Abstract

A novel all-polymer fiber-optic pH sensor using a UV-cured pH-sensitive hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), coated on a polymer fiber Bragg grating was developed. The PEGDA increased in volume according to the pH value of the surrounding fluid, which subsequently induced a lateral stress in the polymer fiber Bragg grating. The proposed pH sensor exhibits a pH sensitivity of up to −0.41 nm/pH and a fast response time of 30 s.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

pH measurement is crucial for many industries, such as, biological, ecological, environmental science, clinical medicine, and civil engineering. For example, in wood production, pH is a recognized indicator used to examine the wood condition, providing essential information about the bacterial pollution and healing stage [1]. In recent years, substantial efforts were invested towards improving the performance of pH sensors while reducing their cost. Fiber-optic pH sensors have been proposed due to their numerous advantages, including small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences, potential low-cost, and multiplexed detection capability. Several types of fiber-optic sensors have been reported in research articles. A type of fiber-optic pH sensors is based on the pH indicator being immobilized in matrix materials. The reported pH indicators include both single organic molecules [2,3] and mixture components [4]. Optical properties, such as, absorbance [1,5,6] and fluorescence [4,7,8], can be utilized to determine the pH of tested solutions. Another type of pH sensors–based on fiber-optics–employed sol-gel technology to fabricate microstructures on optical fibers. The amount of swelling of the microstructures is influenced by the pH value, which subsequently induces a change in the sol-gel’s refractive index [9–12]. Absorption- or fluorescence-based pH sensors have some inherent disadvantages, because they are easily affected by light intensity fluctuations, temperature, and the concentration of indicators, and, therefore, are not reliable [10].

In order to achieve reliable and accurate pH measurements, several pH sensing schemes have been demonstrated based on titled fiber Bragg grating (TFBG), resonant optical responses and modal interferometers. A. Lopez Aldaba et al. recently presented pH sensing based on TFBG coated with Polyaniline [13]. Y.Z. Zheng et al. demonstrated a pH fiber sensor using a Fabry–Perot interferometer with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/poly-acrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel coated on a fiber end-face [12]. Corres et al. reported a pH sensor using a long-period grating (LPG) coated with PAA and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH) [11]. Gu et al. demonstrated a pH sensor based on a fiber interferometer constructed with a thin core fiber coated with PAA and PAH, and fusion spliced to single mode fibers on both ends [10,13–15]. Zhao et al. also reported a pH sensor with high sensitivity and a fast response time of 5 s based on a modal interferometer fabricated from thin-core fibers coated with poly(ionic liquid)s and PAA [16]. Every aforementioned optical method is based on silica fibers, which are fragile and produce shards upon brakeage. Thus, they are not suitable for in vivo tests or as wearable sensors.

Polymer optical fibers (POF) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) offer more flexibility, do not break easily, recycling use in LCD monitors and exhibit good biocompatibility [17–21] compared with silica fibers. Rovati et al. reported a pH sensor consisting of a PMMA fiber coated with a sol-gel to detect the absorbance of phenol red under various pH solutions [6]. Zamarreño, C. R. et al. demonstrated a pH sensor based on a micro structured POF by detecting dye-doped fluorescence intensity [22]. However, these methods are not stable since the absorbance can be easily affected by changes in light intensity, temperature, and concentration of indicators.

In this paper, we demonstrate a novel all-polymer pH sensor consisting of a UV-cured poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) coating on a single-mode polymer optical fiber inscribed with a Bragg grating. PEGDA is a pH-sensitive hydrogel and is easy to be fabricated (e.g. simply curried under UV lamp). Furthermore, it is good choice to be used in biomedical application due to its bio-compatibility [23,24]. This novel polymer fiber-optic sensor exhibits a sensitivity of up to −0.41 nm/pH and an average response time of 30 s. As the sensor was developed toward bio-medical application, only acidic range was considered [24].

2. Fabrication of the pH sensor

The photosensitive single-mode polymer optical fibers (POFs) used in the experiment were fabricated in-house. The polymer preforms were prepared using the “pull-through” technique described in [25]. A cladding preform, made of pure PMMA, with an outer diameter of 19.6 mm and a 0.95 mm diameter hollow hole in the center was fabricated. A 13 mm diameter core preform, consisting of 5% benzyl methacrylate and 1 wt.% benzyl dimethyl ketal (BDK)–which is photosensitive to UV light and can produce a higher refractive index modulation after UV irradiation–was also manufactured, permitting to shorten the sensor fabrication time [26]. All the preforms were fabricated in a glove box. The POF preform–with the core preform inserted inside the cladding preform–was drawn into fiber with an in-house fiber drawing tower. The diameter of the photosensitive POF and its core were 125 and 6.5 µm, respectively. The diameter of the fabricated POF is the same as that of commercial standard single-mode silica optical fibers to simplify the connection of the POF to standard single-mode fibers.

