (a1~2.5 cm, b1~0.1 cm) and the expanded object beam forms an elliptic illuminated area on HOE 2 (a2~2.5 cm, b2~3.5 cm), creating the first sub-hologram. Here, the axis b2 is larger than a2, because the object beam hits HOE 2 with an oblique angle 45°.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of the first sub-hologram on HOE2.

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The parameters of beam sizes are correlated as:

β=arcsin(b1/b2),
b2=D2/sin45°.

Figure 3(b) illustrates the reconstruction of the first sub-hologram on HOE 2. As Beam 2 illuminates HOE 2 while the object beam is blocked, Beam 3, which is a circularly-shaped beam with a diameter D3~2.5 cm (D3 = D2), is reproduced. So two-dimensional beam expansion has been achieved by employing HOE 1 and the first sub-hologram on HOE 2. The expanded Beam 3, is then used to illuminate the reflective-type SLM as its light source.

In the recording process of the second sub-hologram on HOE 2, as shown in Fig. 4(a), the reference wave is the beam that is reflected by the SLM (Beam 4); and the object beam is a spherical wave, which is converged by a positive lens. As they interfere at the same recording material, an additional lens hologram is recorded on HOE 2. By blocking the object beam, a converging beam is reconstructed as shown in Fig. 4(b). The function of the second sub-hologram is equivalent to a grating and an ocular lens. The grating effect deflects Beam 4, which contains the digital 3D image information, towards a viewer’s eye pupil; while the lens effect magnifies the miniature 3D image to obtain a large field of view of the virtual world. On the other hand, for most real-world light, HOE 2 simply functions as a transparent window as Bragg condition is unsatisfied. So, in our system, HOE 2 also serves as an optical combiner, through which the viewer can see both the virtual and real world.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of the second sub-hologram on HOE 2.

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According to angular multiplexing theory, it is feasible to produce a multiplexed volume HOE in one recording film [37]. In our experiment, we have fabricated a multiplexed hologram for HOE 2, with a two-step recording process. The diffraction efficiency was 15% for the first sub-hologram and 7% for the second sub-hologram. The efficiency could be improved by using better recording materials and optimizing recording conditions [29]. For instance, the energy efficiency could achieve up to 50% for both sub-holograms using a Covestro Bayfol HX film as reported by Lee et al. [29]. In our prototype, to achieve higher overall efficiency, a stack of two holographic films were used to replace the multiplexed hologram. The efficiency was 17% for the first film and 60% for the second film. Since the thickness of each holographic film is only 181 μm (16 μm for recording material, and 175 μm for cover sheet), the two films can be stacked closely, achieving a similar form factor as its single-film counterpart.

4. Results

The recording material we used in the experiments is a commercial holographic film (Litiholo C-RT20), which requires an exposure energy density of ~30 mJ/cm2 at 532 nm. Hence, the holographic film is exposed for 20 s with the intensities of both object and reference beams being~1.5 mW/cm2. To investigate the optical property of the fabricated HOEs, we measured the diffraction efficiency and transmittance spectrum of the second sub-hologram on HOE 2. As depicted in Fig. 5(a), as the incident angle deviation from the Bragg-condition angle is larger than 8 o (angle mismatch > 8 o or < - 8 o), diffraction efficiency drops rapidly. For the SLM used in our experiment, which has a pixel pitch ~8 μm, the maximum diffraction angle for 532 nm is ~ ± 1.9 o. Thus, most light reflected by the SLM could be diffracted with a reasonably high efficiency. Figure 5(b) is the transmission spectrum of the HOE film. One can see that it has quite high transmittance for visible light wavelengths, except for a narrow stop band around 532 nm, resulting from Bragg reflection. Due to the high sensitivity to angle and wavelength, only a very small portion of light coming from the real world would be reflected. The rest of light would pass through the HOEs and be observed by a viewer. Hence, a good see-through property of the AR display is achieved.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) Angular and (b) wavelength selectivity of the second sub-hologram on HOE 2.

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To evaluate the quality of the expanded beam using the two HOEs, we used a charge-coupled device to record its intensity distribution. The spot image of the expanded beam (Beam 3) and its normalized intensity distribution are shown in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), respectively. The intensity of the spot center is Imax, while the intensity of the edge position is Imax/e2. Then the diameter is two times of the distance from the center to the edge position, which has a value of ~2.5 cm. This means an expansion ratio of 25 times is achieved by HOE 1 and the first sub-hologram on HOE 2. The beam intensity is quite uniform along the circumferencial direction, resembling that of a Gaussian beam expanded by a conventional beam expander.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The reconstructed expanded beam from HOE 2: (a) the image of the beam spot, and (b) the normalized intensity distribution.

