Abstract

We demonstrate a gain-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser for the first time in the wavelength region around 2.94 μm which circumvents the strong water vapor lines. Four switchable gain-switched temporal states with 1/n (n = 4,3,2,1) pump repetition rates are first observed. The influences of pump power (pulse energy), repetition rate, duty cycle (pulse duration), and laser wavelength on their characteristics are studied, respectively. The results indicate that high pump repetition rate, large pump duty cycle, and short laser wavelength are beneficial for obtaining more gain-switched temporal states. For the case (n = 1), the increased pump repetition rate contributes to the increased pulse duration while decreased pulse energy and peak power. While μs-level pump pulse duration variation has an almost negligible effect on them. By introducing a plane ruled grating, the wavelength tuning was performed yielding a tuning range of 105 nm from 2895.5 nm to 3000.5 nm which just overlays the peak region of liquid water absorption. Finally, further optimizing of laser performances is discussed as well. This demonstration is helpful for preliminarily designing, prior to constructing a mid-infrared gain-switched laser which can find direct applications in laser surgery.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Mid-infrared lasers have attracted increased scientific and technological attention as a result of their widespread applications in spectroscopy [1], medical surgery [2], material processing [3], missile countermeasures [4], etc. The recent fast developed fiber laser in the mid-infrared has been also focused owing to its remarkable merits, such as great beam quality, good heat dissipation, high efficiency, and compact packaging [5]. At 3 μm waveband that overlaps the strong water absorption region, fiber lasers have been successfully demonstrated based on a series of rare-earth ions (e.g., Er3+ [6–11], Ho3+ [12–15], and Dy3+ [16–19]) doped ZBLAN fibers where the highest output power in Continuous Wave (CW) regime has been up to 30.5 W at 2938 nm in an all-fiber scheme [9]. However, significant power scaling cannot be performed just by launching more pump into gain fibers due to the much lower thermal conductivity (0.628 W/(m·K)) and transition temperature (260 C) of ZBLAN fiber than silica fiber [20], and the easily destructive fiber tips at ~3 μm as a result of OH contaminants [21]. Pulsed operation is a considerable approach to solve this issue since its high peak power and narrow temporal duration. For high-energy μs- and ns-level short pulses which can find direct medical applications [22–25], two main ways (i.e., Q-switching and gain-switching) are used. Q-switching, by periodically modulating laser cavity Q-factor resorting to modulators (e.g., AOM [26–30]) or saturable absorbers (SA) (e.g., SESAM [31–34], Fe2+:ZnSe crystal [35–39], two-dimension (2D) materials (e.g., graphene [36,40], topological insulator [41–43], black phosphorus [44,45], tungsten disulfide [46]), and the recently developed three-dimension (3D) topological Dirac semimetal material Cd3As2 [47]) has been applied in rare-earth ions doped ZBLAN fiber lasers, to successfully generate pulses at ~3 μm.

Different from Q-switching, gain-switching, by periodically modulating laser gain instead via pulse pumping, have two remarkable merits. First, no extra modulators or SAs are needed in the cavity which makes the system simpler and more compact. Therefore, it prevents pulse power scaling from the limited damage threshold of Q-switchers. Second, laser characteristics can be flexibly regulated by controlling pulsed pump source. Accordingly, great efforts have been also made on gain-switched fiber lasers in this wavelength region [48–52]. In 2001, B. C. Dickinson et al. first demonstrated gain-switching from a fiber laser in the wavelength region of 2700~2770 nm based on Er3+/Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN fiber. However, only relaxation oscillations were obtained due to the use of an unideal 791 nm pump source [48]. After that, there was a long time that no related investigations were reported. Until 2011, M. Gorjan et al. presented a high power gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser pumped by electrically driven 976 nm laser diodes (LDs). It could always operate at the stable single-pulse gain-switched (SPGS) state since its pump pulse duration was determined by the laser dynamics via feedback instead of independently controlled. A maximum average (peak) power of 2(68) W with a pulse duration of about 300 ns was achieved at 2.8 μm marking the current highest levels from gain-switched fiber lasers around 3 μm [49]. Recently, Chen Wei et al. demonstrated the wavelength tunability of a gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser using a plane ruled grating in the Littrow configuration, yielding a tuning range of over 170 nm from 2699 nm to 2869.9 nm at the SPGS state. Due to the limited pump pulse duration and pump repetition rate, however, the relaxation oscillations reached early hence impeding power scaling [51]. Very recently, Yanlong Shen et al. also built up a tunable gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at the range of 2710~2830 nm very similar to that in [51]. Except the common SPGS state, more temporal states such as repetition rate halved gain-switching, gain-switched mode-locking were observed for the first time [52].

Despite the fast progress on gain-switched fiber laser at this waveband, there is still significant room to explore. First, it is found that all of their wavelengths are located at the range of 2700~2870 nm (especially 2700~2800 nm). This region covers the main water vapor absorption lines, however, it has some adverse impacts on laser performances (e.g., narrowed spectrum bandwidth, decreased output power, and high-loss free-space transmission) [53]. Thus, the longer emission wavelengths aligning better with the liquid water absorption peak (~2940 nm) are more attractive especially for laser surgery. Second, the comprehensive study on the relationships between laser scheme parameters and output characteristics is absent but essential for preliminary laser design. Third, the main attention in the previous reports [48–52] has been paid on the SPGS state and its accompanied relaxation oscillations, some stable temporal states like those observed at ~2 µm [54], which contribute to better understanding the evolution of gain-switched pulses, are not concerned.

In this paper, we reported a gain-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser operating in either free-running or wavelength-selected regime with an extended wavelength of beyond 2895 nm. Four switchable stable gain-switched temporal states with 1/n (n = 4,3,2,1) pump repetition rates were observed for the first time. The influences of pump power (pulse energy), repetition rate, duty cycle, and laser operation wavelength on these four temporal states were investigated in detail. For the SPGS state, the relationships between pump repetition rate and pulse duration, and laser characteristics (e.g., pulse duration, pulse energy, peak power) were also studied. Besides, wavelength tuning was performed yielding a tuning range of 105.0 nm from 2895.5 nm to 3000.5 nm. At last, further performance improvement in the future was discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first mid-infrared gain-switched fiber laser in the 3 μm wavelength region avoiding strong water vapor absorption, while enabling switchable temporal states and tunable wavelength.

2. Experimental setup

The experimental setup of gain-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser is shown in Fig. 1. The pump scheme consisted of two commercial 1150 nm LDs (Eagleyard Photonics, Berlin) combined using a PBS (Thorlabs, USA). The two LDs electrically connected in series were driven by a commercial power supply (Delta, Germany). A home-made modulator with an accompanied 0.1 Ω resistance (for monitoring instantaneous current) was inserted into the current loop to act as a switch. A function generator connected to the modulator was used to control signal waveform while adjusting modulation frequency and duty cycle. Here, the output signal waveform was selected as square wave. The repetition rate and duty cycle of the pump scheme could be tuned from 1 Hz to 80 kHz (limited by the modulator itself) and 20% to 80% (determined by the function generator), respectively. The gain medium was a piece of double-cladding singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber. Note that the commonly used Ho3+/Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN fiber was not selected in this case since its shorter emission wavelengths caused by the lower terminated Stark levels in the 5I7 manifold, despite its higher lasing efficiency [36]. Its core diameter and NA were 10 μm and 0.16, respectively, and circular-shaped inner cladding had a diameter of 124 μm and a NA of 0.5. The Ho3+ ions dopant concentration was 20,000 ppm and corresponding cladding absorption efficiency at 1150 nm was measured to be 0.47 m−1 using cutback method. Thus, the selected 5.0 m fiber could provide >90% absorption efficiency. The pump laser was launched into the inner cladding of the gain fiber by focusing using a plano-convex CaF2 lens (Thorlabs, LA5315) at a launching efficiency of 80%. A dichroic mirror with a high transmission of 95% at 1150 nm and a high reflection of >95% around 3 μm was placed between the PBS and CaF2 lens at an angle of ~30% with respect to the pump beam to guide the ~3 μm laser output. The fiber end close to the pump scheme was perpendicularly cleaved to function as both the cavity feedback and output coupler with the help of 4% Fresnel reflection. In the free-running cavity scheme as shown in Fig. 1(a), the fiber end away from the pump scheme was perpendicularly cleaved as well and then directly butted against a gold-protected mirror (Thorlabs) acting as another cavity feedback. In the wavelength-selected cavity scheme as shown in Fig. 1(b), this fiber end was cleaved at an angle of 8° instead in order to reduce the residual Fresnel reflection from the fiber end. An infrared ZnSe objective lens (Innovation Photonics, Italy, LFO-5-6) with a focal length of 6 mm and a high reflection of >90% around 3 μm was exploited to collimate the laser from the core of the angle-cleaved fiber end. Then the collimated laser was terminated by a gold-protected plane ruled grating (Newport, Richardson Gratings, USA, 300 grooves/mm, blaze wavelength λB = 3.1117 µm, blaze angle θB = 26.7436°) that was placed with a distance of ~1 m from the angle-cleaved fiber end. The grating was held by a kinematic rectangular optic mount (Thorlabs) connected with a rotation stage (Zolix, China) and used to provide the cavity feedback while select the laser operation wavelength. The temporal pulses were captured by an InAs detector (Judson, J12-18C-R01M) connecting with a digital oscilloscope (RIGOL, China, DS4054, 500MHz, 4GSa/s). The radio frequency (RF) spectrum was measured using a RF spectrum analyzer (YIAI, China, AV4033A, 30Hz-18GHz). The optical spectrum was measured using a monochromator based on a nitrogen cooled photodiode (Princeton instruments, USA, Acton SP2300, 0.1 nm resolution).