A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was inscribed in the POF using the phase mask technology with a 325 nm-He-Cd laser (KIMMON IR3501R-G). Bragg gratings can be inscribed in the photosensitive POF in about 30 s with the laser output power set to 48 mW.

Figure 1(a) shows the 1 mm × 1 mm square cross-section of the pH sensor, in which the single-mode POF is encapsulated at the center of the UV-cured PEGDA. Figure 1(b) shows the mold used to fabricate the pH sensor. The mold consists of a groove–1 mm wide, 1 mm deep, and about 15 mm long–and was made from microscope glass slides. Top view of the UV-cured pH sensor is shown in the inset of Fig. 1(b). The PEGDA solution was cured in 2 min using a 365 nm UV lamp (PM100D, S120VC, Thorlabs) with a power density of about 27 mW/cm2.

 

Fig. 1 (a) Cross section of the pH sensor showing the POF encapsulated in the center of the UV-cured PEGDA. Inset: the cross section of core area of POF: the length of max and minor axes are 5.7μm and 5.0μm, respectively (b) Top view of the mold with a 1 mm wide and 1 mm deep groove for fabricating the pH sensor. The inset shows the fabricated sensor.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Results and discussion

The POFBG pH sensor was evaluated by immersing it in aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid with pH values between 0 and 6.5. Figure 2(a) shows the spectral response of the POFBG pH sensor, which was recorded using interrogator from MOI (SM125) with 1pm wavelength resolution. We can see that the single-mode FBG spectrum has two peaks. This is because the fiber core is slightly elliptical; therefore, the POF possesses birefringence and the two reflection peaks correspond to the two orthogonal polarizations of the fiber. The peak wavelength shifts to a longer wavelength when the pH decreases from 6.5 to 3. This is due to the higher hydrogen ion concentration in the hydrochloric acid solution with a smaller pH value, allowing more hydrogen ions to combine with the oxygen atoms in the PEGDA. Therefore, the hydrophilic property of the solidified PEGDA is significantly improved. As a result, the amount of swelling of the solidified PEGDA increases, and thus, more pressure is exerted on the POFBG.

 

Fig. 2 Wavelength response of the sensor to solutions of different pH values: (a) spectrum shift as function of pH (b) response time(tr) with different pH values—inset: the average response time in the pH range of 6.5–6.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

We investigated the response time of the POFBG pH sensors in solutions with pH values varying from 6.5 to 3. The results in Fig. 2(b) show that the average response time is about 30 s. The inset in Fig. 2(b) shows the results of 3 experiments with pH values varying from 6.5 to 6.0, with an average response time of 28 s. The results clearly show that the reflection peak wavelength increases with smaller pH values. Every unit change of the pH has a response time of about 30 s, similar to the average time calculated using the method reported by Dr. Gu et al. [10]. The sensitivity of the POFBG pH sensor made with a 125 μm thick POF is −0.34 nm/pH in the pH range of 3–6.5. However, as the pH decreases further, the wavelength of the sensor changes only slightly. This is related to the saturation phenomenon originating from the full protonation of the solidified PEGDA, which prevents it from further swelling [27].

The sensitivity of the PEGDA pH sensor with respect to POF diameters was also investigated. POFs with a diameter of 125 µm were etched down to 92 µm and 105 µm using the etching method reported by Dr. Hu et al. [28]. FBGs were inscribed in the POFs with diameters of 92 µm, 105 µm, and 125 µm. The wavelength shifts of the three POFBGs coated with PEGDA, immersed in solutions with pH values of 0–6.5 were measured and are shown in Fig. 3. The results show that a higher sensitivity is obtained with thinner POFs. The sensitivity of the 92 µm thick POFBG is about 20% higher than the 125 µm thick one. This is expected as thinner POFs have less cladding material between the FBG in the fiber core and the PEGDA. POFs thinner than 92 µm were not investigated due to their excessive softness, rendering them inappropriate for handling, and hence, difficult to obtain a uniform solidified PEGDA coating on them.

