Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a low-power and low-current cryogenic readout interface for a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) using adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic. The AQFP readout interface samples and digitizes the current signal from an SSPD, generating binary output data in accordance with the detection behavior of the SSPD. We demonstrate the correct operation of an SSPD with the interface, where the AQFP readout interface and the SSPD are placed in separate 0.1-W Gifford–McMahon (GM) cryocoolers and are interconnected via coaxial cables. It was found that the temperature of the sample stage did not change even after the AQFP readout interface was turned on, which revealed that the AQFP readout interface uses sufficiently low power and current for a compact cryocooler.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs or SNSPDs) [1] have made significant contributions to numerous research fields [2–6], which include quantum optics, quantum information, laser communications, laser sensing, and fluorescent correlation spectroscopy, through taking advantage of their superior performance in detection efficiency, count rates, and timing jitters [7–9]. Recently, much effort has been spent on the development of a multi-pixel SSPD array [10–12], which has high-speed operation, large device areas, pseudo-photon-number resolution, and spatial resolution, suitable for an even wider application range. So far, 64-pixel SSPD arrays have been fabricated by two research groups [13,14]. In the literature [14], the simultaneous operation of the 64 pixels was reported. Arrays with an even larger number of pixels are going to be developed for better performance. Since SSPDs are operated at cryogenic temperatures, a typical and inherent problem of many-pixel SSPD arrays is that the heat flow induced by numerous coaxial cables, which are required to read out and bias the pixel detectors, can exceed the cooling power of a cryocooler. Thus, several types of readout schemes to reduce the number of coaxial cables have been reported [15–19].

We proposed a cryogenic readout interface using superconductor logic [20], which digitizes and encodes the current signals from the detector array at cryogenic temperature, sending binary data outside via a few (or a single) coaxial cables. Previously, we reported the readout operations of SSPDs [21] using rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) logic [22]. The advantage of RSFQ logic as a cryogenic readout interface is that its power consumption is very low. Typically, the power consumption of a single RSFQ logic gate is in the μW-range. However, as the pixel number of the detector array increases and the RSFQ readout interface scales up, larger bias currents are required to drive the RSFQ circuits. Assuming an average bias current for a single Josephson junction is 120 μA, the total bias current for a 10,000-junction RSFQ circuit may reach 1.2 A. Large bias currents and the resistance of the coaxial cables inside the cryocooler induce serious Joule heating, which is much larger than the power consumption of RSFQ circuits [23]. We found that the temperature of the RSFQ chip placed on the sample stage increased from 2.7 K to approximately 6 K by supplying a bias current of 370 mA to the RSFQ chip. Therefore, the cryogenic readout interface for SSPDs should operate using low current as well as low power.

In order to reduce the supply current to the readout interface, one possible solution is to introduce current recycling [24] into RSFQ circuits, in which bias currents are serially supplied to multiple circuit blocks with different ground levels. However, circuits composed of repeated structures, such as counters, can benefit from it [25,26]. Also, it is difficult to achieve wide bias margins when adopting current recycling [25,26]. Another solution is to design a readout interface using a different superconductor logic, such as adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic [27], which is an adiabatic superconductor logic based on the quantum-flux-parametron (QFP) [28]. In AQFP logic, a pair of ac bias currents excite logic gates via magnetic couplings, and thus the amount of bias current does not increase with circuit scale. Therefore, it would be possible to design a low-current, as well as low-power, readout interface by using AQFP logic.

In this paper, we propose a readout interface using AQFP logic. Followed by a general explanation on AQFP logic, we then show the detail of the AQFP readout interface, which includes a comparator, an XOR gate, and a voltage driver [29]. The AQFP readout interface samples and digitizes the tiny current signals from an SSPD and outputs mV-range binary signals in accordance with the detection behavior of the SSPD. Then, we demonstrate an SSPD using the AQFP readout interface, where the AQFP chip and the SSPD chip are placed in separate 0.1-W Gifford–McMahon (GM) cryocoolers and are interconnected via coaxial cables. Measurement results revealed that the AQFP readout interface correctly digitized the current signal from the SSPD.

