Abstract

We investigate scattering of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at a planar metal–dielectric interface by a dielectric nanocube embedded in the metal layer using finite element method-based simulations. The scattering characteristics of the embedded nanocube, such as the scattering and absorption cross sections, far-field scattering patterns, reflectance, and transmittance, are calculated as functions of the wavelength of the incident SPP waves in the visible range. The main features of the characteristics are explained in connection with the excitation of plasmonic eigenmodes of the embedded nanocube. The most efficient scattering into waves propagating away from the metal surface, i.e., the radiating modes, occurs when a dipolar-like plasmonic mode is excited, whose eigenfrequency can be tuned by changing the edge length of the nanocube.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves coupled with collective oscillations of electrons in metals, characterized by strong field confinement at the metallic surface [1]. It has been shown that light-matter interactions, such as absorption [2] and spontaneous emission [3] of light, and Raman scattering [4], can be enhanced using metallic nanostructures engineered to support highly localized SPP modes. As a result, localization of electromagnetic fields of SPPs has been used to enhance the performance of optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes [5] and solar cells [6], and to increase the sensitivity of chemical or biological sensors [7,8]. In addition, the confined nature of SPP modes has also attracted interest in realizing highly integrated plasmonic circuits [9].

While the confinement and enhancement of the fields are the key features of SPP waves enabling these applications, the issue of coupling between SPPs and external, radiating waves is also very important, particularly in the case of SPP modes in planar multilayer structures and plasmonic waveguides. For applications based on SPP waves confined at a planar metal–dielectric interface [10–12], a prism arranged in the Kretschmann or Otto configuration or a grating is typically used to satisfy the phase match condition [13], allowing for excitation (in-coupling) of a SPP mode using an external laser beam. A grating [14] or a groove [15] is also used for out-coupling of SPP waves, enabling detection and/or manipulation of out-coupled light using external devices. In SPP-enhanced solar cells where SPP modes are excited to achieve sufficient absorption of solar illumination with a thin semiconductor layer, metallic nanostructures, such as gratings or nanoparticles, are employed to ensure efficient in-coupling of SPP modes [6,16].

Another application that benefits from efficient out-coupling of SPP modes is organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In OLEDs, due to close proximity of light-emitting molecules to the metallic electrode, a significant fraction of excitons often generate SPP waves, instead of emitting light, via nonradiative, near-field coupling, thus decreasing the device efficiency: for example, it has been calculated that for a typical bottom-emission OLED fabricated on a glass substrate, more than 35 % of electrically generated excitons are coupled to the SPP modes when the light-emitting layer is located 60 nm away from the top metallic electrode [17]. In this paper, we consider SPP waves propagating along the interface between thick layers of dielectric and Ag, which can be regarded, respectively, as organic and electrode layers in an OLED, and investigate how they are scattered by a dielectric nanocube with a varying edge length, 60, 80, and 100 nm, embedded in the Ag layer. Specifically, using numerical simulations based on the finite-element method (FEM), characteristics such as the scattering and absorption cross sections, reflectance, and transmittance are calculated as functions of the wavelength of the incident SPP waves. The main features of these characteristics are explained in connection with excitation of plasmonic eigenmodes of the embedded nanocube, and the resulting far-field scattering patterns are also calculated. The most efficient scattering is found to be due to excitation of a dipolar-like plasmonic mode with charges of opposite polarities induced on the facing sides of the nanocube, whose eigenfrequency can be tuned by varying the edge length of the nanocube. With further development, our study may contribute to increasing the efficiency of OLEDs by efficiently scattering SPPs, which cannot otherwise escape the device, into out-coupled light by collection of embedded dielectric nanocubes with an appropriately chosen size distribution.