 

Fig. 3 Different diameter POFBG coated with PEGDA immerged in solutions of different pH values.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 4 shows the measurement of the POFBGs with and without the PEGDA coating. The results clearly show that POFBG without PEGDA coating is not sensitive to pH.

 

Fig. 4 pH measurement using POFs with and without PEGDA coating.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The sensitivity and response time of the PEGDA pH sensor with respect to the solidified PEGDA of different thicknesses were also investigated. FBGs were inscribed in three 125 µm thick POFs which were subsequently coated with different thicknesses of solidified PEGDA with their cross-sectional dimensions being 1 mm × 1 mm, 0.75 mm × 0.75 mm, and 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. The pH sensitivity and response time of these three sensors were measured in aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid with pH values of 0–6.5. All three sensors exhibited a linear response to pH values of 3.0–6.5. As expected, the sensor with the thickest solidified PEGDA has the highest sensitivity but the slowest response time, as shown in Fig. 5(a) and Fig. 5(b), respectively. Indeed the thicker solidified PEGDA, the stronger will be the strain applied to the fiber. Furthermore, the response time is inversely proportional to the material thickness as it is related to diffusion process.

 

Fig. 5 PEGDA POFBG sensors with varying thickness: (a) response sensitivity, and (b) step response time.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The influence of the temperature on the wavelength shift of the PEGDA pH sensor was also evaluated by placing the sensor in an environmental chamber set at 50% relative humidity, and cycling the temperature between 20 °C and 45 °C with 5 °C steps. The results of three temperature cycles are shown in Fig. 6(a). The results exhibited high reproducibility. In addition, Fig. 6(b) shows that the sensor exhibits a linear response with a temperature sensitivity of 10 pm/°C, similar to that of fused silica glass fibers [29].

 

Fig. 6 Temperature response of the POFBG pH sensor.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Typically, POFBGs exhibit a blue shift with changing temperature with a coefficient of −45 to −70 pm/°C [30,31]. However, the POFBG coated with PEGDA exhibits a red shift with changing temperature with a coefficient of + 10 pm/°C. This is because the solidified PEGDA exhibits a relatively large thermal expansion coefficient of approximately 1.56 × 10−4 K−1 [32].Table 1 compares the performance of the proposed polymer optical-fiber based pH sensor with that of pH sensors made from fused silica glass optical fibers. And the comparison only focuses on the acidic range to match the purpose of this presented work. As far as the authors are aware, no other pH sensors based on POF have been reported.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sensor Performance of the Present System Compared to Other pH Fiber-optics Sensors based on Glass Fibers in acidic range

4. Conclusion

A novel type of fiber-optic pH sensor based on a FBG inscribed in a polymer optical fiber was presented. It was demonstrated that PEGDA produces different degrees of swelling when immersed in aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid with varying pH values. This phenomenon is exploited to exert lateral stress to induce a wavelength shift in the POFBG. We demonstrated a high sensitivity of −0.34 nm/pH. In addition, a fast response time of 30 s can be achieved with the proposed pH sensor. The main advantages of the proposed pH sensor are its ease of handling, and applicability in vivo or for medical applications.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (1701268); Hong Kong Research Grant Council’s General Research Fund Project (152207/15E); Hong Kong Polytechnic University (1-ZVGB).

References and links

1. B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014). [CrossRef]  

2. S. R. Ankireddy and J. Kim, “Fabrication of Optical Fiber pH Sensor Based on Near-Infrared (NIR) Quantum Dots,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(11), 2562–2565 (2014). [CrossRef]  

3. B. R. Mahdi, H. D. Al-Attabi, and S. D. Salman, “Manufacture of fiber optic sensors to measure the pH water,” Curr. Trends Nat. Sci. 5(9), 55–61 (2016).

4. F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. A. L. Chaudhari and A. D. Shaligram, “Development of fiber optic pH meter based on colorimetric principle,” Indian J. Pure Appl. Phy. 40(2), 132–136 (2002).

6. L. Rovati, P. Fabbri, L. Ferrari, and F. Pilati, “Plastic Optical Fiber pH Sensor Using a Sol-Gel Sensing Matrix,” Fiber Opt. Sens. 5, 415–439 (2012).