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Experimental setup of gain-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser: (a) free-running regime, and (b) wavelength-selected regime. PBS represents polarizing beam splitter.

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3. Results

This section is the main body of the paper and are divided into two parts. In the first part, the effects of pump power (pulse energy), pump repetition rate and duty cycle on the laser output characteristics were investigated and analyzed in free-running regime. The involved physical process was also described. In the second part, the effects of wavelength on the laser output characteristics were studied. Then the relationship between the pump parameters (i.e., pump repetition rate and duty cycle) and the laser temporal dynamics were re-checked at a fixed laser wavelength selected.

3.1 Free-running regime

We first evaluated the laser output characteristics at the available maximum pump repetition rate of 80 kHz and duty cycle of 80% (i.e., pump pulse duration of 10 μs). The lifetime of the laser upper state 5I6 in singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN glass was measured to be ~3.5 ms [55]. It was 2~3 orders of magnitude larger than the pump pulse duration indicating that this pump source could be utilized to generate stable and clean gain-switched pulses from the 5I65I7 transition. When the pump power (pulse energy) was increased to 99.0 mW (1.24 μJ), unstable low-amplitude pulsing at a repetition rate of 80 kHz was first observed as shown in Fig. 2(a). Note that the pump power (pulse energy) mentioned in this paper referred to the portion launched into the gain fiber. Although these pulses stemmed from gain-switching mechanism due to excluding the factor of self-pulsing under CW pump condition, their SNR was quite low (just 10~15 dB). It suggested that the population inversion between 5I6 and 5I7 manifolds was only slightly higher than the laser threshold at this pump level. With adjusting the pump power (pulse energy) to 141.6 mW (1.77 μJ), the amplitudes of half pulses started to ascend obviously but still at an unstable state as shown in Fig. 2(b). The specific cause of this temporal phenomenon was unclear yet, but it was related to the pump condition since it was absent at some other pump repetition rates and pulse durations. Slightly increasing the pump power (pulse energy) to 148.6 mW (1.86 μJ), stable gain-switched pulses with greatly improved SNRs of >50 dB were obtained as shown in Fig. 2(c). In this case, every four pump pulses generated one gain-switched pulse. Thus this state was called as “four for one” (“4-1”) state for short and resulted from the following process as displayed in Fig. 3. After one pump pulse is absorbed, the population on the 5I6 manifold will increase while decays by a series ofimproved SNRs of >50 dB were obtained as shown in Fig. 2(c). In this case, every four pump pulses generated one gain-switched pulse. Thus this state was called as “four for one” (“4-1”) state for short and resulted from the following process as displayed in Fig. 3. After one pump pulse is absorbed, the population on the 5I6 manifold will increase while decays by aseries of radiative and non-radiative processes (e.g., 5I65I8 transition, ETU2, ESA2). Once it reaches a specific threshold level which is decided by the laser scheme, stable gain-switched pulses are generated. Otherwise, it will be always waiting for the arrival of the next pump pulse until this threshold. The captured “4-1” state indicated that at least four pump pulses were needed to make the 5I6 manifold reach this threshold at this low pump level. However, the “n-1” state (n≥5) was absent which suggested that if the pump was lower for the current pump repetition rate and duty cycle, the 5I6 manifold could never reach this threshold. Note that this stable “4-1” state corresponded to a quite short pump range. Once the pump power (pulse energy) reached 156.7 mW (1.96 μJ), chaotic gain-switching appeared as shown in Fig. 2(d) due to the broken periodical balance between population accumulation and consumption of the 5I6 manifold. Continuously increasing the pump power (pulse energy) to 229.5 mW (2.87 μJ), stable gain-switching was observed again as shown in Fig. 2(e). But at this pump level, just every three pump pulses generated one gain-switched pulse owing to the boosted pump pulse energy. Accordingly, this state was called as “three for one” (“3-1”) state for short by us and could be maintained until the pump power (pulse energy) of 246.7 mW (3.08 μJ). When the pump power (pulse energy) exceeded this level, chaotic gain-switching appeared again. Figure 2(f) shows this temporal chaotic gain-switching captured at the pump power (pulse energy) of 255.6 mW (3.19 μJ). When the pump power (pulse energy) was increased to 560.3 mW (7.00 μJ), stable gain-switched pulses recovered as shown in Fig. 2(g). In this case, one gain-switched pulse was yielded after two pump pulses. Therefore, this state was called as “two for one” (“2-1”) state for short by us. However, it is found that there are two kinds of time intervals (i.e., 23.5 μs and 26.5 μs) between each two adjacent pulses. If continue to increase the pump power (pulse energy), we observed that the first pulse left-shifted and the second pulse right-shifted in each temporal period like that marked with a red dashed box in Fig. 2(g). Finally, the time intervals were all unified into 25.0 μs with further increasing the pump power (pulse energy) to 625.8 mW (7.82 μJ) as shown in Fig. 2(h). And this state could be maintained until the pump power (pulse energy) of 696.2 mW (8.70 μJ). Beyond this pump level, chaotic gain-switching was gained as shown in Fig. 2(i) that was captured at the pump power (pulse energy) of 706.4 mW (8.83 μJ). When the pump power (pulse energy) was then significantly increased to 1.83 W (22.9 μJ), stable gain-switched pulses were obtained once more in which each followed one individual pump pulse as shown in Fig. 2(j). Therefore, this state was called as “one for one” (“1-1”) state for short by us. Similar to the “2-1” case, there were two kinds of time intervals (i.e., 10.1 μs and 14.9 μs) between each two adjacent pulses. Specifically, the pulses could be divided into high- and low-amplitude types. Continue to increase the pump power (pulse energy), the high-amplitude pulse right-shifted with a slightly ascending amplitude while low-amplitude pulse left-shifted with a quickly ascending amplitude in each temporal period like that marked with a red dashed box in Fig. 2(j). When the pump power (pulse energy) reached 2.14 W (26.8 μJ), the gain-switched pulses with the same adjacent pulse-to-pulse time interval of 12.5 μs and almost same amplitude were achieved as shown in Fig. 2(k). This stable “1-1” state could be maintained until the pump power (pulse energy) of 3.81 W (47.6 μJ). If further increasing the pump power (pulse energy), multi-pulsing usually observed in gain-switched fiber lasers [48,50–52,56] was also observed as shown in Fig. 2(k) which was recorded at the pump power (pulse energy) of 4.06 W (50.8 μJ). Note that these four kinds of stable gain-switched temporal states could be switched flexibly by varying the pump power (pulse energy).

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Temporal output characteristics of the gain-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at different pump powers (pulse energies) when the pump repetition rate and duty cycle were set at 80 kHz and 80%, respectively.

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 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Temporal dynamics of pump pulses, population on the 5I6 manifold, and signal pulses.