2. AQFP readout interface

AQFP logic has been recently undergoing extensive investigation to achieve an energy-efficient superconductor computing system. The switching energy (energy dissipation per switching event) of a single AQFP gate can be arbitrarily reduced [30] through adiabatic switching [31,32], in which the potential energy profile is gradually changed between a single-well shape and a double-well shape. In practice, there is a trade-off between switching energy and operation frequencies; switching energy is zero in the quasi-static limit but increases with operation frequencies. In a previous study [33], we measured the energy dissipation of an AQFP gate at an operation frequency of 5 GHz and found that the switching energy was still as small as approximately 10−20 J. The maximum operation frequency is given by the time constants and the damping conditions of the Josephson junctions in the AQFP gate. In this study, we fabricate the AQFP interface using the AIST 2.5 kA/cm2 Nb standard process (STP2) [34] and the Josephson junctions are critically damped, which gives a maximum operation frequency of approximately 47 GHz [35]. Most importantly, AQFP logic is not only low-power but also drivable by low current. This is because, unlike RSFQ logic, the amount of bias (excitation) current for AQFP circuits does not increase with the circuit scale due to ac magnetic-flux excitation [36]. In a previous study [37], we operated a 20,000-junction AQFP circuit with a total bias current of only 4.8 mA, which is three orders of magnitude smaller than that of a 20,000-junction RSFQ circuit.

Figure 1(a) shows our proposed readout interface using AQFP logic, which is composed of a comparator, an XOR gate, and a voltage driver. The comparator is a buffer (BUF) gate with an offset input current (Ith), which works as the threshold current for the comparator. The current signal from an SSPD (Iin) is terminated by a 50-Ω resistor and is sampled by the comparator. Additional BUF gates are placed between the comparator and the XOR gate just in case the XOR gate affects the comparator, as this is the first demonstration of using AQFP logic as an interface for an SSPD. The AQFP readout interface is driven by a four-phase excitation mode using a pair of ac bias currents and a dc offset current, the detail of which is given in the literature [36]. ϕ1 through ϕ4 in the figure represent the excitation phases. Figure 1(b) shows how the AQFP readout interface digitizes Iin. The grids represent the sampling period, which is synchronized with the ac bias currents. Iin is sampled by the comparator and a logic 1 (logic 0) is generated if Iin is larger (smaller) than Ith. Since the current sensitivity of the AQFP is very high due to the small gray zone width (~1 μA) [38], the comparator digitizes tiny Iin with low error rates. Every time an SSPD current pulse arrives (A), the comparator generates multiple logic 1s (B). The number of the generated logic 1s varies with the shape and the arrival time of the SSPD current pulse, which is not convenient from the viewpoint of the post processing of measurement results. Therefore, the train of logic 1s (B) is converted into a pair of logic 1s using an XOR gate (C), which compares the last sampling result with the second to last sampling result, thus generating a logic 1 only when Iin crosses Ith. As a result, the number of logic-1 pairs corresponds to that of SSPD current pulses and the interval of a logic-1 pair depends on the shape and the arrival time of its corresponding SSPD current pulse. The logic-1 pairs are amplified into mV-range binary signals using a voltage driver [29] and are sent out of the cryocooler. We designed the AQFP readout interface using a minimal cell library [36,39] and fabricated it using STP2. Figure 1(c) shows the micrograph of the fabricated AQFP readout interface. Note that it is also possible to process the train of logic 1s outside the cryocooler. However, in this case, we need a rather complex measurement setup using a semiconductor-based microprocessor or field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to measure additional characteristics such as the output count rate. On the other hand, by processing the logic-1 train inside the cryocooler as shown in Fig. 1, we can measure the output count rate of an SSDP with the AQFP interface in a conventional SSPD measurement setup using a pulse counter.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 AQFP readout interface for an SSPD. (a) Schematic. The comparator samples the current signal from an SSPD. The XOR gate compares the last sampling result with the second to last sampling result. The voltage driver amplifies the logic signals of AQFP into mV-range binary signals. (b) Timing chart. A pair of logic 1s is generated for each SSPD current pulse. (c) Micrograph.