7. S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. R. B. Thompson and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on Phase Fluorescence Lifetimes,” Anal. Chem. 65(7), 853–856 (1993). [CrossRef]  

9. P. Zubiate, C. R. Zamarreno, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “D-shape optical fiber pH sensor based on Lossy Mode Resonances (LMRs),” in Proceedings of IEEE SENSORS (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–4.

10. B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22296–22302 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Fiber-optic pH-sensors in long-period fiber gratings using electrostatic self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 29–31 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016). [CrossRef]  

13. A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018). [CrossRef]  

14. Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010). [CrossRef]  

15. M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. C. A. F. Marques, G. D. Peng, and D. J. Webb, “Highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system utilizing polymer fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6058–6072 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. A. R. Prado, A. G. Leal-Junior, C. Marques, S. Leite, G. L. de Sena, L. C. Machado, A. Frizera, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and M. J. Pontes, “Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) recycling for the production of optical fiber sensor systems,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30051–30060 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. X. Hu, D. Saez-Rodriguez, C. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Polarization effects in polymer FBGs: study and use for transverse force sensing,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4581–4590 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. A. G. Leal-Junior, A. Frizera, C. Marques, M. R. A. Sanchez, W. M. dos Santos, A. A. G. Siqueira, M. V. Segatto, and M. J. Pontes, “Polymer Optical Fiber for Angle and Torque Measurements of a Series Elastic Actuator’s Spring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1698–1705 (2018). [CrossRef]  

21. R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007). [CrossRef]  

23. H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017). [CrossRef]  

25. J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018). [CrossRef]  

26. A. Pospori, C. A. F. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, and P. André, “Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating inscription with a single UV laser pulse,” Opt. Express 25(8), 9028–9038 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. T. Bartil, M. Bounekhel, C. Cedric, and R. Jeerome, “Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives,” Acta Pharm. 57(3), 301–314 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. X. Hu, C. F. J. Pun, H. Y. Tam, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18807–18817 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. X. F. Li, S. Lin, J. L. Y. Zhang, and H. O. T. Ueda, “Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Difference of Thermal Expansion Coefficient Between Fused Silica and Metallic Materials,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 155–162 (2012). [CrossRef]  

30. M. Rui, C. Marques, O. Bang, and B. Ortega, “Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 78–81 (2018).

31. C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015). [CrossRef]  

32. B. C. Avram, H. Bongtae, and K. J. Kim, “Thermo-Optic Effects in Polymer Bragg Gratings,” in Bragg gratings, M. Wu and R. S. Rogowski, (Springer, 2003).

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. R. Ankireddy and J. Kim, “Fabrication of Optical Fiber pH Sensor Based on Near-Infrared (NIR) Quantum Dots,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(11), 2562–2565 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. R. Mahdi, H. D. Al-Attabi, and S. D. Salman, “Manufacture of fiber optic sensors to measure the pH water,” Curr. Trends Nat. Sci. 5(9), 55–61 (2016).
  4. F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. L. Chaudhari and A. D. Shaligram, “Development of fiber optic pH meter based on colorimetric principle,” Indian J. Pure Appl. Phy. 40(2), 132–136 (2002).
  6. L. Rovati, P. Fabbri, L. Ferrari, and F. Pilati, “Plastic Optical Fiber pH Sensor Using a Sol-Gel Sensing Matrix,” Fiber Opt. Sens. 5, 415–439 (2012).
  7. S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. B. Thompson and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on Phase Fluorescence Lifetimes,” Anal. Chem. 65(7), 853–856 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Zubiate, C. R. Zamarreno, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “D-shape optical fiber pH sensor based on Lossy Mode Resonances (LMRs),” in Proceedings of IEEE SENSORS (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–4.
  10. B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22296–22302 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Fiber-optic pH-sensors in long-period fiber gratings using electrostatic self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 29–31 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. A. F. Marques, G. D. Peng, and D. J. Webb, “Highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system utilizing polymer fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6058–6072 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. R. Prado, A. G. Leal-Junior, C. Marques, S. Leite, G. L. de Sena, L. C. Machado, A. Frizera, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and M. J. Pontes, “Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) recycling for the production of optical fiber sensor systems,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30051–30060 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. X. Hu, D. Saez-Rodriguez, C. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Polarization effects in polymer FBGs: study and use for transverse force sensing,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4581–4590 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. G. Leal-Junior, A. Frizera, C. Marques, M. R. A. Sanchez, W. M. dos Santos, A. A. G. Siqueira, M. V. Segatto, and M. J. Pontes, “Polymer Optical Fiber for Angle and Torque Measurements of a Series Elastic Actuator’s Spring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1698–1705 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Pospori, C. A. F. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, and P. André, “Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating inscription with a single UV laser pulse,” Opt. Express 25(8), 9028–9038 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. T. Bartil, M. Bounekhel, C. Cedric, and R. Jeerome, “Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives,” Acta Pharm. 57(3), 301–314 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. X. Hu, C. F. J. Pun, H. Y. Tam, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18807–18817 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. X. F. Li, S. Lin, J. L. Y. Zhang, and H. O. T. Ueda, “Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Difference of Thermal Expansion Coefficient Between Fused Silica and Metallic Materials,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 155–162 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Rui, C. Marques, O. Bang, and B. Ortega, “Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 78–81 (2018).
  31. C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. B. C. Avram, H. Bongtae, and K. J. Kim, “Thermo-Optic Effects in Polymer Bragg Gratings,” in Bragg gratings, M. Wu and R. S. Rogowski, (Springer, 2003).