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The optical and RF spectra of stable gain-switched pulses at four different temporal states (i.e., “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states) were measured at their corresponding maximum pump powers (pulse energies) as shown in Figs. 4(a)-4(d). It is seen that the measured optical spectra are quite smooth owing to avoiding the strong water vapor absorption lines. With the increased pump power (pulse energy) from 148.6 mW (1.86 μJ) to 3.81 W (47.6 μJ), the center wavelength (cw) red-shifted from 2918.2 nm to 2983.9 nm as a result of the up-shifted terminated Stark level of the 5I7 manifold and the FWHM broadened from 2.6 nm to 5.5 nm owing to more Fourier spectral components needed for the narrowed pulses. While the SNR also improved from >50 dB to >75 dB even comparable to mode-locked pulses [53,57–59] indicating quite pure gain-switching.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Output optical and RF (inset) spectra at the pump powers (pulse energies) of (a) 148.6 mW (1.86 μJ), (b) 246.7 mW (3.08 μJ), (c) 696.2 mW (8.70 μJ), (d) 3.81 W (47.6 μJ) when the pump repetition rate and duty cycle were set at 80 kHz and 80%, respectively.

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In the above process, the output power, pulse energy, peak power, repetition rate, and pulse duration with the varied pump power (pulse energy) were recorded as well. Figure 5(a) shows output power, pulse energy, and peak power as a function of the pump power (pulse energy). Note that the “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states displayed in the figure referred to the states with same adjacent pulse-to-pulse time intervals like those shown in Figs. 2(c), 2(e), 2(h), and 2(k). This statement was also appropriate for the figures below in this paper. It is seen that the output power increases almost linearly with the pump power at a slope efficiency of 10.8%. While the pulse energy and peak power also increased monotonically with the pump power (pulse energy). At the pump power of 3.81 W (47.6 μJ), the maximum output power of 389.3 mW, pulse energy of 4.87 μJ, and peak power of 3.26 W were obtained for the “1-1” state. Figure 5(b) shows the repetition rate and pulse duration as a function of the pump power (pulse energy). The repetition rate jumped from 20 kHz to 26.67 kHz, 40 kHz, and 80 kHz with the increased pump power (pulse energy) from 148.6 mW (1.86 μJ) to 3.81 W (47.6 μJ) corresponding to the “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states, respectively. While the pulse duration decreased monotonically with the increased pump power (pulse energy) as a result ofthe increased inversed populations between the 5I6 and 5I7 manifolds. At the pump power (pulse energy) of 3.81 W (47.6 μJ), the shortest pulse duration of 1.49 μs was obtained for the “1-1” state. The inset of the Fig. 5(b) displays its corresponding single pulse waveform.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) Output power, pulse energy, and peak power, and (b) repetition rate and pulse duration as a function of the pump power and pulse energy when the pump repetition rate and duty cycle were set at 80 kHz and 80%, respectively.

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From above, we know that the pump power (pulse energy) strictly affects the performance of gain-switched fiber laser since it matters how many populations accumulated on the laser upper manifold. Furthermore, we speculate that the pump repetition rate and duty cycle are also two key factors, because the pump pulse interval time and pulse duration determine how many inversed populations decay by the radiative and nonradiative processes before the next pump pulse.

Figure 6 displays the pump pulse energy thresholds of four stable gain-switched temporal states with the varied pump repetition rate at the fixed pump pulse duration of 10 μs by adjusting the cycle duty. At the pump repetition rate range of 20~50 kHz, only stable “2-1” and “1-1” states were observed. With increasing the pump repetition rate to ≥60 kHz and ≥80 kHz, stable “3-1” and “4-1” states were gained, respectively. In practical, if the pump repetition rate was reduced to <5 kHz, only stable “1-1” state was gained and when it was further reduced to <1 kHz, it became even difficult to obtain “1-1” state at the regulation precision of our power supply that meant multi-pulsing was the initial state. The results suggested higher pump repetition rate could give rise to more stable gain-switched temporal states which matched well with the phenomenon observed in 2 μm gain-switched Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser [54]. This law could be interpreted as follows on the whole. With the increased pump repetition rate, it is much easier to populate the 5I6 manifold owing to less populations consumed by the radiative and non-radiative processes (e.g., 5I65I8 transition, ETU2, ESA2) in a shorter pump period, hence resulting in more combined effects. Furthermore, it is also observed the pump pulse energy thresholds of both stable “2-1” and “3-1” states decrease with the increased pump pulse repetition, since more populations remained on the 5I6 manifold before the next pump pulse came as a result of shorter pump period. Although only one data was recorded for stable “4-1” state due to the limited modulation frequency of our modulator, it was reasonable to predict the same variation trend. However, it was surprised to find that the pump pulse energy threshold of stable “1-1” state presented a slight fluctuation between 26.4 μJ and 27.6 μJ instead of a monotonic decrease with the increased pump repetition rate. The cause would be analyzed in detail in Section 3.2.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states) as a function of the pump repetition rates when the pump pulse duration was fixed at 10 μs. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained.

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Figure 7 shows the pump pulse energy thresholds of four stable gain-switched temporal states with the varied pump duty cycle (i.e., pump pulse duration) at different pump repetition rates. The case of “4-1” state is shown in Fig. 7(a). It is seen that the pump pulse energy threshold increases first and then decrease with the increased pump duty cycle from 30% to 80% at the fixed pump repetition rate of 80 kHz. But stable “4-1” state could not be acquired at the pump duty cycle of 20%. For the case of “3-1” state as shown in Fig. 7(b), the same variation trend of pump pulse energy threshold as “4-1” state was observed. The reason of this trend is currently under investigation. At the low pump duty cycle ranges of 20%~40% and 20%~60% with respect to the pump repetition rate of 60 kHz and 50 kHz, respectively, stable “3-1” state could not be gotten yet. These phenomena suggested that larger pump duty cycle (i.e., pulse duration) was helpful for getting more stable gain-switched temporal states. This was resulted from the fact that larger pump duty cycle facilitated populating the 5I6 manifold hence more combined effects. Figures 7(c) and 7(d) show the cases of “2-1” and “1-1” states, respectively. It is seen that the pump pulse energy threshold decreases monotonically with the increased pump duty cycle for a certain pump repetition rate. This was because with the increased pump duty cycle, the decayed populations on the 5I6 manifold became less in an um-pumped period, therefore less populations (i.e., lower pump pulse energy) were needed to make the 5I6 manifold return the threshold level. Note that the absent data specifically marked in the figures were mainly due to the limited pump pulse energy of our pump source.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., (1) “4-1”, (b) “3-1”, (c) “2-1”, and (d) “1-1” states) as a function of the pump duty cycles at different pump repetition rates. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained. “Limitation” represents the corresponding data not measured due to the limited pump.

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Besides, the influences of pump repetition rate and pulse duration on the laser output characteristics of “1-1” state were also investigated. Different from previous reported gain-switched fiber lasers at ~2.8 μm [49–51] where the work was carried out at a fixed pump peak power, the pump power here was fixed instead in order to exclude its influence on the laser output characteristics when changing the pump repetition rate and pulse duration [60]. Figure 8(a) shows the pulse duration, pulse energy, and peak power as a function of the pump repetition rate at the fixed pump power of 2.14 W and pulse duration of 10 μs. It is reasonably found that the pulse duration increases almost linearly from 1.440 μs to 1.837 μs with the increased pump repetition rate from 50 kHz to 80 kHz. With the increased pump repetition rate, the pump pulse energy decreased, therefore less populations were accumulated on the 5I6 manifold after each pump pulse hence leading to larger pulse duration. On contrary, the pulse energy decreased from 4.99 μJ to 3.12 μJ with the increased pump repetition rate from 50 kHz to 80 kHz due to the increased pulse repetition rate with an almost unchanged output power. Thus, the peak power decreased from 3.47 W to 1.70 W. If the pump repetition rate was further reduced, multi-pulsing appeared as a result of increased pulse energy. Figure 8(b) shows their variations with the pump pulse duration at the fixed pump power of 2.64 W and repetition rate of 80 kHz. Only a slight fluctuation between 1.71 μs and 1.77μs was observed for gain-switched pulse duration with the increased pump pulse duration from 6.25 μs to 10 μs. Similarly, the pulse energy was also almost kept unchanged around 3.6 μs due to the fixed repetition rate, hence leading to an almost unchanged peak power of ~2.1 W. In fact, the pump pulse duration only affected the build-up time of the gain-switched pulses in this process. The results indicated that kHz-level pump repetition rate played a more key role in affecting the output characteristics of gain-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser than μs-level pump pulse duration at a fixed pump power.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Pulse duration, pulse energy, and peak power as a function of (a) the pump repetition rate when the pump power and pulse duration were fixed at 2.14 W and 10 μs, respectively, (b) the pulse duration when the pump power and repetition rate were fixed at 2.64 W and 80 kHz, respectively.