2. Simulation geometry and calculation method

Figure 1 shows schematic diagrams in two- and three-dimensional views [Figs. 1(a) and 1(b), respectively] of a planar metal–dielectric structure with an embedded dielectric nanocube that was numerically studied using COMSOL FEM simulations [18]. Also shown is the Cartesian coordinates x, y, z whose origin is at the center of the base of the dielectric hemisphere. The nanocube, whose edge length is w, is embedded in the metal layer with its top face 10 nm below the metal–dielectric interface [Fig. 1(b)]. The metal and dielectric regions in Fig. 1 may be considered as the electrode and adjacent organic semiconductor in an OLED, respectively. The metal layer is composed of Ag, while the dielectric occupying the hemisphere has a real, frequency-independent relative permittivity ε = 1.722, a typical value for organic semiconductors used in OLEDs. The embedded scatterer is chosen to be composed of anatase TiO2, since its high refractive index is advantageous for obtaining a given eigenmode with a minimal size. Since anatase TiO2 typically grows in the form of cubes or rods during its synthesis in liquid phase [19], the TiO2 scatterer is assumed to a cube, instead of a sphere which is more commonly employed in scattering problems. For Ag and TiO2, the frequency-dependent, complex (for Ag) and real (for TiO2) permittivity values were taken from the literature [20, 21]. To set up SPPs propagating to the positive x direction with angular frequency ω, the SPP mode solution for the Ag–dielectric interface without the TiO2 nanocube was analytically derived from Maxwell’s equations [22] and used as the background fields in COMSOL. The thickness of the Ag layer and the radius of the dielectric hemisphere are 250 and 500 nm, respectively, and the simulation domain shown in Fig. 1 is enclosed by perfectly matched layers [23].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of the simulation structure showing a SPP mode (red) propagating from the left to the right along the x axis, and a TiO2 nanocube with a varying edge length (w = 60, 80, or 100 nm) embedded in the Ag layer. The structure is shown in three- (a) and two-dimensional (b) views. θ and φ represent the polar and azimuthal angles, respectively.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Results and discussion

To investigate how the SPPs propagating along the Ag–dielectric interface are scattered by the embedded nanocube, we first calculated the spectra of scattering cross section Ssca. Since the spatial extent along the z direction of the incident SPP waves is small due to the confined nature of SPPs, the conventional definition of Ssca needs to be modified. The scattering cross “section” of the nanocube is defined as the total power of the waves scattered into the radiating modes divided by the incident SPP power per unit length, instead of area, in the y direction. The total power of the scattered waves was obtained by the surface integral of the time-averaged Poynting vector of the scattered waves over a plane at z = 20 nm that is normal to the z axis, while the incident power was calculated in the yz plane assuming that the nanocube was not present. Figure 2 shows the calculated Ssca spectra of the nanocube embedded in the Ag layer when a SPP wave with frequency ω propagates to the positive x direction toward the nanocube. Three cases, w = 60, 80, and 100 nm, were considered, and the results are shown as functions of wavelength in vacuum λ = 2πc/ω, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. For w = 100 nm (red diamonds), three prominent peaks are observed at λ1 = 680 nm, λ2 = 640 nm, and λ3 = 540 nm. Figure 3(a) shows the distribution of the surface charge density σ on the nanocube faces calculated from the electric fields E at λ1, the condition resulting in the highest Ssca peak. The σ distribution, along with the profile of the x-component of electric fields Ex in the xz plane bisecting the nanocube shown in Fig. 3(g), indicates that a mode with a dipolar plasmonic feature is excited, where charges of opposite polarities are induced on the left and right faces of the nanocube at x = −50 and 50 nm, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Ssca spectra of the embedded nanocube with w = 60, 80, or 100 nm as functions of λ.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