2018 (4)

A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. G. Leal-Junior, A. Frizera, C. Marques, M. R. A. Sanchez, W. M. dos Santos, A. A. G. Siqueira, M. V. Segatto, and M. J. Pontes, “Polymer Optical Fiber for Angle and Torque Measurements of a Series Elastic Actuator’s Spring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1698–1705 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Rui, C. Marques, O. Bang, and B. Ortega, “Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 78–81 (2018).

2017 (5)

A. Pospori, C. A. F. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, and P. André, “Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating inscription with a single UV laser pulse,” Opt. Express 25(8), 9028–9038 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. R. Prado, A. G. Leal-Junior, C. Marques, S. Leite, G. L. de Sena, L. C. Machado, A. Frizera, M. R. N. Ribeiro, and M. J. Pontes, “Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) recycling for the production of optical fiber sensor systems,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30051–30060 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

B. R. Mahdi, H. D. Al-Attabi, and S. D. Salman, “Manufacture of fiber optic sensors to measure the pH water,” Curr. Trends Nat. Sci. 5(9), 55–61 (2016).

Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

C. A. F. Marques, G. D. Peng, and D. J. Webb, “Highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system utilizing polymer fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6058–6072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hu, D. Saez-Rodriguez, C. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Polarization effects in polymer FBGs: study and use for transverse force sensing,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4581–4590 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

X. Hu, C. F. J. Pun, H. Y. Tam, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18807–18817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. R. Ankireddy and J. Kim, “Fabrication of Optical Fiber pH Sensor Based on Near-Infrared (NIR) Quantum Dots,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(11), 2562–2565 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

L. Rovati, P. Fabbri, L. Ferrari, and F. Pilati, “Plastic Optical Fiber pH Sensor Using a Sol-Gel Sensing Matrix,” Fiber Opt. Sens. 5, 415–439 (2012).

X. F. Li, S. Lin, J. L. Y. Zhang, and H. O. T. Ueda, “Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Difference of Thermal Expansion Coefficient Between Fused Silica and Metallic Materials,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 155–162 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Fiber-optic pH-sensors in long-period fiber gratings using electrostatic self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 29–31 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Bartil, M. Bounekhel, C. Cedric, and R. Jeerome, “Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives,” Acta Pharm. 57(3), 301–314 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. L. Chaudhari and A. D. Shaligram, “Development of fiber optic pH meter based on colorimetric principle,” Indian J. Pure Appl. Phy. 40(2), 132–136 (2002).

1993 (1)

R. B. Thompson and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on Phase Fluorescence Lifetimes,” Anal. Chem. 65(7), 853–856 (1993).
[Crossref]

Al-Attabi, H. D.

B. R. Mahdi, H. D. Al-Attabi, and S. D. Salman, “Manufacture of fiber optic sensors to measure the pH water,” Curr. Trends Nat. Sci. 5(9), 55–61 (2016).

An, Q.

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
[Crossref]

André, P.

Ankireddy, S. R.

S. R. Ankireddy and J. Kim, “Fabrication of Optical Fiber pH Sensor Based on Near-Infrared (NIR) Quantum Dots,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(11), 2562–2565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antonietti, M.

Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arregui, F. J.

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Fiber-optic pH-sensors in long-period fiber gratings using electrostatic self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 29–31 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

M. Rui, C. Marques, O. Bang, and B. Ortega, “Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 78–81 (2018).

A. Pospori, C. A. F. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, and P. André, “Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating inscription with a single UV laser pulse,” Opt. Express 25(8), 9028–9038 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hu, D. Saez-Rodriguez, C. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Polarization effects in polymer FBGs: study and use for transverse force sensing,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4581–4590 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015).
[Crossref]

Bartil, T.