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In general, it was found that gain-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser would experience different temporal states with the increased pump power (pulse energy). And higher pump repetition rate and duty cycle led to more temporal states. For the “1-1” state, smaller pump repetition rate was helpful for getting shorter pulse duration, higher pulse energy and peak power. But µs-level pump pulse duration variation had an almost negligible effect on them.

3.2 Wavelength-selected regime

Based on the cavity scheme as displayed in Fig. 1(b), wavelength tuning of the gain-switching was performed. Figure 9(a) shows the output powers as a function of the tuned wavelength at different pump powers. We could observe obvious red-shifting and slight broadening of the whole wavelength tunable region from 2869.5~3000.5 nm to 2887.5~3020.0 nm and from 131.0 nm to 132.5 nm, respectively with the increased pump power from 1.84 W to 4.06 W. This stemmed from the red-shifted gain spectrum caused by the excited state reabsorption (5I75I6) and was similar to our previous report on wavelength tunable CW singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser [61]. The total wavelength tunable range of 150.5 nm from 2869.5 nm to 3020.0 was the currently broadest level from Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers. Specifically, it could be divided into three zones (i.e., “A”, “B”, and “C”) according to the temporal state as marked in Fig. 9(a). In the “A” zone, only multi-pulsing like the case as shown in Fig. 2(l) was observed. In the “B” zone, the “1-1” state like the case as shown in Fig. 2(k) was obtained. The “C” zone referred to the state like the case as shown in Fig. 2(j). Surprisingly, when tuning beyond two edges of the “B” zone, the completely opposite temporal states (i.e., “A” and “C” zones) were achieved and could recover to the “B” zone by decreasing and increasing the pump power, respectively. Intuitively, the same temporal state should be gained since both the output powers decreased once beyond the edges of “B” zone at a fixed pump power. The phenomenon suggested that the laser temporal states may be related to the wavelength. It is also found that with the increased pump power, the wavelength tunable regions in the “A” and “C” zones are broadened and narrowed, respectively while red-shifting. But the region in the “B” zone only red-shifted with an almost unchanged range of ~38 nm except at the low pump power of 1.84 W. Finally, a total wavelength tunable range of 105.0 nm from 2895.5 nm to 3000.5 nm with respect to the stable “1-1” state at the repetition rate of 80 kHz was obtained. Furthermore, it is seen that at a certain pump power, the output power increases first and then fluctuated slightly before decreasing with tuning towards long-wavelength direction. This matched with the gain spectrum of singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber [61]. Figure 9(b) shows the varied pulse duration with tuning wavelength in the “B” zone at different pump powers. With tuning towards long-wavelength direction, the pulse duration displayed an increase trend at the pump power of ≥2.4 W, but at a comparatively low pump power of 1.84 W, it decreased first and then increased, also corresponding to the gain spectrum. The phenomenon was very similar to that observed in the wavelength tunable gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser [51]. In the “B” zone, the laser optical spectra were recorded as well as shown in Fig. 9(c). Their FWHMs were all <1 nm owing to the filtering function of plane ruled grating and greatly narrower than those measured in free-running regime as show in Fig. 4.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 (a) Output power and (b) pulse duration with tuning the wavelength, and (c) tuned output optical spectra with respect to “1-1” state at different pump powers.

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To make clear the relationship between the laser wavelength and temporal states, the pump pulse energy thresholds of four gain-switched temporal states were measured again atdifferent tuned wavelengths as shown in Fig. 10. It is seen that all the pump pulse energy thresholds increase just at different rates with tuning the wavelength from 2900 nm to 3000 nm. This well explained why the opposite temporal states were obtained when tuning beyond two edges of the “B” zone as shown in Fig. 9(a). Physically speaking, since the initial Stark level of the 5I65I7 transition was the lowest of the 5I6 manifold, with tuning towards long-wavelength direction, the terminated Stark level of the 5I7 manifold was up-shifted, resulting in more populations remained on the 5I7 manifold. Thus more populations were needed for the 5I6 manifold to reach the threshold level. In other words, at a fixed pump level, with tuning towards long-wavelength direction, the inversed populations between the 5I6 and 5I7 manifolds became less, just explaining the phenomenon observed in Fig. 9(b). Note that when the wavelength was tuned beyond 2960 nm, the stable “4-1” state could not be obtained any more, suggesting that short-wavelength lasing was beneficial for more gain-switched temporal states.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states) as a function of the laser wavelength when the pump repetition rate and pulse duration were fixed at 80 kHz and 80%, respectively. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained.

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Accordingly, we re-identified the relationships between pump repetition rate and duty cycle, and gain-switched temporal states in the case of fixed laser wavelength of 2940 nm. The re-measured pump pulse energy thresholds with the increased pump repetition rates were shown in Fig. 11 when the pump pulse duration was fixed at 10 μs. It is seen that they monotonically decrease with the increased pump pulse energy, which identified that the fluctuation of the pump pulse energy threshold of the “1-1” state shown in Fig. 6 was resulted from wavelength drifting. Note that the “3-1” and “4-1” states could not be achieved yet at the low pump repetition rates of 20~30 kHz and 20~40 kHz, respectively. The re-measured pump pulse energy thresholds with the increased pump duty cycle at different pump repetition rates were shown in Figs. 12(a)-12(d). For the “4-1” and “3-1” states, we found the pump pulse energy threshold increased slowly first then decreased sharply with the increased pump duty cycle from 20% to 80% and it was also easier to gain them for larger pump duty cycles. The phenomena were similar to the free-running case before. For the “2-1” and “1-1” states, the pulse pump energy thresholds decreased almost linearly with the increased pump duty cycle also similar to that in free-running regime.

 figure: Fig. 11

Fig. 11 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states) as a function of the pump repetition rates when the pump pulse duration and laser wavelength were fixed at 10 μs and 2940 nm, respectively. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained.

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 figure: Fig. 12

Fig. 12 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., (1) “4-1”, (b) “3-1”, (c) “2-1”, and (d) “1-1” states) as a function of the pump duty cycles at different pump repetition rates when the laser wavelength was fixed at 2940 nm. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained. “Limitation” represents the corresponding data not measured due to the limited pump.

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The above results indicated that the output power and pulse duration were positively and negatively related to the gain spectrum of singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber, respectively, when tuning the wavelength. The pump pulse energy threshold of one certain gain-switched temporal state increased with tuning towards long-wavelength direction and increasing the pump repetition rate.

4. Discussion

In our case, although the gain-switched fiber laser in the water vapor transmission window around 3 μm was experimentally demonstrated for the first time, this was only the first step since its relatively low output for the practical requirement of laser surgery. Specifically, the maximum output power, pulse energy, and peak power were 389.3 mW, 4.99 μJ, and 3.47 W, respectively (not simultaneously). As mentioned before, the stable SPGS state was finally terminated by multi-pulsing with the further increased pump power (pulse energy) at the pump repetition rate of 80 kHz and duty cycle of 80% as shown in Fig. 2(l), hence its power and energy scaling was impeded. Actually, the multi-pulsing could be regulated effectively by fast gain-switching (namely short pump pulse duration) [62]. For our system, if the pump duty cycle was decreased to minimum 20% at the maximum pump repetition rate of 80 kHz, the shortest pump pulse duration of 2.5 μs could be obtained. Under this condition, however, even the “2-1” state was not observed due mainly to the limited power provided by our pump sources as shown in Figs. 7(c) and 7(d). This was the reason why we didn’t present further output scaling by this way although successfully identified in a series of Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers at 2 μm [63–66] and even a Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm [49]. It is suggested that high-power and narrow-duration pulsed pump source at 1150 nm were the key factor to realize powerful and energetic gain-switching. The pump pulse narrowing could be achieved by further optimizing our in-house electrical modulator. Recently, a high-power all-fiber Yb3+-doped silica fiber laser directly pumped by 976 nm LDs was demonstrated in CW regime giving a maximum output power of 120 W at 1150 nm [67]. It provided the feasibility for 1150 nm high-power pulsed fiber lasers with tens of kHz repetition rate and hundreds of ns pulse duration, combined with mature 976 nm pulse pumping. Moreover, pulse amplifying based on MOPA configuration was also an available way to significantly scale power and energy considering the high stability and SNR (> 75 dB) of the obtained SPGS state.