To verify this, we calculated eigenmodes supported by this embedded-nanocube system using the eigenfrequency solver in COMSOL. Figure 3(d) shows the σ distribution on the nanocube faces for an eigenmode found at λ = 674 nm, which is very similar to that shown in Fig. 3(a). Particularly, in both cases the two faces normal to the x axis have surface charges with opposite polarities, with the σ distribution on each face consisting exclusively of a single polarity, indicating that the Ssca peak at λ1 indeed originates from excitation of this mode, hereafter referred to as the dipolar-like plasmonic mode. Due to the dipolar-like feature, the coupling of this mode with radiating modes is expected to be high [24], consistent with the fact that the Ssca peak at λ1 is higher than the peaks at λ2 and λ3. Close resemblance of the σ distributions obtained from the scattering simulation at λ2 and λ3, shown in Figs. 3(b) and 3(c), respectively, to those of eigenmodes found at λ = 634 [Fig. 3(e)] and 539 nm [Fig. 3(f)], which are in close proximity to λ2 and λ3, respectively, indicates that the peaks at λ2 and λ3 are also attributed to resonant excitation of the respective eigenmodes. For the mode at λ2, referred to as the 1st higher mode, in contrast to the dipolar-like mode, each of the two faces normal to the x axis has charges of both polarities with one nodal line, which decreases the dipolar-like feature and consequently decreases Ssca compared to the dipolar-like mode. Furthermore, the profiles of Ex and the z-components of the electric field Ez in the xz plane, shown in Figs. 3(h) and 3(i), respectively, reveal that the field distribution near the 10-nm-thick Ag layer on the nanocube resembles that of an asymmetric plasmonic slab waveguide mode of a dielectric–metal–dielectric multilayer structure [25], with the σ distributions on the top (z = 0 nm) and bottom (z = −10 nm) surfaces of the Ag layer nearly symmetric with respect to the plane at z = −5 nm. In the case of the mode at λ3, referred to as the 2nd higher mode, the σ distribution on the nanocube faces are strongly concentrated near the edges, and has much higher spatial frequency components, with more nodal lines compared to the other two modes, leading to a higher eigenfrequency [Fig. 3(f)]. Relatively weak similarity between Fig. 3(c) and 3(f) compared to the other two cases is likely due to weak coupling between this mode with high spatial frequency field components and the incident SPP wave.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Surface charge densities (σ) and field profiles of the 100-nm nanocube showing the characteristics of plasmonic modes. The σ distributions obtained from the scattering simulation are shown for the three Ssca peaks at (a) λ1 = 680 nm, (b) λ2 = 640 nm, and (c) λ3 = 540 nm, and those obtained from the eigenmode calculation are shown for (d) the dipolar-like mode (λ = 674 nm), (e) the 1st higher mode (λ = 634 nm), and (f) the 2nd higher mode (λ = 539 nm). The field profiles obtained from the scattering simulation are also shown for (g) Ex at λ1, (h) Ex at λ2, and (i) Ez at λ2. The results of the scattering simulation were captured when the volume integration of Ex2 in the nanocube was at its maximum. Adjustment of the color scales for clear visualization of the σ and field distributions in the interior of the nanocube faces resulted in color saturation in some areas on the edges for (c), (f), (g), (h), and (i).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The main features of the Ssca spectra for w = 80 (black squares) and 60 nm (blue circles) can also be explained in terms of resonant excitation of the dipolar-like, 1st higher, and 2nd higher modes such as those shown in Figs. 3(d)–3(f), which, in these cases, occur at shorter wavelengths due to reduced sizes of the nanocube. For both cases of w = 80 and 60 nm, the σ distribution induced by incident SPP waves that maximize Ssca [Fig. 4(a) at λ = 640 nm and Fig. 4(d) at λ = 600 nm, respectively] are very similar to that of the dipolar-like plasmonic mode shown in Fig. 3(d). Furthermore, at the next two peaks observed at shorter wavelengths (λ = 600 and 520 nm for w = 80 nm, and λ = 570 and 500 nm for w = 60 nm), the σ distributions [Figs. 4(b), 4(c), 4(e), and 4(f)] very closely resemble those of the corresponding higher modes shown in Figs. 3(e) and 3(f), except for the peak at λ = 500 nm in the case of w = 60 nm [Fig. 4(f)]. In the latter case, although charges are concentrated on the edges in a similar fashion compared to the cases of w = 80 and 100 nm, a different σ distribution is found on the nanocube faces, which is instead similar to that associated with the 1st higher mode.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Distributions of surface charge density (σ) on the faces of the nanocubes with w = 80 and 60 nm corresponding to the three Ssca peaks at (a) λ = 640 nm, (b) λ = 600 nm, and (c) λ = 520 nm, for w =80 nm, and (d) λ = 600 nm, (e) λ = 570 nm, and (f) λ = 500 nm, for w = 60 nm. All images were captured when the volume integration Ex2 in the nanocube was at its maximum. Adjustment of the color scales for clear visualization of the σ distributions in the interior of the nanocube faces resulted in color saturation in some areas on the edges for (c) and (f).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