T. Bartil, M. Bounekhel, C. Cedric, and R. Jeerome, “Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives,” Acta Pharm. 57(3), 301–314 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boles, S. T.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bonefacino, J.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bounekhel, M.

T. Bartil, M. Bounekhel, C. Cedric, and R. Jeerome, “Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives,” Acta Pharm. 57(3), 301–314 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, M.

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bravo, J.

C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Caucheteur, C.

Cavallo, A.

A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cedric, C.

T. Bartil, M. Bounekhel, C. Cedric, and R. Jeerome, “Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives,” Acta Pharm. 57(3), 301–314 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C.

Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chand, P.

R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, A. L.

A. L. Chaudhari and A. D. Shaligram, “Development of fiber optic pH meter based on colorimetric principle,” Indian J. Pure Appl. Phy. 40(2), 132–136 (2002).

Cheng, X.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choudhary, T. R.

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhury, D.

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corres, J. M.

Czaplyski, W. L.

S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sena, G. L.

Debliquy, M.

A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018).
[Crossref]

del Villar, I.

Dong, X.

Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016).
[Crossref]

dos Santos, W. M.

Fabbri, P.

L. Rovati, P. Fabbri, L. Ferrari, and F. Pilati, “Plastic Optical Fiber pH Sensor Using a Sol-Gel Sensing Matrix,” Fiber Opt. Sens. 5, 415–439 (2012).

Ferrari, L.

L. Rovati, P. Fabbri, L. Ferrari, and F. Pilati, “Plastic Optical Fiber pH Sensor Using a Sol-Gel Sensing Matrix,” Fiber Opt. Sens. 5, 415–439 (2012).

Ferrario, D.

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

Frizera, A.

Gautam, R.

R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glen, T. S.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Goicoechea, J.

C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007).
[Crossref]

González-Vila, Á.

A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gu, B.

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22296–22302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gui, Z.

Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harbron, E. J.

S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrington, K.

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22296–22302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

Ischer, R.

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeerome, R.

T. Bartil, M. Bounekhel, C. Cedric, and R. Jeerome, “Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives,” Acta Pharm. 57(3), 301–314 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S. R. Ankireddy and J. Kim, “Fabrication of Optical Fiber pH Sensor Based on Near-Infrared (NIR) Quantum Dots,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(11), 2562–2565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lahem, D.

A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lakowicz, J. R.

R. B. Thompson and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on Phase Fluorescence Lifetimes,” Anal. Chem. 65(7), 853–856 (1993).
[Crossref]

Leal-Junior, A. G.

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. S.

H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, P.-H.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Leite, S.

Li, X. F.

X. F. Li, S. Lin, J. L. Y. Zhang, and H. O. T. Ueda, “Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Difference of Thermal Expansion Coefficient Between Fused Silica and Metallic Materials,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 155–162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

X. F. Li, S. Lin, J. L. Y. Zhang, and H. O. T. Ueda, “Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Difference of Thermal Expansion Coefficient Between Fused Silica and Metallic Materials,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 155–162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lionetto, M. G.

A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lopez Aldaba, A.

A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Amo, M.

A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018).
[Crossref]

Machado, L. C.

Madaghiele, M.

A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mahdi, B. R.

B. R. Mahdi, H. D. Al-Attabi, and S. D. Salman, “Manufacture of fiber optic sensors to measure the pH water,” Curr. Trends Nat. Sci. 5(9), 55–61 (2016).

Marques, C.

Marques, C. A. F.

A. Pospori, C. A. F. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, and P. André, “Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating inscription with a single UV laser pulse,” Opt. Express 25(8), 9028–9038 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. F. Marques, G. D. Peng, and D. J. Webb, “Highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system utilizing polymer fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6058–6072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015).
[Crossref]

Masullo, U.

A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matias, I. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Fiber-optic pH-sensors in long-period fiber gratings using electrostatic self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 29–31 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mégret, P.

Mohamad, F.

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, K.

Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, K.

C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015).
[Crossref]

Ortega, B.

M. Rui, C. Marques, O. Bang, and B. Ortega, “Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 78–81 (2018).

Pasche, S.

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, G. D.

Pilati, F.