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3. Experiment

First, we conducted a preliminary test of the AQFP readout interface placed in a GM cryocooler. Figure 2 shows the measurement waveforms with Ith = 0 μA. Two sinusoidal bias currents with a phase separation of 90 degrees (Ix1 and Ix2) were applied by a function generator, the input current sequences (Iin) were applied by a pattern generator, and the output voltage (Vout) was observed after undergoing amplification by semiconductor low noise amplifiers (LNAs). Ix1, Ix2, and dc offset current drive the AQFP gates shown in Fig. 1a from ϕ1 to ϕ4 with a phase separation of 90 degrees [36]. The frequency of Ix1 and Ix2 is 10 MHz, which equals the sampling frequency of the comparator, fsample. The figure shows that, every time Iin crosses the threshold current (0 μA), a high voltage signal (logic 1) is generated at Vout. Therefore, the number of logic-1 pairs corresponds to the number of input current pulses, independent of the pulse width of Iin. Through this preliminary test, we observed wide operation margins of 6.1 dB (−20.7 dBm to −14.6 dBm) and 6.5 dB (−20.7 dBm to −14.6 dBm) for Ix1 and Ix2, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Waveforms of the preliminary test. The AQFP readout interface is driven by the two sinusoidal bias currents with a phase separation of 90 degrees, Ix1 and Ix2. Independent of the pulse width of Iin, a pair of high voltage signals (logic 1s) is generated at Vout for each current pulse.

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Then, we demonstrated a fiber-coupled SSPD with the AQFP readout interface. Figure 3 shows the measurement setup. For simplicity, some of the cables connected to the set up are not shown. The AQFP readout interface and the SSPD are placed in separate 0.1-W GM cryocoolers (GM1 and GM2) and are interconnected via coaxial cables and a bias tee. This setup makes it easy to compare the count rates using the AQFP interface with the count rates without using the AQFP interface to confirm if the AQFP interface digitizes the current signal from the SSPD with low error rates. The temperatures of the sample stages in GM1 and GM2 were 2.11 K and 2.63 K, respectively. The reason why the sample stage of GM2 has a higher temperature than that of GM1 is because more coaxial cables are connected inside GM2 than inside GM1. The SSPD device used in the experiment is identical to the one reported in [40], which is comprised of multiple nanowire pairs to achieve a higher performance than conventional structures. The device was formed by 60-nm-width and 80-nm-space NbTiN nanowires with a detection area of 15 × 15 μm2. It showed a switching current of 19.5 μA, and a system detection efficiency of approximately 81.0% at 1550-nm wavelength. The bias current supplied to the SSPD (Isspd) and the threshold current to the AQFP readout interface (Ith) are provided by voltage supplies via 100-kΩ resistors. The pulse laser generates a 1-MHz pulse train, where the number of photons per pulse (Nphoton) ranges from 10−1 to 104 via a power controller and an optical attenuator. The SSPD receives the attenuated laser pulse train and generates current pulses (Iin), which are directly sampled by the AQFP readout interface without amplification. The interface generates logic-1 pairs (Vout), and the count rate of the logic-1 pairs (CRaqfp) is measured by the pulse counter. It is noteworthy that the temperature of the sample stage of GM2 did not change from the initial temperature of 2.63 K even after the AQFP readout interface was turned on by applying a −17.2-dBm ac bias current to Ix1, a −17.2-dBm ac bias current to Ix2, and a 1.28-mA dc offset current. This demonstrates that the AQFP readout interface uses sufficiently low power and current for implementations using a 0.1-W GM cryocooler.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Measurement setup. The SSPD receives the attenuated laser pulse train and generates current pulses (Iin), which are directly sampled by the AQFP readout interface without amplification. Logic-1 pairs (Vout) are generated by the interface and their count rate is measured by the pulse counter via an amplification using LNAs.