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We measured the spectra of the input and output beams of the HOE expander, using an Ocean Maya 2000 Pro spectrometer. As shown in Fig. 7(a), the two spectra are almost the same, indicating laser coherency is well preserved after transmitting through the HOE expander. In addition, we have implemented the holographic display using light from the HOE expander and a conventional expander, respectively. One can see that, there is no quality degradation for the holographic image produced using the HOE expander, as shown in Fig. 7(b) and 7(c).

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 (a) Laser spectra of the input and output beams of the HOE expander. (b) and (c) are holographic images reconstructed using light from the HOE expander and a conventional expander, respectively.

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To verify the feasibility of the proposed AR display design, a proof-of-concept prototype was implemented on an optical table, as shown in Fig. 8. The SLM employed in our experiment is a 1920 × 1080 phase only SLM (Holoeye, LC-R-1080), which has a fine pixel pitch of 8 μm. First, the small-diameter input beam (diameter ~0.1 cm, 532 nm) was expanded to a large-diameter beam (diameter ~2.5 cm) by HOE 1 and the first sub-hologram on HOE 2. Then, with the expanded beam as a light source, the SLM generated 3D holographic images. Next, as the 3D image light encountered the second hologram on HOE 2, which functions as an ocular lens, it got magnified and directed into eye pupil position.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Prototype of the holographic AR display on an optical table.

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The HOE film dimension is 78 mm × 50 mm. However, only small areas on the HOEs were exposed by the interfered beams. The exposure area is only 25 mm × 1 mm for HOE 1, and 25 mm × 35 mm for HOE 2. The redundant non-exposure areas on the HOEs can be removed to achieve a smaller form factor. In addition, HOE 1 is placed about several centimeters away from HOE 2 in our experiment, as shown in Fig. 8. For commercial products, the distance between HOE 1 and HOE 2 can be reduced to nearly zero. By reducing the size of the two HOE films to the effective illuminated areas only, and by placing the components closer, the AR holographic system could be made very compact, achieving a flat-panel form factor similar to a pair of glasses.

As shown in Table 1, the energy efficiency of HOE 1, the first and second sub-holograms of HOE 2 is 21%, 17% and 60%, respectively. And the efficiency of the reflected light by the SLM is about 20%, where only the image from the first diffraction order is used. In our experiment, using an input laser power ~0.5 mW, bright AR images can be produced under fluorescent lighting, as shown in Fig. 8. Moreover, the energy efficiency of the system can be improved, by using better recording materials and optimizing recording conditions [29], employing digital blazed grating in the CGH [39], and implementing anti-reflection coating. So the holographic AR system would work well for practical applications.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specifications of the fabricated HOEs in the prototype

As shown in Fig. 9, we demonstrated an augmentation of two virtual images “S” and “T” at different depths on the real world scene. Here “S” is imaged at a far depth plane~80 cm while “T” is at a close depth plane ~5 cm, respectively, away from a digital camera. For comparison, two real objects (a doll and a ruler) are placed at 80 cm and 5 cm, respectively. The CGH was calculated adopting an optimized multi-plane GS algorithm [40]. This algorithm could achieve better image-quality and smaller image-quality difference between different depth planes. In Fig. 9(a), when focusing the camera at the depth of 80 cm, the doll and “S” were sharp in focus, while the ruler and “T” were somewhat blurry. Similarly in Fig. 9(b), when focusing the camera at the depth of 5 cm, the near ruler and “T” were sharp in focus, while the doll and “S” were blurry as they were out of focus. These experimental results indicate correct depth cues are present in our system, and hence the accommodation-vergence conflict problem can be eliminated.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Photos of augmented images on the real world when focusing at 80 cm (a) and 5 cm (b), respectively.

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5. Conclusion

In this paper, a compact holographic AR display design is proposed. All traditional optics required for the holographic AR display are replaced by two HOEs, which perform the optical functions of a beam expander, an ocular lens and an optical combiner. A proof-of-concept holographic AR display prototype on an optical table is implemented, which exhibits good see-through property and correct accommodation depth cue. Without any bulky traditional optical element, our design can be made lightweight and compact. Thus it has great potential for fatigue-free 3D AR displays.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61727808).

Acknowledgments

Portions of this work were presented at the SID Display Week in 2018, “17-1: A Flat-panel Holographic-optical-element System for Holographic Augmented Reality Display with a Beam Expander.”