L. Rovati, P. Fabbri, L. Ferrari, and F. Pilati, “Plastic Optical Fiber pH Sensor Using a Sol-Gel Sensing Matrix,” Fiber Opt. Sens. 5, 415–439 (2012).

Pontes, M. J.

Porchet, J. A.

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pospori, A.

A. Pospori, C. A. F. Marques, O. Bang, D. J. Webb, and P. André, “Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating inscription with a single UV laser pulse,” Opt. Express 25(8), 9028–9038 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015).
[Crossref]

Prado, A. R.

Prescher, S.

Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pun, C. F. J.

Pun, C.-F. J.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Purnell, G. E.

S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, J.

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qian, J. W.

Rasooly, M.

S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, M. R. N.

Rovati, L.

L. Rovati, P. Fabbri, L. Ferrari, and F. Pilati, “Plastic Optical Fiber pH Sensor Using a Sol-Gel Sensing Matrix,” Fiber Opt. Sens. 5, 415–439 (2012).

Rui, M.

M. Rui, C. Marques, O. Bang, and B. Ortega, “Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 78–81 (2018).

Saez-Rodriguez, D.

Sáez-Rodríguez, D.

C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015).
[Crossref]

Salman, S. D.

B. R. Mahdi, H. D. Al-Attabi, and S. D. Salman, “Manufacture of fiber optic sensors to measure the pH water,” Curr. Trends Nat. Sci. 5(9), 55–61 (2016).

Sanchez, M. R. A.

Sannino, A.

A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schyrr, B.

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scolan, E.

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

Segatto, M. V.

Sen, A.

H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaligram, A. D.

A. L. Chaudhari and A. D. Shaligram, “Development of fiber optic pH meter based on colorimetric principle,” Indian J. Pure Appl. Phy. 40(2), 132–136 (2002).

Sharma, V. P.

R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shum, P. P.

Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016).
[Crossref]

Siddhartha, R.

R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R. D.

R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siqueira, A. A. G.

Stratton, S. G.

S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tam, H. Y.

Tam, H.-Y.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taumoefolau, G. H.

S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. B.

R. B. Thompson and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on Phase Fluorescence Lifetimes,” Anal. Chem. 65(7), 853–856 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tse, M.-L. V.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ueda, H. O. T.

X. F. Li, S. Lin, J. L. Y. Zhang, and H. O. T. Ueda, “Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Difference of Thermal Expansion Coefficient Between Fused Silica and Metallic Materials,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 155–162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Voirin, G.

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

Webb, K.

H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, H. A. C.

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, M.

Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yin, M. J.

Yuan, J.

Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zamarreño, C. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A.

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A. P.

Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22296–22302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. L. Y.

X. F. Li, S. Lin, J. L. Y. Zhang, and H. O. T. Ueda, “Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Difference of Thermal Expansion Coefficient Between Fused Silica and Metallic Materials,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 155–162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016).
[Crossref]

24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE (1)

C. A. F. Marques, A. Pospori, D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, “Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis,” 24th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors. Proc. SPIE 9634, 96345V (2015).
[Crossref]

Acta Biomater. (1)

H. J. Lee, A. Sen, S. Bae, J. S. Lee, and K. Webb, “Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate/hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network compositions for 3-D cell spreading and migration,” Acta Biomater. 14, 43–52 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Pharm. (1)

T. Bartil, M. Bounekhel, C. Cedric, and R. Jeerome, “Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives,” Acta Pharm. 57(3), 301–314 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

M. Yin, B. Gu, Q. Zhao, J. Qian, A. Zhang, Q. An, and S. He, “Highly sensitive and fast responsive fiber-optic modal interferometric pH sensor based on polyelectrolyte complex and polyelectrolyte self-assembled nanocoating,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399(10), 3623–3631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

R. B. Thompson and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on Phase Fluorescence Lifetimes,” Anal. Chem. 65(7), 853–856 (1993).
[Crossref]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

F. Mohamad, M. G. Tanner, D. Choudhury, T. R. Choudhary, H. A. C. Wood, K. Harrington, and M. Bradley, “Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(19), 3569–3572 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chemistry (1)

S. G. Stratton, G. H. Taumoefolau, G. E. Purnell, M. Rasooly, W. L. Czaplyski, and E. J. Harbron, “Tuning the pKa of Fluorescent Rhodamine pH Probes through Substituent Effects,” Chemistry 23(56), 14064–14072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Trends Nat. Sci. (1)

B. R. Mahdi, H. D. Al-Attabi, and S. D. Salman, “Manufacture of fiber optic sensors to measure the pH water,” Curr. Trends Nat. Sci. 5(9), 55–61 (2016).