For w = 60 nm, an additional peak in Ssca is observed at λ = 660 nm longer than the wavelength at which the dipolar-like plasmonic mode is excited. This peak is due to excitation of a mode at λ = 675 nm, which was not found in the cases of w = 80 and 100 nm in the wavelength range examined, since the σ distribution associated with this mode, shown in Fig. 5(b), is almost identical to that calculated from the E field in the scattering simulation, shown in Fig. 5(a). Like the 1st higher mode, this mode features a characteristic of an asymmetric plasmonic slab waveguide mode, as is confirmed by the Ex and Ez profiles shown in Figs. 5(c) and 5(d). In this case, the σ distributions on the top and bottom surfaces of the 10-nm-thick Ag layer, consisting entirely of a same, single polarity, are composed of lower spatial frequency components than those of the 1st higher mode, consistent with its smaller eigenfrequency.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) Surface charge density (σ) of the 60-nm nanocube obtained from the scattering simulation for an additional peak in Ssca found at λ = 660 nm. (b) The σ distribution of the eigenmode found at λ = 675 nm. The Ex and Ez profiles obtained from the scattering simulation are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. All images were captured when the volume integration of Ex2 in the nanocube was at its maximum. In (c) and (d), adjustment of the color scales for clear visualization of overall field distributions resulted in color saturation in some areas on the edges.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 6 shows the normalized values of |sca|2 on the surface of the dielectric hemisphere, where sca is the complex scattered electric fields, representing the differential scattering cross sections of the nanocube, where θ and φ are the polar and azimuthal angles defined in Fig. 1(a). To include only the radiating fields in the calculation, i.e., to exclude the near fields of the nanocube, and transmitted and reflected SPP waves still bound at the Ag–dielectric interface, the radius of the hemisphere was increased to 2 μm and only the region with θ ≤ 75° was considered. Figures 6(a)–6(c) are the far-field scattering patterns for w = 100 nm corresponding to the three Ssca peaks associated with the dipolar-like, 1st higher, and 2nd higher modes, respectively. The results for w = 80 nm and 60 nm are not shown since the patterns associated with a same mode are almost identical to one another regardless of w. Also shown is the far-field scattering pattern corresponding to the additional peak at λ = 660 nm for the case of w = 60 nm [Fig. 6(d)]. Since the scattering of SPP waves in the current system arises due to oscillation of charges on the surfaces of the nanocube, whose distribution was found to be different for the four eigenmodes, as shown in Figs. 3(a)–3(c), and Fig. 5(a), the scattering pattern associated with each eigenmode has a unique angular distribution: incident SPP waves with λ = λ1 exciting the dipolar-like plasmonic mode are scattered mostly in the direction normal to the metal layer as shown in Fig. 6(a); when the 1st and 2nd higher modes are excited, the scattering occurs mostly in the forward directions, with maximum scattering toward the directions of (θ, φ) = (52°, 0°) [Fig. 6(b)] and (21°, 0°) [Fig. 6(c)], respectively; unlike the other cases, most scattered waves resulting from excitation of the additional mode shown in Fig. 5(a) are directed backwards, with a much wider angular distribution in φ [Fig. 6(d)].