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To reduce the number of missed detections of current pules from the SPPD, fsample of the AQFP readout interface should be carefully determined. We observed CRaqfp as a function of fsample by varying the frequency of Ix1 and Ix2 up to 100 MHz, which is the maximum available frequency of the function generator. We set Isspd to be relatively low (10 μA) and set Nphoton to be relatively high (~103) in order to observe CRaqfp under the condition that the SSPD outputs a current pulse in response to a laser pulse with an almost 100% probability and that it does not generate current pulses against stray light from the pulsed laser source due to a poor extinction ratio. Since the output count rate of the SSPD is almost the same as the laser pulse rate under this condition, the validity of the value of fsample can be easily investigated by comparing CRaqfp with the laser pulse rate (106 cps). Figure 4 shows the measurement results, where Isspd = 10 μA, Ith = 1.2 μA, and Nphoton is approximately 103. CRaqfp increases with fsample, because the probability that the AQFP readout interface detects the current pulse from the SSPD increases as the period of fsample approaches the decay time of the current pulse, which was approximately 10 ns as shown in the inset of Fig. 4. For an fsample of 100 MHz, CRaqfp was almost equal to the output rate of the pulse laser (106 cps), which indicates that the AQFP readout interface does not miss most of the current pulses from the SSPD. Therefore, we determined fsample to be 100 MHz. Finally, we observed CRaqfp as a function of Nphoton to demonstrate that the AQFP readout interface correctly digitizes Iin in accordance with the detection behavior of the SSPD. Figure 5 shows output count rates as a function of Nphoton for an SSPD with and without AQFP readout interfaces, where Isspd = 10 μA, Ith = 1.2 μA, and fsample = 100 MHz. The markers represent the count rate using the AQFP interface (CRaqfp) and the line represents the count rate without using the AQFP interface (CRsspd). CRsspd was measured using a standard readout scheme, where the output signal of the SSPD was applied to the pulse counter via a bias tee and LNAs. The figure shows that CRaqfp agreed well with CRsspd for the entire range of Nphoton, which clearly indicates that the AQFP readout interface correctly digitized the SSPD current pulses.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Count rate, CRaqfp, as a function of the sampling frequency, fsample. CRaqfp increases with fsample and reaches the output rate of the pulse laser (106 cps) at fsample of approximately 100 MHz. The inset shows the observed waveform of the SSPD current pulse with a decay time of approximately 10 ns.

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Count rates, CRaqfp and CRsspd, as a function of the number of photons per pulse, Nphoton. For the entire range of Nphoton, CRaqfp agreed well with CRsspd, which indicates that the AQFP readout interface correctly samples and digitize the SSPD current pulses.

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4. Conclusion

We proposed a low-power and low-current readout interface for an SSPD using AQFP logic. The measurement results showed that the AQFP readout interface correctly sampled and digitized the current signal from the SSPD. It was revealed that the AQFP readout interface uses sufficiently low power and current for a compact cryocooler, because the temperature of the sample stage did not change even after the AQFP readout interface was turned on. For our next step, we will design and demonstrate an AQFP readout interface integrated with a multi-pixel SSPD array in the same cryocooler, which includes an AQFP-based signal processor to encode the current signals from the SSPD array. The signal processor would be a conventional binary encoder, which generates log2(N) digital outputs from N digital inputs, where N is an integer. For a 1,024-pixel array, we can obtain the spatial information of the array from log2(1,024) = 10 parallel output lines by using the signal processor, which helps reducing the number of readout coaxial cables. The advantage of AQFP logic is that the amount of ac bias current does not increase even if a signal processor is added and the circuit complexity increases with the number of pixels. Therefore, we can avoid increasing the Joule heating generated by the bias currents and the resistance of coaxial cables, which is much larger than the power consumption of superconductor logic. We expect that we will be able to achieve a many-pixel SSPD array by using an AQFP readout interface.

Funding

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Kakenhi Kiban (A) (No. 26249054); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) PRESTO (No. JPMJPR1528).

Acknowledgments

The circuits were fabricated in the Clean Room for Analog-digital superconductiVITY (CRAVITY) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) by using the standard process (STP2). The authors would like to thank C. J. Fourie for providing the 3D inductance extractor, InductEx.