Fiber Opt. Sens. (1)

L. Rovati, P. Fabbri, L. Ferrari, and F. Pilati, “Plastic Optical Fiber pH Sensor Using a Sol-Gel Sensing Matrix,” Fiber Opt. Sens. 5, 415–439 (2012).

IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Zheng, X. Dong, K. Ni, C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Miniature pH sensor based on optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer,” IEEE J Sel Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 331–335 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. F. Li, S. Lin, J. L. Y. Zhang, and H. O. T. Ueda, “Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Difference of Thermal Expansion Coefficient Between Fused Silica and Metallic Materials,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 155–162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Indian J. Pure Appl. Phy. (1)

A. L. Chaudhari and A. D. Shaligram, “Development of fiber optic pH meter based on colorimetric principle,” Indian J. Pure Appl. Phy. 40(2), 132–136 (2002).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Q. Zhao, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, S. Prescher, M. Antonietti, and J. Yuan, “Hierarchically structured nanoporous poly(ionic liquid) membranes: facile preparation and application in fiber-optic pH sensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(15), 5549–5552 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

A. Cavallo, M. Madaghiele, U. Masullo, M. G. Lionetto, and A. Sannino, “Photo-crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels from low molecular weight prepolymer: Swelling and permeation studies,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. (1)

R. Gautam, R. D. Singh, V. P. Sharma, R. Siddhartha, P. Chand, and R. Kumar, “Biocompatibility of polymethylmethacrylate resins used in dentistry,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 100B(5), 1444–1450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Z. Gui, J. Qian, M. Yin, Q. An, B. Gu, and A. Zhang, “A novel fast response fiber-optic pH sensor based on nanoporous self-assembled multilayer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(36), 7754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Bonefacino, H.-Y. Tam, T. S. Glen, X. Cheng, C.-F. J. Pun, J. Wang, P.-H. Lee, M.-L. V. Tse, and S. T. Boles, “Ultra-fast polymer optical fibre Bragg grating inscription for medical devices,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. Rui, C. Marques, O. Bang, and B. Ortega, “Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 78–81 (2018).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Adv. Mater. (1)

S. R. Ankireddy and J. Kim, “Fabrication of Optical Fiber pH Sensor Based on Near-Infrared (NIR) Quantum Dots,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(11), 2562–2565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (3)

B. Schyrr, S. Pasche, E. Scolan, R. Ischer, D. Ferrario, J. A. Porchet, and G. Voirin, “Development of a polymer optical fiber pH sensor for on-body monitoring application,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 194, 238–248 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Lopez Aldaba, Á. González-Vila, M. Debliquy, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Caucheteur, and D. Lahem, “Polyaniline-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings for pH sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1087–1093 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. R. Zamarreño, J. Bravo, J. Goicoechea, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Response time enhancement of pH sensing films by means of hydrophilic nanostructured coatings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128(1), 138–144 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

B. C. Avram, H. Bongtae, and K. J. Kim, “Thermo-Optic Effects in Polymer Bragg Gratings,” in Bragg gratings, M. Wu and R. S. Rogowski, (Springer, 2003).

P. Zubiate, C. R. Zamarreno, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “D-shape optical fiber pH sensor based on Lossy Mode Resonances (LMRs),” in Proceedings of IEEE SENSORS (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–4.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross section of the pH sensor showing the POF encapsulated in the center of the UV-cured PEGDA. Inset: the cross section of core area of POF: the length of max and minor axes are 5.7μm and 5.0μm, respectively (b) Top view of the mold with a 1 mm wide and 1 mm deep groove for fabricating the pH sensor. The inset shows the fabricated sensor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Wavelength response of the sensor to solutions of different pH values: (a) spectrum shift as function of pH (b) response time(tr) with different pH values—inset: the average response time in the pH range of 6.5–6.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Different diameter POFBG coated with PEGDA immerged in solutions of different pH values.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 pH measurement using POFs with and without PEGDA coating.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PEGDA POFBG sensors with varying thickness: (a) response sensitivity, and (b) step response time.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Temperature response of the POFBG pH sensor.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sensor Performance of the Present System Compared to Other pH Fiber-optics Sensors based on Glass Fibers in acidic range

Metrics