Furthermore, laser pulse duration was also an important parameter for medical applications. The achieved shortest gain-switched pulse duration in our case was 0.96 μs which was much larger than the level (tens of ns) obtained from gain-switched Tm3+- or Ho3+-doped silica fiber lasers at 2 μm [62–64,66,68,69]. As observed in Figs. 5(a) and 8(a), higher pump power (pulse energy) and lower pump repetition rate were favored in order to achieve shorter pulses. Under fast gain-switching, the allowable maximum pump power (pulse energy) by SPGS state could be high enough. For the pump repetition rate, however, there was a lower limit, since if the pump repetition rate was too low, it was even difficult to get stable SPGS state. In our system, the lower limit of pump repetition rate was 1 kHz.

5. Conclusion

In summary, we have demonstrated a gain-switched fiber laser for the first time in the water vapor transmission window around 3 μm based on the 5I65I7 transition of singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber. Four switchable stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states) were observed in turn with the increased pump power (pulse energy) in both free-running and wavelength-selected regimes. At the maximum pump repetition rate of 80 kHz and duty cycle of 80%, the maximum output power of 389.3 mW was gained at the free-running wavelength of 2983.9 nm, the corresponding pulse energy, pulse duration, and peak power were 4.87 μJ, 1.49 μs, and 3.26 W, respectively. The experimental results concluded that high pump repetition rate, large pump duty cycle, and short laser wavelength were beneficial for achieving more stable gain-switched temporal states. Besides, the pulse duration increased while the pulse energy and peak power decreased with the increased pump repetition for the “1-1” state. While μs-level pump pulse duration variation had an almost negligible effect on them. Furthermore, a tunable wavelength range of 105.0 nm from 2895.5 nm to 3000.5 nm was also obtained for the “1-1” state at the pump repetition rate of 80 kHz. With tuning towards long-wavelength direction, the pulse duration increased, consequently, the shortest pulse duration of 0.96 μs was gained at 2903.5 nm. Finally, further performance improvements in terms of gain-switched output power, pulse energy, and pulse duration were discussed. The achieved results were beneficial for developing high-performance pulsed fiber lasers in the water vapor transmission window around 3 μm which could find direct applications in laser surgery.

Funding

National Nature Science Foundation of China (61377042, 61722503, 61435003, 61421002); Open Fund of Science and Technology on Solid-State Laser Laboratory (H04010501W2015000604); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (ZYGX2016J068); Science and Technology Innovation Young Talent Project of Sichuan Province (2016RZ0073)

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Zengshou Peng and Baoji Li for the design and fabrication of the modulator.

References and links

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References

  • View by:

  1. F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 458–516 I. T. Sorokina, and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds., (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  2. R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery,” J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20(2), 112–118 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Geng and S. Jiang, “Fiber lasers: the 2 um laser heats up,” Opt. Photonics News 25(7), 36–41 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. V. D. Heuvel, F. J. M. V. Putten, and R. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. X. Zhu and R. Jain, “10-W-level diode-pumped compact 2.78 µm ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 26–28 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “Liquid-cooled 24 W mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3062–3064 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Tokita, M. Hirokane, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “Stable 10 W Er:ZBLAN fiber laser operating at 2.71-2.88 μm,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 3943–3945 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. V. Fortin, M. Bernier, S. T. Bah, and R. Vallée, “30 W fluoride glass all-fiber laser at 2.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2882–2885 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. F. Li, L. Wang, H. Y. Luo, J. T. Xie, and Y. Liu, “High power cascaded erbium doped fluoride fiber laser at room temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(6), 673–676 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. O. Aydin, V. Fortin, F. Maes, F. Jobin, S. D. Jackson, R. Vallée, and M. Bernier, “Diode-pumped mid-infrared fiber laser with 50% slope efficiency,” Optica 4(2), 235–238 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. D. Jackson, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Directly diode-pumped holmium fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2496–2498 (2007).
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  27. T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Actively Q-switched 2.9 μm Ho3+Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2145–2147 (2012).
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  28. J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2208–2210 (2012).
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  29. J. F. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045107 (2013).
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  30. Y. L. Shen, Y. S. Wang, K. P. Luan, H. W. Chen, M. M. Tao, and J. H. Si, “High peak power actively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber lasers at 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 105 (2017).
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  32. J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turistsyn, “Mid-infrared passively switched pulsed dual wavelength Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser at 3 μm and 2 μm,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10770 (2015).
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  33. Y. Shen, Y. Wang, K. Luan, K. Huang, M. Tao, H. Chen, A. Yi, G. Feng, and J. Si, “Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26659 (2016).
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  34. H. Luo, J. Li, J. Xie, B. Zhai, C. Wei, and Y. Liu, “High average power and energy microsecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fluoride fiber MOPA system,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29022–29032 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. C. Wei, X. S. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-switched 2.8-µm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
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  36. G. W. Zhu, X. S. Zhu, K. Balakrishnan, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Fe2+:ZnSe and graphene Q-switched singly Ho3+ -doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 3 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1365–1377 (2013).
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  37. J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, B. Zhai, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “Tunable Fe2+:ZnSe passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22362–22370 (2015).
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  38. T. Zhang, G. Y. Feng, H. Zhang, S. G. Ning, B. Lan, and S. H. Zhou, “Compact watt-level passively Q-switched ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -LaF 3 -AIF 3 -NaF fiber laser at 2.8 μ m using Fe 2+ :ZnSe saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 086106 (2016).
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  39. C. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Shi, K. Konynenbelt, H. Luo, and Y. Liu, “Over 5-W passively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber laser with a wide continuous wavelength tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(11), 881–884 (2017).
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  40. C. Wei, X. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78 μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3233–3236 (2013).
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  41. J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3659–3662 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8-μm pulsed Er 3+:ZBLAN fiber laser modulated by topological insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  43. J. Liu, M. Wu, B. Huang, P. H. Tang, C. J. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Widely wavelength-tunable mid-infrared fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0900507 (2017).
  44. Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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  46. C. Wei, H. Y. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. T. Xie, J. F. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 µm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(10), 105108 (2016).
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  47. C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
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  48. B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigations of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3), 315–321 (2001).
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  49. M. Gorjan, R. Petkovšek, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “High-power pulsed diode-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1923–1925 (2011).
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  50. Y. L. Shen, K. Huang, S. Q. Zhou, K. P. Luan, L. Yu, A. Q. Yi, G. B. Feng, and X. S. Ye, “Gain-switched 2.8 μm Er3+ -doped double-clad ZBLAN fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 9543, 95431E (2015).
  51. C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Shi, Y. Lyu, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Widely wavelength tunable gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8816–8827 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. Y. L. Shen, Y. S. Wang, K. P. Luan, H. W. Chen, M. M. Tao, and J. H. Si, “Efficient, wavelengthtunable gain-switching and gainswitched modelocking operation of a heavily Er3+doped ZBLAN midinfrared fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1504510 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  53. S. Antipov, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power mid-infrared femtosecond fiber laser in the water vapor transmission window,” Optica 3(12), 1373–1376 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  54. K. Yin, W. Q. Yang, B. Zhang, S. Zeng, and J. Hou, “Temporal characteristics of gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser near threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 2864–2868 (2013).
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  56. J. L. Yang, Y. L. Tang, and J. Q. Xu, “Development and applications of gain-switched fiber lasers [Invited],” Photon. Res. 1(1), 52–57 (2013).
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  57. A. Haboucha, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, J. Genest, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, “Fiber Bragg grating stabilization of a passively mode-locked 2.8 μm Er3+: fluoride glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3294–3297 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  58. T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Stable, self-starting, passively mode-locked fiber ring laser of the 3 μm class,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2133–2136 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  59. T. Hu, S. D. Jackson, and D. D. Hudson, “Ultrafast pulses from a mid-infrared fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4226–4228 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  60. X. Cheng, Z. Li, J. Hou, and Z. Liu, “Gain-switched monolithic fiber laser with ultra-wide tuning range at 2 μm,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29126–29137 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  61. J. F. Li, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Tuned cascade laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1215–1217 (2012).
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  62. M. Jiang and P. Tayebati, “Stable 10 ns, kilowatt peak-power pulse generation from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1797–1799 (2007).
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  63. Y. Tang, L. Xu, Y. Yang, and J. Xu, “High-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22964–22972 (2010).
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  64. Y. L. Tang, F. Li, and J. Q. Xu, “High peak-power gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 33(13), 893–895 (2011).
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  65. Y. L. Tang and L. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped gain-switched narrow-band thulium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072702 (2012).
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  66. S. Yan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, N. Yang, Y. Li, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “Developing high-power hybrid resonant gain-switched thulium fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25675–25687 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  67. H. Xiao, H. W. Zhang, J. M. Xu, J. Y. Leng, and P. Zhou, “120 W monolithic Yb-doped fiber oscillator at 1150 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A63–A69 (2017).
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  68. N. Simakov, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and J. Haub, “Efficient, polarised, gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 19(16), 14949–14954 (2011).
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  69. S. Hollitt, N. Simakov, A. Hemming, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A linearly polarised, pulsed Ho-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16285–16290 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2017 (8)