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Far-field scattering patterns for w = 100 nm when the dipolar-like (a), 1st higher (b), and 2nd higher (c) modes are excited by incident SPPs. In (d), the far-field scattering pattern for the additional Ssca peak observed at λ = 660 nm for w = 60 nm is shown. Directions of the far-field scattering are specified by the polar (θ, black lines) and azimuthal (φ, white lines) angles.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 7 shows the spectra of absorption cross section Sabs calculated for the three cases of w = 60, 80, and 100 nm. Since ε of Ag in our study is complex, propagating SPP waves are absorbed in the Ag layer. Therefore, to characterize the absorption arising from the interaction with the embedded nanocube only, the absorption in Ag near the nanocube needs to be considered. For this reason, Sabs is defined as the total power dissipated in the Ag region with a thickness of 10 nm surrounding the nanocube, divided by, as in the Ssca calculation, the incident SPP power per unit length in the y direction. Overall, the Sabs spectra have peaks occurring at or near λ where peaks in Ssca are located. This is expected since excitation of an eigenmode causing strong scattering, leads to the concentration of the E field near the nanocube. For w = 100 nm (red diamonds), the value of the Sabs peak at λ = 670 nm associated with the excitation of the dipolar-like plasmonic mode is found to be much smaller than that of the peak at λ = 650 nm attributed to the 1st higher mode, while the opposite is true for the Ssca spectrum. This can likely be rationalized by the fact that the dipolar-like plasmonic mode is expected to be very efficient in radiating to the far field so that a larger portion of its extinction is attributed to scattering compared to the 1st higher mode. High absorption across the broad region with λ < 480 nm is possibly due to eigenmodes with high frequencies that are closely spaced, although we did not perform a mode analysis in this region.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Sabs spectra of the embedded nanocube with w = 60, 80, or 100 nm as functions of λ.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In Fig. 8(a), the reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) spectra are shown, with the Ssca spectra included for comparison. Since the power of a SPP mode bound at a planar metal–dielectric structure is proportional to the component of the E field in the propagation direction [26], we monitored the E fields at two probe points to estimate R and T. Specifically, R ≃ |sca,x|2/|inc,x|2 was evaluated at (x, y, z) = (−w/2 − 50 nm, 0, 0), where sca,x and inc,x are the x components of the scattered and incident complex electric fields, respectively. Likewise, T ≃ |x|2/|inc,x|2 was evaluated at (w/2 + 50 nm, 0, 0), where x is the x component of the total complex electric field: x = sca,x + inc,x. The locations of the left and right probe points were chosen to be 50 nm away from the left and right faces of the nanocube to obtain the approximate powers of the backward- and forward-scattered SPP waves, respectively, while excluding the near field of the nanocube. It was found that the peaks in the R spectra (green) are located near the Ssca peaks, meaning that high reflection arises from enhanced back scattering of the incident SPP waves into backward propagating SPPs bound at the Ag–dielectric interface by resonant excitation of the eigenmodes that give rise to the Ssca peaks. Figure 8(b) is the ||2 distribution in the plane normal to the z axis located at z = 1 nm, where is the total complex electric field, when a SPP wave with λ = 640 nm is incident on the 100-nm nanocube, clearly showing the interference patterns resulting from the reflection and the E field intensity highly concentrated in the nanocube due to resonant excitation of the 1st higher mode. In contrast to R, the T spectra (blue) have local minima near the frequencies where the Ssca spectra have local maxima, and high values of T were obtained in the frequency regions where the values of Ssca and R are small. Interestingly, when a SPP wave with λ = 680 nm is incident on the 60-nm nanocube, T is found to exceed 1, indicating that the local field enhancement occurs in a region behind the nanocube, as shown in Fig. 8(c): Fig. 8(c) shows the ||2/|0|2 distribution in the plane at z = 1 nm normal to the z axis, where and 0 are the total complex electric fields with and without the nanocube, respectively, and the black lines in Fig. 8(c) represent the boundaries of the regions in which ||2/|0|2 is larger than 1.1.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 (a) Spectra of reflectance (R, green) and transmittance (T, blue) compared with those of Ssca (black) of the nanocube for w = 60, 80, and 100 nm. (b) ||2 distribution, shown in log scale, in the plane at z = 1 nm normal to the z-axis at maximum reflectance (λ = 640 nm) for w = 100 nm. (c) Local field enhancement (||2/|0|2) in log scale on the surface of the Ag layer at λ = 680 nm for w = 60 nm.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

As stated in Sec. 2, our simulation geometry can represent a region near a metal electrode in an OLED, where near-field coupling of excitons into bound SPP modes is known to decrease the device efficiency. This problem may be overcome by out-coupling those SPP modes using dielectric nanocubes, which can be embedded in the top electrode of an OLED by depositing them on a thin (∼10 nm) metal layer constituting the top electrode, followed by deposition of a thick (∼100 nm) layer of the same metal. In this process, deposition of the nanocubes must be performed in a dry fashion, since, otherwise, organic materials beneath the top electrode are degraded and/or damaged. Solvent-free deposition of the nanocubes may be achieved by transferring them from an elastomeric stamp onto the thin metal layer using a transfer-printing process, after the nanocubes are dispersed on the stamp by spin-coating a nanocube-suspended solution [27,28]. For a given emission spectrum of an OLED, the nanocube-suspended solution can be prepared, based on our simulation results, by mixing solutions of nanocubes with different sizes, each solution containing mono-dispersed nanocubes. This strategy is particularly suitable for increasing the out-coupling efficiency of a white OLED, whose emission spectrum often has multiple peaks [29]. Although scattering due to excitation of eigenmodes arising from interaction among multiple nanocubes in close proximity to one another can be exploited for this application, we focused in this study on the scattering characteristics of an isolated single nanocube for the following reason: the inter-nanocube distances, which strongly affects the resonance frequencies of the multi-nanocube eigenmodes, are very difficult to control experimentally, whereas the edge length of nanocubes, which determines the resonance frequencies of a single embedded nanocube, can be precisely controlled in the liquid-phase synthesis of mono-dispersed TiO2 nanocubes. Since the enhancement of the out-coupling efficiency is, to first order, expected to be proportional to the areal density of the nanocubes, the nanocube density must be sufficiently high, while avoiding the emergence of the multi-nanocube eigenmodes whose resonance frequencies may lie in unintended spectral regions by ensuring that the inter-nanocube distance is larger than ∼30 nm.