References and links

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2. R. T. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality,” Presence Teleop. Virtual Environ. 6(4), 355–385 (1997). [CrossRef]  

3. R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001). [CrossRef]  

4. G. C. Burdea and P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003).

5. J. P. Rolland, R. L. Holloway, and H. Fuchs, “A comparison of optical and video see-through head-mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 2351, 293–307 (1994).

6. B. C. Kress and W. J. Cummings, “Invited paper: towards the ultimate mixed reality experience: hololens display architecture choices,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papesr 48(1), 127–131 (2017). [CrossRef]  

7. Meta Company, The Meta 2,” https://www.metavision.com/.

8. ODG, Inc., “R-9 Smartglasses,” http://www.osterhoutgroup.com/home.

9. Epson America, Inc., “MOVERIO BT-350,” https://epson.com/moverio-augmented-reality.

10. I. E. Sutherland, “A head-mounted three dimensional display,” in Proceedings of AFIPS Fall Joint Computer Conference, (Association for Computing Machinery, 1968), pp. 757–764.

11. J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009). [CrossRef]  

13. D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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15. X. Hu and H. Hua, “High-resolution optical see-through multi-focal-plane head-mounted display using freeform optics,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13896–13903 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. H. Chen, Y. Weng, D. Xu, N. V. Tabiryan, and S. T. Wu, “Beam steering for virtual/augmented reality displays with a cycloidal diffractive waveplate,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7287–7298 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016). [CrossRef]  

18. Y. H. Lee, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response switchable lens for 3D and wearable displays,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1668–1675 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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35. M. Kumar and C. Shakher, “Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 73(7), 33–39 (2015). [CrossRef]  

36. H. J. Yeom, H. J. Kim, S. B. Kim, H. Zhang, B. Li, Y. M. Ji, S. H. Kim, and J. H. Park, “3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32025–32034 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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References

  • View by:

  1. P. Milgram, H. Takemura, A. Utsumi, and F. Kishino, “Augmented reality: a class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum,” Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 2351, 282–292 (1994).
  2. R. T. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality,” Presence Teleop. Virtual Environ. 6(4), 355–385 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. C. Burdea and P. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003).
  5. J. P. Rolland, R. L. Holloway, and H. Fuchs, “A comparison of optical and video see-through head-mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 2351, 293–307 (1994).
  6. B. C. Kress and W. J. Cummings, “Invited paper: towards the ultimate mixed reality experience: hololens display architecture choices,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papesr 48(1), 127–131 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. Meta Company, The Meta 2,” https://www.metavision.com/ .
  8. ODG, Inc., “R-9 Smartglasses,” http://www.osterhoutgroup.com/home .
  9. Epson America, Inc., “MOVERIO BT-350,” https://epson.com/moverio-augmented-reality .
  10. I. E. Sutherland, “A head-mounted three dimensional display,” in Proceedings of AFIPS Fall Joint Computer Conference, (Association for Computing Machinery, 1968), pp. 757–764.
  11. J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. X. Hu and H. Hua, “High-resolution optical see-through multi-focal-plane head-mounted display using freeform optics,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13896–13903 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Chen, Y. Weng, D. Xu, N. V. Tabiryan, and S. T. Wu, “Beam steering for virtual/augmented reality displays with a cycloidal diffractive waveplate,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7287–7298 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. H. Lee, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response switchable lens for 3D and wearable displays,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1668–1675 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. Song, Y. Wang, D. Cheng, and Y. Liu, “Light f ield head-mounted display with correct focus cue using micro structure array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060010 (2014).
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  24. H. Hua, Recent advances in head-mounted light field displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 48(1), 872–874 (2017).
  25. S. Xie, P. Wang, X. Sang, and C. Li, “Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11483–11494 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. Hua and B. Javidi, “A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13484–13491 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High-resolution additive light field near-eye display by switchable Pancharatnam-Berry phase lenses,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4863–4872 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. E. Moon, M. Kim, J. Roh, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Holographic head-mounted display with RGB light emitting diode light source,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6526–6534 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. G. Li, D. Lee, Y. Jeong, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2486–2489 (2016).
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  30. Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
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  32. Q. Gao, J. Liu, J. Han, and X. Li, “Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17372–17383 (2016).
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  33. W. C. Sweatt, “Describing holographic optical elements as lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67(6), 803–808 (1977).
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  34. V. Bavigadda, R. Jallapuram, E. Mihaylova, and V. Toal, “Electronic speckle-pattern interferometer using holographic optical elements for vibration measurements,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3273–3275 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. M. Kumar and C. Shakher, “Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 73(7), 33–39 (2015).
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  36. H. J. Yeom, H. J. Kim, S. B. Kim, H. Zhang, B. Li, Y. M. Ji, S. H. Kim, and J. H. Park, “3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32025–32034 (2015).
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  37. T. Scharf, Bragg Diffraction (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006).
  38. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005).
  39. C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
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  40. P. Zhou, Y. Li, C. P. Chen, X. Li, W. Hu, N. Rong, Y. Yuan, S. Liu, and Y. Su, “30.4: Multi‐Plane Holographic Display with a Uniform 3D Gerchberg‐Saxton Algorithm,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 46 (1), 442–445 (2015).
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2018 (2)