Y. O. Aydin, V. Fortin, F. Maes, F. Jobin, S. D. Jackson, R. Vallée, and M. Bernier, “Diode-pumped mid-infrared fiber laser with 50% slope efficiency,” Optica 4(2), 235–238 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Shen, Y. S. Wang, K. P. Luan, H. W. Chen, M. M. Tao, and J. H. Si, “High peak power actively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber lasers at 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 105 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Shi, K. Konynenbelt, H. Luo, and Y. Liu, “Over 5-W passively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber laser with a wide continuous wavelength tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(11), 881–884 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Wu, B. Huang, P. H. Tang, C. J. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Widely wavelength-tunable mid-infrared fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0900507 (2017).

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Shi, Y. Lyu, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Widely wavelength tunable gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8816–8827 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Shen, Y. S. Wang, K. P. Luan, H. W. Chen, M. M. Tao, and J. H. Si, “Efficient, wavelengthtunable gain-switching and gainswitched modelocking operation of a heavily Er3+doped ZBLAN midinfrared fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1504510 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, H. W. Zhang, J. M. Xu, J. Y. Leng, and P. Zhou, “120 W monolithic Yb-doped fiber oscillator at 1150 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A63–A69 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (11)

X. Cheng, Z. Li, J. Hou, and Z. Liu, “Gain-switched monolithic fiber laser with ultra-wide tuning range at 2 μm,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29126–29137 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Antipov, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power mid-infrared femtosecond fiber laser in the water vapor transmission window,” Optica 3(12), 1373–1376 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wei, H. Y. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. T. Xie, J. F. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 µm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(10), 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8-μm pulsed Er 3+:ZBLAN fiber laser modulated by topological insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Zhang, G. Y. Feng, H. Zhang, S. G. Ning, B. Lan, and S. H. Zhou, “Compact watt-level passively Q-switched ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -LaF 3 -AIF 3 -NaF fiber laser at 2.8 μ m using Fe 2+ :ZnSe saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 086106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, Y. Wang, K. Luan, K. Huang, M. Tao, H. Chen, A. Yi, G. Feng, and J. Si, “Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26659 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Luo, J. Li, J. Xie, B. Zhai, C. Wei, and Y. Liu, “High average power and energy microsecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fluoride fiber MOPA system,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29022–29032 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Majewski and S. D. Jackson, “Highly efficient mid-infrared dysprosium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2173–2176 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Majewski and S. D. Jackson, “Tunable dysprosium laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4496–4498 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Li, L. Wang, H. Y. Luo, J. T. Xie, and Y. Liu, “High power cascaded erbium doped fluoride fiber laser at room temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(6), 673–676 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

S. Crawford, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power broadly tunable 3-μm fiber laser for the measurement of optical fiber loss,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Fortin, M. Bernier, S. T. Bah, and R. Vallée, “30 W fluoride glass all-fiber laser at 2.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2882–2885 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turistsyn, “Mid-infrared passively switched pulsed dual wavelength Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser at 3 μm and 2 μm,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, B. Zhai, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “Tunable Fe2+:ZnSe passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22362–22370 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hu, S. D. Jackson, and D. D. Hudson, “Ultrafast pulses from a mid-infrared fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4226–4228 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Shen, K. Huang, S. Q. Zhou, K. P. Luan, L. Yu, A. Q. Yi, G. B. Feng, and X. S. Ye, “Gain-switched 2.8 μm Er3+ -doped double-clad ZBLAN fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 9543, 95431E (2015).

S. Yan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, N. Yang, Y. Li, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “Developing high-power hybrid resonant gain-switched thulium fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25675–25687 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

A. Haboucha, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, J. Genest, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, “Fiber Bragg grating stabilization of a passively mode-locked 2.8 μm Er3+: fluoride glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3294–3297 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Stable, self-starting, passively mode-locked fiber ring laser of the 3 μm class,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2133–2136 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, Y. L. He, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, K. M. Zhou, A. G. Rozhin, and S. K. Turistyn, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 m fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Geng and S. Jiang, “Fiber lasers: the 2 um laser heats up,” Opt. Photonics News 25(7), 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (8)

J. F. Li, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Tuned cascade laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1215–1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Tang and L. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped gain-switched narrow-band thulium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072702 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Hollitt, N. Simakov, A. Hemming, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A linearly polarised, pulsed Ho-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16285–16290 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, X. S. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-switched 2.8-µm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Caron, M. Bernier, D. Faucher, and R. Vallée, “Understanding the fiber tip thermal runaway present in 3 µm fluoride glass fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22188–22194 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Actively Q-switched 2.9 μm Ho3+Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2145–2147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2208–2210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

Y. Tang, L. Xu, Y. Yang, and J. Xu, “High-power gain-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22964–22972 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Stübinger, “Advances in bone surgery: the Er:YAG laser in oral surgery and implant dentistry,” Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dent. 2, 47–62 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. S. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, 501956 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Tokita, M. Hirokane, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, “Stable 10 W Er:ZBLAN fiber laser operating at 2.71-2.88 μm,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 3943–3945 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. V. D. Heuvel, F. J. M. V. Putten, and R. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. D. Jackson, “Continuous wave 2.9 μm dysprosium-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1316–1318 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. Gülsoy, T. Celikel, A. Kurt, R. Canbeyli, and I. Cilesiz, “Er:YAG laser ablation of cerebellar and cerebral tissue,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 40–43 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigations of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3), 315–321 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. Kaufmann and R. Hibst, “Pulsed erbium:YAG laser ablation in cutaneous surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(3), 324–330 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, and A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 278–290 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery,” J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20(2), 112–118 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, “Co-doping effects in erbium3+- and holmium3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

Antipov, S.

Aydin, Y. O.

Bah, S. T.

Balakrishnan, K.

Bekman, H. H. P. T.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. V. D. Heuvel, F. J. M. V. Putten, and R. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bennetts, S.

Bernal, M. T.

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, and A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 278–290 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernier, M.

Brazitikos, P. D.

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, and A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 278–290 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bugge, F.

Canbeyli, R.

M. Gülsoy, T. Celikel, A. Kurt, R. Canbeyli, and I. Cilesiz, “Er:YAG laser ablation of cerebellar and cerebral tissue,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 40–43 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caron, N.

Carter, A.

Celikel, T.

M. Gülsoy, T. Celikel, A. Kurt, R. Canbeyli, and I. Cilesiz, “Er:YAG laser ablation of cerebellar and cerebral tissue,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 40–43 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Y. Shen, Y. Wang, K. Luan, K. Huang, M. Tao, H. Chen, A. Yi, G. Feng, and J. Si, “Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26659 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. W.

Y. L. Shen, Y. S. Wang, K. P. Luan, H. W. Chen, M. M. Tao, and J. H. Si, “High peak power actively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber lasers at 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Shen, Y. S. Wang, K. P. Luan, H. W. Chen, M. M. Tao, and J. H. Si, “Efficient, wavelengthtunable gain-switching and gainswitched modelocking operation of a heavily Er3+doped ZBLAN midinfrared fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1504510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

Cilesiz, I.