4. Conclusion

We performed numerical analyses of the scattering of SPPs at a planar metal–dielectric interface by a dielectric nanocube embedded in the metal layer using FEM simulations. The prominent peaks in the Ssca spectrum in each case of the nanocube with a different edge length, w = 60, 80, or 100 nm, were found to be due to excitation of different plasmonic eigenmodes of the system. The strongest out-coupling of incident SPP waves occurred when the dipolar-like plasmonic mode was excited at λ = 600, 640, and 680 nm for w = 60, 80, and 100 nm, respectively. Two modes with higher eigenfrequencies, referred to as the 1st and 2nd higher modes, and the additional lower-frequency mode supported by the nanocube with w = 60 nm were less efficient in out-coupling of SPPs, resulting into Ssca peaks smaller than those associated with the dipolar-like plasmonic mode. The far-field scattering patterns calculated for the Ssca peaks were dependent on the plasmonic modes associated with the peaks, with scattering due to the dipolar-like mode mostly directed toward the direction normal to the Ag surface. Further numerical studies including the effects of different orientations and shapes of the nanocubes, and distances between the nanocubes and the metal–dielectric interface, as well as experimental investigations, are necessary to fully maximize the scattering efficiency. In addition, it is worthwhile to investigate the effects of roughness at the metal–nanocube interfaces, since the interface roughness is known to weaken the strength of plasmonic resonances and/or to shift the resonance frequencies [30]. Our results may be applied to other general cases where efficient out-coupling of SPP modes is desired, including SPP-based thin film spectroscopy [31] and second harmonic generation [32], and integrated plasmonic circuits [33].

Funding

National Research Foundation under the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning, Republic of Korea (NRF-2014R1A1A1006332).

References and links

1. S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671–1677 (2006). [CrossRef]  

2. M. G. Nielsen, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient absorption of visible radiation by gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 13311–13319 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008). [CrossRef]  

4. A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241–250 (1998). [CrossRef]  

5. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006). [CrossRef]  

6. E. Lee and C. Kim, “Analysis and optimization of surface plasmon-enhanced organic solar cells with a metallic crossed grating electrode,” Opt. Express 20, A740–A753 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. I. Jeong, J. Kwon, C. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Design and numerical analysis of surface plasmon-enhanced fin Ge-Si light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22, 5927–5936 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, X. Zhao, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, “Symmetric hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguides for 3D photonic integration,” Opt. Express 17, 21320–21325 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. R. Naraoka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, “Surface plasmon resonance enhanced second-harmonic generation in Kretschmann configuration,” Opt. Commun. 248, 249–256 (2005). [CrossRef]  

11. Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011). [CrossRef]  

12. Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, C. C. Davis, and H.-C. Wu, “Fluorescence enhancement by surface gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 10825–10830 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2009). [CrossRef]  

15. V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010). [CrossRef]  

18. COMSOL, Multiphysics Reference Guide for COMSOL 4.3 (COMSOL,2012).

19. X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013). [CrossRef]  

20. S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Optics 54, 477–481 (2015). [CrossRef]  

21. G. E. Jellison Jr., L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003). [CrossRef]  

22. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University, 2006). [CrossRef]  

23. J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994). [CrossRef]  

24. H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006). [CrossRef]  

26. F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994). [CrossRef]  

27. V. Santhanam and R. P. Andres, “Microcontact printing of uniform nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 4, 41–44 (2004). [CrossRef]  

28. T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007). [CrossRef]  

29. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004). [CrossRef]  

32. L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007). [CrossRef]  

33. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

  • View by:

  1. S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671–1677 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. G. Nielsen, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient absorption of visible radiation by gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 13311–13319 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241–250 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Lee and C. Kim, “Analysis and optimization of surface plasmon-enhanced organic solar cells with a metallic crossed grating electrode,” Opt. Express 20, A740–A753 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. I. Jeong, J. Kwon, C. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Design and numerical analysis of surface plasmon-enhanced fin Ge-Si light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22, 5927–5936 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, X. Zhao, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, “Symmetric hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguides for 3D photonic integration,” Opt. Express 17, 21320–21325 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. Naraoka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, “Surface plasmon resonance enhanced second-harmonic generation in Kretschmann configuration,” Opt. Commun. 248, 249–256 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, C. C. Davis, and H.-C. Wu, “Fluorescence enhancement by surface gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 10825–10830 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. COMSOL, Multiphysics Reference Guide for COMSOL 4.3 (COMSOL,2012).
  19. X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Optics 54, 477–481 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. E. Jellison, L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  22. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  26. F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  27. V. Santhanam and R. P. Andres, “Microcontact printing of uniform nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 4, 41–44 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  32. L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Optics 54, 477–481 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Bian, Z. Zheng, X. Zhao, J. Zhu, and T. Zhou, “Symmetric hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguides for 3D photonic integration,” Opt. Express 17, 21320–21325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671–1677 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Hung, I. I. Smolyaninov, C. C. Davis, and H.-C. Wu, “Fluorescence enhancement by surface gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 10825–10830 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. Naraoka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, “Surface plasmon resonance enhanced second-harmonic generation in Kretschmann configuration,” Opt. Commun. 248, 249–256 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Santhanam and R. P. Andres, “Microcontact printing of uniform nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 4, 41–44 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Jellison, L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241–250 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrecht, M.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

Andres, R. P.

V. Santhanam and R. P. Andres, “Microcontact printing of uniform nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 4, 41–44 (2004).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Babar, S.

S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Optics 54, 477–481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berenger, J.-P.

J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bian, Y.

Boardman, A. D.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boatner, L. A.

G. E. Jellison, L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bolivar, P. H.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Bratschitsch, R.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budai, J. D.

G. E. Jellison, L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003).
[Crossref]

Byeon, C. C.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Campion, A.

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241–250 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-Y.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. C.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Green, M.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Greffet, J.-J.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, K.

R. Naraoka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, “Surface plasmon resonance enhanced second-harmonic generation in Kretschmann configuration,” Opt. Commun. 248, 249–256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hung, Y.-J.

Janke, C.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeong, B.-S.

G. E. Jellison, L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeong, I.

Jia, J. G.

X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jian, X.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kajikawa, K.

R. Naraoka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, “Surface plasmon resonance enhanced second-harmonic generation in Kretschmann configuration,” Opt. Commun. 248, 249–256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kambhampati, P.

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241–250 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.-H.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

Kim, J.-Y.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klieber, C.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knittel, V.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, T.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kwon, J.

Kwon, M.-K.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, E.

Leitenstorfer, A.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leong, E. S.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lussem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671–1677 (2006).
[Crossref]

Makarov, D.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malaquin, L.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maradudin, A. A.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[Crossref]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Naraoka, R.

R. Naraoka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, “Surface plasmon resonance enhanced second-harmonic generation in Kretschmann configuration,” Opt. Commun. 248, 249–256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nelson, K. A.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. G.

Nordlander, P.

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norton, D. P.

G. E. Jellison, L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003).
[Crossref]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).
[Crossref]

Okawa, H.

R. Naraoka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, “Surface plasmon resonance enhanced second-harmonic generation in Kretschmann configuration,” Opt. Commun. 248, 249–256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, I.-K.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

Pellemans, H. P. M.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pincemin, F.

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pors, A.

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reyes-Coronado, A.

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riess, W.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rivas, J. G.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Santhanam, V.

V. Santhanam and R. P. Andres, “Microcontact printing of uniform nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 4, 41–44 (2004).
[Crossref]

Saxler, J.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmid, H.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Si, G.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Spencer, N. D.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, J.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomay, T.

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weaver, J. H.

S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Optics 54, 477–481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, H.

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, H.

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.-C.

Xu, H.

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, X. D.

X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, T.

Zhou, X. W.

X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Zong, Y.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-H. Kim, I.-K. Park, C.-Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S.-J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Optics (1)

S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Optics 54, 477–481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, G. Zhang, J. Zhao, and M. Green, “Enhanced emission from Si-based light-emitting diodes using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161102 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (1)

Y. Liu, S. Xu, H. Li, X. Jian, and W. Xu, “Localized and propagating surface plasmon co-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent field excitation,” Chem. Commun. 47, 3784–3786 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241–250 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671–1677 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. E. Jellison, L. A. Boatner, J. D. Budai, B.-S. Jeong, and D. P. Norton, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film and bulk anatase (TiO2),” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9537–9541 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. A (1)