2017 (1)

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

Q. Gao, J. Liu, J. Han, and X. Li, “Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17372–17383 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, D. Lee, Y. Jeong, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2486–2489 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xie, P. Wang, X. Sang, and C. Li, “Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11483–11494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. Weng, D. Xu, N. V. Tabiryan, and S. T. Wu, “Beam steering for virtual/augmented reality displays with a cycloidal diffractive waveplate,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7287–7298 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lee, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response switchable lens for 3D and wearable displays,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1668–1675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

M. Kumar and C. Shakher, “Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 73(7), 33–39 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yeom, H. J. Kim, S. B. Kim, H. Zhang, B. Li, Y. M. Ji, S. H. Kim, and J. H. Park, “3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32025–32034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Bavigadda, R. Jallapuram, E. Mihaylova, and V. Toal, “Electronic speckle-pattern interferometer using holographic optical elements for vibration measurements,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3273–3275 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. T. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality,” Presence Teleop. Virtual Environ. 6(4), 355–385 (1997).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azuma, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Azuma, R. T.

R. T. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality,” Presence Teleop. Virtual Environ. 6(4), 355–385 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baillot, Y.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bavigadda, V.

Behringer, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, Q.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, D.

W. Song, Y. Wang, D. Cheng, and Y. Liu, “Light f ield head-mounted display with correct focus cue using micro structure array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060010 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Li, D. Lee, Y. Jeong, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2486–2489 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feiner, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fortuin, M.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Gao, Q.

Gao, X.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, J.

Han, J.

Hands, P. J. W.

Heynderickx, I.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, D. M.

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J. Y.

Hu, X.

Hua, H.

Huang, S.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ijsselsteijn, W.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jallapuram, R.

Jang, C.

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

Jeong, Y.

Ji, Y. M.

Julier, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, H. J.

Kim, M.

Kim, S. B.

Kim, S. H.

Kirby, A. K.

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar and C. Shakher, “Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 73(7), 33–39 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, C. K.

Lee, D.

Lee, S.

C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

Li, B.

Li, C.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Q. Gao, J. Liu, J. Han, and X. Li, “Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17372–17383 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, S.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Love, G. D.

Lu, W.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

MacIntyre, B.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mihaylova, E.

Moon, E.

Moon, S.

C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

Peng, F.

Roh, J.

Rong, N.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sang, X.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, P. Wang, X. Sang, and C. Li, “Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11483–11494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shakher, C.

M. Kumar and C. Shakher, “Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 73(7), 33–39 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, W.

Su, Y.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, I. E.

I. E. Sutherland, “A head-mounted three dimensional display,” in Proceedings of AFIPS Fall Joint Computer Conference, (Association for Computing Machinery, 1968), pp. 757–764.

Sweatt, W. C.

Tabiryan, N. V.

Toal, V.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, Y.

Weng, Y.

Wu, S. T.

Xie, S.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, P. Wang, X. Sang, and C. Li, “Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11483–11494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

Yan, B.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yeom, H. J.

Yoo, D.

Yu, C.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, T.

Zhang, C.

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, Z.

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (1)

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Working principle and device structure of the optical-see-through holographic AR display.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of HOE 1. BS is beam splitter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of the first sub-hologram on HOE2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of the second sub-hologram on HOE 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Angular and (b) wavelength selectivity of the second sub-hologram on HOE 2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The reconstructed expanded beam from HOE 2: (a) the image of the beam spot, and (b) the normalized intensity distribution.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Laser spectra of the input and output beams of the HOE expander. (b) and (c) are holographic images reconstructed using light from the HOE expander and a conventional expander, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Prototype of the holographic AR display on an optical table.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Photos of augmented images on the real world when focusing at 80 cm (a) and 5 cm (b), respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Specifications of the fabricated HOEs in the prototype

Equations (3)

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α=arctan( d 1 / D 1 ).
β=arcsin( b 1 / b 2 ),
b 2 = D 2 /sin45°.

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