M. Gülsoy, T. Celikel, A. Kurt, R. Canbeyli, and I. Cilesiz, “Er:YAG laser ablation of cerebellar and cerebral tissue,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 40–43 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Copic, M.

Crawford, S.

S. Crawford, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power broadly tunable 3-μm fiber laser for the measurement of optical fiber loss,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

D’Amico, D. J.

P. D. Brazitikos, D. J. D’Amico, M. T. Bernal, and A. W. Walsh, “Erbium:YAG laser surgery of the vitreous and retina,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 278–290 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickinson, B. C.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigations of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3), 315–321 (2001).
[Crossref]

El-Taher, A. E.

Erbert, G.

Fan, D. Y.

J. Liu, M. Wu, B. Huang, P. H. Tang, C. J. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Widely wavelength-tunable mid-infrared fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0900507 (2017).

Faucher, D.

Feng, G.

Y. Shen, Y. Wang, K. Luan, K. Huang, M. Tao, H. Chen, A. Yi, G. Feng, and J. Si, “Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26659 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, G. B.

Y. L. Shen, K. Huang, S. Q. Zhou, K. P. Luan, L. Yu, A. Q. Yi, G. B. Feng, and X. S. Ye, “Gain-switched 2.8 μm Er3+ -doped double-clad ZBLAN fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 9543, 95431E (2015).

Feng, G. Y.

T. Zhang, G. Y. Feng, H. Zhang, S. G. Ning, B. Lan, and S. H. Zhou, “Compact watt-level passively Q-switched ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -LaF 3 -AIF 3 -NaF fiber laser at 2.8 μ m using Fe 2+ :ZnSe saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 086106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fortin, V.

Fuerbach, A.

Genest, J.

Geng, J.

J. Geng and S. Jiang, “Fiber lasers: the 2 um laser heats up,” Opt. Photonics News 25(7), 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Golding, P. S.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigations of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3), 315–321 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gorjan, M.

Gülsoy, M.

M. Gülsoy, T. Celikel, A. Kurt, R. Canbeyli, and I. Cilesiz, “Er:YAG laser ablation of cerebellar and cerebral tissue,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 40–43 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haboucha, A.

Hartmann, A.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery,” J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20(2), 112–118 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashida, M.

Haub, J.

He, L.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y. L.

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, Y. L. He, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, K. M. Zhou, A. G. Rozhin, and S. K. Turistyn, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 m fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hemming, A.

Heuvel, J. C. V. D.

H. H. P. T. Bekman, J. C. V. D. Heuvel, F. J. M. V. Putten, and R. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hibst, R.

R. Kaufmann and R. Hibst, “Pulsed erbium:YAG laser ablation in cutaneous surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(3), 324–330 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery,” J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20(2), 112–118 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirokane, M.

Hollitt, S.

Hou, J.

Hu, T.

Huang, B.

J. Liu, M. Wu, B. Huang, P. H. Tang, C. J. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Widely wavelength-tunable mid-infrared fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0900507 (2017).

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8-μm pulsed Er 3+:ZBLAN fiber laser modulated by topological insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

Y. Shen, Y. Wang, K. Luan, K. Huang, M. Tao, H. Chen, A. Yi, G. Feng, and J. Si, “Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26659 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Shen, K. Huang, S. Q. Zhou, K. P. Luan, L. Yu, A. Q. Yi, G. B. Feng, and X. S. Ye, “Gain-switched 2.8 μm Er3+ -doped double-clad ZBLAN fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 9543, 95431E (2015).

Hudson, D. D.

Jackson, S. D.

Y. O. Aydin, V. Fortin, F. Maes, F. Jobin, S. D. Jackson, R. Vallée, and M. Bernier, “Diode-pumped mid-infrared fiber laser with 50% slope efficiency,” Optica 4(2), 235–238 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Majewski and S. D. Jackson, “Highly efficient mid-infrared dysprosium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2173–2176 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Majewski and S. D. Jackson, “Tunable dysprosium laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4496–4498 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Antipov, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power mid-infrared femtosecond fiber laser in the water vapor transmission window,” Optica 3(12), 1373–1376 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hu, S. D. Jackson, and D. D. Hudson, “Ultrafast pulses from a mid-infrared fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4226–4228 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Crawford, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power broadly tunable 3-μm fiber laser for the measurement of optical fiber loss,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Stable, self-starting, passively mode-locked fiber ring laser of the 3 μm class,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2133–2136 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2208–2210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Actively Q-switched 2.9 μm Ho3+Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2145–2147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Tuned cascade laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1215–1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Li, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power diode-pumped fiber laser operating at 3 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3642–3644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, “High-power and highly efficient diode-cladding-pumped holmium-doped fluoride fiber laser operating at 2.94 µm,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2327–2329 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, F. Bugge, and G. Erbert, “Directly diode-pumped holmium fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2496–2498 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Tsang, A. E. El-Taher, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Efficient 2.96 µm dysprosium-doped fluoride fibre laser pumped with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 14(2), 678–685 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, “Continuous wave 2.9 μm dysprosium-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1316–1318 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigations of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3), 315–321 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jain, R.

Jiang, M.

Jiang, S.

J. Geng and S. Jiang, “Fiber lasers: the 2 um laser heats up,” Opt. Photonics News 25(7), 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jobin, F.

Kaufmann, R.

R. Kaufmann and R. Hibst, “Pulsed erbium:YAG laser ablation in cutaneous surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19(3), 324–330 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery,” J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20(2), 112–118 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, T. A.

Y. H. Tsang, A. E. El-Taher, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Efficient 2.96 µm dysprosium-doped fluoride fibre laser pumped with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 14(2), 678–685 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Investigations of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7 μm Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3), 315–321 (2001).
[Crossref]

Konynenbelt, K.

C. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Shi, K. Konynenbelt, H. Luo, and Y. Liu, “Over 5-W passively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber laser with a wide continuous wavelength tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(11), 881–884 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kurt, A.

M. Gülsoy, T. Celikel, A. Kurt, R. Canbeyli, and I. Cilesiz, “Er:YAG laser ablation of cerebellar and cerebral tissue,” Lasers Med. Sci. 16(1), 40–43 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, B.

T. Zhang, G. Y. Feng, H. Zhang, S. G. Ning, B. Lan, and S. H. Zhou, “Compact watt-level passively Q-switched ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -LaF 3 -AIF 3 -NaF fiber laser at 2.8 μ m using Fe 2+ :ZnSe saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 086106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leng, J. Y.

Li, C.

C. Wei, H. Y. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. T. Xie, J. F. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 µm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(10), 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Y. L. Tang, F. Li, and J. Q. Xu, “High peak-power gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 33(13), 893–895 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, J.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Luo, J. Li, J. Xie, B. Zhai, C. Wei, and Y. Liu, “High average power and energy microsecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fluoride fiber MOPA system,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29022–29032 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, B. Zhai, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “Tunable Fe2+:ZnSe passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22362–22370 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turistsyn, “Mid-infrared passively switched pulsed dual wavelength Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser at 3 μm and 2 μm,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2208–2210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “High-power diode-pumped fiber laser operating at 3 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3642–3644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J. F.

J. F. Li, L. Wang, H. Y. Luo, J. T. Xie, and Y. Liu, “High power cascaded erbium doped fluoride fiber laser at room temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(6), 673–676 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, H. Y. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. T. Xie, J. F. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 µm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(10), 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, Y. L. He, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, K. M. Zhou, A. G. Rozhin, and S. K. Turistyn, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 m fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Tuned cascade laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1215–1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Wu, B. Huang, P. H. Tang, C. J. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Widely wavelength-tunable mid-infrared fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0900507 (2017).