X. D. Yan, L. Feng, J. G. Jia, X. W. Zhou, and Y. Lin, “Controllable synthesis of anatase TiO2 crystals for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5347–5352 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

V. Santhanam and R. P. Andres, “Microcontact printing of uniform nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 4, 41–44 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

V. V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, and R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1468 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

T. Kraus, L. Malaquin, H. Schmid, W. Riess, N. D. Spencer, and H. Wolf, “Nanoparticle printing with single-particle resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 570–576 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (1)

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3, 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Naraoka, H. Okawa, K. Hashimoto, and K. Kajikawa, “Surface plasmon resonance enhanced second-harmonic generation in Kretschmann configuration,” Opt. Commun. 248, 249–256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pincemin, A. A. Maradudin, A. D. Boardman, and J.-J. Greffet, “Scattering of a surface plasmon polariton by a surface defect,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15261–15275 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Surface second-harmonic generation from surface plasmon waves scattered by metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).
[Crossref]

COMSOL, Multiphysics Reference Guide for COMSOL 4.3 (COMSOL,2012).

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of the simulation structure showing a SPP mode (red) propagating from the left to the right along the x axis, and a TiO2 nanocube with a varying edge length (w = 60, 80, or 100 nm) embedded in the Ag layer. The structure is shown in three- (a) and two-dimensional (b) views. θ and φ represent the polar and azimuthal angles, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Ssca spectra of the embedded nanocube with w = 60, 80, or 100 nm as functions of λ.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Surface charge densities (σ) and field profiles of the 100-nm nanocube showing the characteristics of plasmonic modes. The σ distributions obtained from the scattering simulation are shown for the three Ssca peaks at (a) λ1 = 680 nm, (b) λ2 = 640 nm, and (c) λ3 = 540 nm, and those obtained from the eigenmode calculation are shown for (d) the dipolar-like mode (λ = 674 nm), (e) the 1st higher mode (λ = 634 nm), and (f) the 2nd higher mode (λ = 539 nm). The field profiles obtained from the scattering simulation are also shown for (g) Ex at λ1, (h) Ex at λ2, and (i) Ez at λ2. The results of the scattering simulation were captured when the volume integration of E x 2 in the nanocube was at its maximum. Adjustment of the color scales for clear visualization of the σ and field distributions in the interior of the nanocube faces resulted in color saturation in some areas on the edges for (c), (f), (g), (h), and (i).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Distributions of surface charge density (σ) on the faces of the nanocubes with w = 80 and 60 nm corresponding to the three Ssca peaks at (a) λ = 640 nm, (b) λ = 600 nm, and (c) λ = 520 nm, for w =80 nm, and (d) λ = 600 nm, (e) λ = 570 nm, and (f) λ = 500 nm, for w = 60 nm. All images were captured when the volume integration E x 2 in the nanocube was at its maximum. Adjustment of the color scales for clear visualization of the σ distributions in the interior of the nanocube faces resulted in color saturation in some areas on the edges for (c) and (f).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Surface charge density (σ) of the 60-nm nanocube obtained from the scattering simulation for an additional peak in Ssca found at λ = 660 nm. (b) The σ distribution of the eigenmode found at λ = 675 nm. The Ex and Ez profiles obtained from the scattering simulation are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. All images were captured when the volume integration of E x 2 in the nanocube was at its maximum. In (c) and (d), adjustment of the color scales for clear visualization of overall field distributions resulted in color saturation in some areas on the edges.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Far-field scattering patterns for w = 100 nm when the dipolar-like (a), 1st higher (b), and 2nd higher (c) modes are excited by incident SPPs. In (d), the far-field scattering pattern for the additional Ssca peak observed at λ = 660 nm for w = 60 nm is shown. Directions of the far-field scattering are specified by the polar (θ, black lines) and azimuthal (φ, white lines) angles.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Sabs spectra of the embedded nanocube with w = 60, 80, or 100 nm as functions of λ.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Spectra of reflectance (R, green) and transmittance (T, blue) compared with those of Ssca (black) of the nanocube for w = 60, 80, and 100 nm. (b) ||2 distribution, shown in log scale, in the plane at z = 1 nm normal to the z-axis at maximum reflectance (λ = 640 nm) for w = 100 nm. (c) Local field enhancement (||2/|0|2) in log scale on the surface of the Ag layer at λ = 680 nm for w = 60 nm.

Metrics