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8-μm pulsed Er 3+:ZBLAN fiber laser modulated by topological insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

C. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Shi, K. Konynenbelt, H. Luo, and Y. Liu, “Over 5-W passively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber laser with a wide continuous wavelength tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(11), 881–884 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Shi, Y. Lyu, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Widely wavelength tunable gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8816–8827 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wei, H. Y. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. T. Xie, J. F. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 µm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(10), 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Luo, J. Li, J. Xie, B. Zhai, C. Wei, and Y. Liu, “High average power and energy microsecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fluoride fiber MOPA system,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29022–29032 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Li, L. Wang, H. Y. Luo, J. T. Xie, and Y. Liu, “High power cascaded erbium doped fluoride fiber laser at room temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(6), 673–676 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turistsyn, “Mid-infrared passively switched pulsed dual wavelength Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser at 3 μm and 2 μm,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, B. Zhai, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “Tunable Fe2+:ZnSe passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22362–22370 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, Y. L. He, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, K. M. Zhou, A. G. Rozhin, and S. K. Turistyn, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 m fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, Y. Yang, D. D. Hudson, Y. Liu, and S. D. Jackson, “A tunable Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Lu, R.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luan, K.

Y. Shen, Y. Wang, K. Luan, K. Huang, M. Tao, H. Chen, A. Yi, G. Feng, and J. Si, “Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26659 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luan, K. P.

Y. L. Shen, Y. S. Wang, K. P. Luan, H. W. Chen, M. M. Tao, and J. H. Si, “High peak power actively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber lasers at 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Shen, Y. S. Wang, K. P. Luan, H. W. Chen, M. M. Tao, and J. H. Si, “Efficient, wavelengthtunable gain-switching and gainswitched modelocking operation of a heavily Er3+doped ZBLAN midinfrared fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1504510 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Shen, K. Huang, S. Q. Zhou, K. P. Luan, L. Yu, A. Q. Yi, G. B. Feng, and X. S. Ye, “Gain-switched 2.8 μm Er3+ -doped double-clad ZBLAN fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 9543, 95431E (2015).

Luo, H.

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Shi, Y. Lyu, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Widely wavelength tunable gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8816–8827 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
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L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, “Co-doping effects in erbium3+- and holmium3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
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L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, “Co-doping effects in erbium3+- and holmium3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
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J. Liu, M. Wu, B. Huang, P. H. Tang, C. J. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Widely wavelength-tunable mid-infrared fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0900507 (2017).

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8-μm pulsed Er 3+:ZBLAN fiber laser modulated by topological insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
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Xie, G.

Xie, J.

Xie, J. T.

J. F. Li, L. Wang, H. Y. Luo, J. T. Xie, and Y. Liu, “High power cascaded erbium doped fluoride fiber laser at room temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(6), 673–676 (2016).
[Crossref]

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J. L. Yang, Y. L. Tang, and J. Q. Xu, “Development and applications of gain-switched fiber lasers [Invited],” Photon. Res. 1(1), 52–57 (2013).
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Y. L. Tang and L. Xu, “Hybrid-pumped gain-switched narrow-band thulium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072702 (2012).
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Yi, A.

Y. Shen, Y. Wang, K. Luan, K. Huang, M. Tao, H. Chen, A. Yi, G. Feng, and J. Si, “Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26659 (2016).
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Y. L. Shen, K. Huang, S. Q. Zhou, K. P. Luan, L. Yu, A. Q. Yi, G. B. Feng, and X. S. Ye, “Gain-switched 2.8 μm Er3+ -doped double-clad ZBLAN fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 9543, 95431E (2015).

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Zhang, C.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Shi, Y. Lyu, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Widely wavelength tunable gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8816–8827 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Shi, K. Konynenbelt, H. Luo, and Y. Liu, “Over 5-W passively Q-switched mid-infrared fiber laser with a wide continuous wavelength tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(11), 881–884 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Zhang, G. Y. Feng, H. Zhang, S. G. Ning, B. Lan, and S. H. Zhou, “Compact watt-level passively Q-switched ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -LaF 3 -AIF 3 -NaF fiber laser at 2.8 μ m using Fe 2+ :ZnSe saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 086106 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wei, H. Y. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. T. Xie, J. F. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 µm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(10), 105108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3659–3662 (2015).
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Zhang, H. W.

Zhang, L.

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turistsyn, “Mid-infrared passively switched pulsed dual wavelength Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser at 3 μm and 2 μm,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10770 (2015).
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Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, G. Y. Feng, H. Zhang, S. G. Ning, B. Lan, and S. H. Zhou, “Compact watt-level passively Q-switched ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -LaF 3 -AIF 3 -NaF fiber laser at 2.8 μ m using Fe 2+ :ZnSe saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 086106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

J. Liu, M. Wu, B. Huang, P. H. Tang, C. J. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Widely wavelength-tunable mid-infrared fluoride fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0900507 (2017).

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8-μm pulsed Er 3+:ZBLAN fiber laser modulated by topological insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
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Zhou, K.

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turistsyn, “Mid-infrared passively switched pulsed dual wavelength Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser at 3 μm and 2 μm,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10770 (2015).
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Zhou, K. M.

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, Y. L. He, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, K. M. Zhou, A. G. Rozhin, and S. K. Turistyn, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 m fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(6), 065102 (2014).
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Zhou, P.

Zhou, S. H.

T. Zhang, G. Y. Feng, H. Zhang, S. G. Ning, B. Lan, and S. H. Zhou, “Compact watt-level passively Q-switched ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -LaF 3 -AIF 3 -NaF fiber laser at 2.8 μ m using Fe 2+ :ZnSe saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Eng. 55(8), 086106 (2016).
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Zhou, S. Q.

Y. L. Shen, K. Huang, S. Q. Zhou, K. P. Luan, L. Yu, A. Q. Yi, G. B. Feng, and X. S. Ye, “Gain-switched 2.8 μm Er3+ -doped double-clad ZBLAN fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 9543, 95431E (2015).

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, C.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
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Zhu, G. W.

Zhu, S.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
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J. F. Li, L. Wang, H. Y. Luo, J. T. Xie, and Y. Liu, “High power cascaded erbium doped fluoride fiber laser at room temperature,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(6), 673–676 (2016).
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C. Wei, X. S. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-switched 2.8-µm nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1741–1744 (2012).
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Opt. Express (11)

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Shi, Y. Lyu, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Widely wavelength tunable gain-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser around 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8816–8827 (2017).
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J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of gain-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser: (a) free-running regime, and (b) wavelength-selected regime. PBS represents polarizing beam splitter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Temporal output characteristics of the gain-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at different pump powers (pulse energies) when the pump repetition rate and duty cycle were set at 80 kHz and 80%, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temporal dynamics of pump pulses, population on the 5I6 manifold, and signal pulses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Output optical and RF (inset) spectra at the pump powers (pulse energies) of (a) 148.6 mW (1.86 μJ), (b) 246.7 mW (3.08 μJ), (c) 696.2 mW (8.70 μJ), (d) 3.81 W (47.6 μJ) when the pump repetition rate and duty cycle were set at 80 kHz and 80%, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Output power, pulse energy, and peak power, and (b) repetition rate and pulse duration as a function of the pump power and pulse energy when the pump repetition rate and duty cycle were set at 80 kHz and 80%, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states) as a function of the pump repetition rates when the pump pulse duration was fixed at 10 μs. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., (1) “4-1”, (b) “3-1”, (c) “2-1”, and (d) “1-1” states) as a function of the pump duty cycles at different pump repetition rates. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained. “Limitation” represents the corresponding data not measured due to the limited pump.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Pulse duration, pulse energy, and peak power as a function of (a) the pump repetition rate when the pump power and pulse duration were fixed at 2.14 W and 10 μs, respectively, (b) the pulse duration when the pump power and repetition rate were fixed at 2.64 W and 80 kHz, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Output power and (b) pulse duration with tuning the wavelength, and (c) tuned output optical spectra with respect to “1-1” state at different pump powers.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states) as a function of the laser wavelength when the pump repetition rate and pulse duration were fixed at 80 kHz and 80%, respectively. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., “4-1”, “3-1”, “2-1”, and “1-1” states) as a function of the pump repetition rates when the pump pulse duration and laser wavelength were fixed at 10 μs and 2940 nm, respectively. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Pump pulse energy thresholds of different stable gain-switched temporal states (i.e., (1) “4-1”, (b) “3-1”, (c) “2-1”, and (d) “1-1” states) as a function of the pump duty cycles at different pump repetition rates when the laser wavelength was fixed at 2940 nm. “No” represents that the corresponding temporal state cannot be obtained. “Limitation” represents the corresponding data not measured due to the limited pump.

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