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References

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  1. G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
  2. T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).
  3. Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).
  4. D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).
  5. A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  6. T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  7. S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  8. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
  9. L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J.-M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 1–10 (2016).
  10. E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
  11. D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  12. A. Casaburi, A. Pizzone, and R. H. Hadfield, “Large area Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon detector arrays,” in 2014 Fotonica AEIT Italian Conference on Photonics Technologies (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.
  13. S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  14. M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
  15. E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).
  16. Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).
  17. T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  18. M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).
  19. S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 32603 (2017).
  20. H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout Electronics Using Single-Flux-Quantum Circuit Technology for Superconducting Single-Photon Detector Array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 350–353 (2009).
  21. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  22. K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson-junction technology for sub-terahertz-clock-frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(1), 3–28 (1991).
  23. H. Terai, K. Makise, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Design and testing of SFQ signal processor for 64-pixel SSPD array,” in The Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014 (ASC 2014) (2014).
  24. H. Kang and S. B. Kaplan, “Current recycling and SFQ signal transfer in large scale RSFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 547–550 (2003).
  25. S. B. Kaplan, “Serial Biasing of 16 Modular Circuits at 50 Gb/s,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 22, 1300103 (2012).
  26. K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).
  27. N. Takeuchi, D. Ozawa, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “An adiabatic quantum flux parametron as an ultra-low-power logic device,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 35010 (2013).
  28. M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).
  29. N. Takeuchi, H. Suzuki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of low bit-error-rates of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconductor voltage driver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 202601 (2017).
  30. N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Thermodynamic study of energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(3), 034007 (2015).
  31. K. Likharev, “Dynamics of some single flux quantum devices: I. Parametric quantron,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 13(1), 242–244 (1977).
  32. J. G. Koller and W. C. Athas, “Adiabatic Switching, Low Energy Computing, And The Physics Of Storing And Erasing Information,” in Workshop on Physics and Computation (IEEE, 1992), pp. 267–270.
  33. N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of 10 zJ energy dissipation of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconducting resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 52602 (2013).
  34. S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
  35. N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28, 15003 (2015).
  36. N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).
  37. T. Narama, Y. Yamanashi, N. Takeuchi, T. Ortlepp, and N. Yoshikawa, “Demonstration of 10k gate-scale adiabatic-quantum-flux-parametron circuits,” in The 15th International Superconductive Electronics Conference (ISEC 2015) (IEEE, 2015).
  38. Y. Yamanashi, T. Matsushima, N. Takeuchi, N. Yoshikawa, and T. Ortlepp, “Evaluation of current sensitivity of quantum flux parametron,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 84004 (2017).
  39. N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173912 (2015).
  40. S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Stable, high-performance operation of a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6796–6804 (2017).
    [PubMed]

2017 (7)

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 32603 (2017).

K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, H. Suzuki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of low bit-error-rates of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconductor voltage driver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 202601 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).

Y. Yamanashi, T. Matsushima, N. Takeuchi, N. Yoshikawa, and T. Ortlepp, “Evaluation of current sensitivity of quantum flux parametron,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 84004 (2017).

S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Stable, high-performance operation of a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6796–6804 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (3)

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J.-M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 1–10 (2016).

2015 (4)

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28, 15003 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173912 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Thermodynamic study of energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(3), 034007 (2015).

2014 (4)

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

2013 (7)

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[PubMed]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of 10 zJ energy dissipation of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconducting resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 52602 (2013).

N. Takeuchi, D. Ozawa, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “An adiabatic quantum flux parametron as an ultra-low-power logic device,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 35010 (2013).

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout Electronics Using Single-Flux-Quantum Circuit Technology for Superconducting Single-Photon Detector Array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 350–353 (2009).

2007 (1)

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

2003 (1)

H. Kang and S. B. Kaplan, “Current recycling and SFQ signal transfer in large scale RSFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 547–550 (2003).

2001 (1)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

1995 (1)

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).

1991 (2)

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson-junction technology for sub-terahertz-clock-frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(1), 3–28 (1991).

1977 (1)

K. Likharev, “Dynamics of some single flux quantum devices: I. Parametric quantron,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 13(1), 242–244 (1977).

Abe, Y.

K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).

Allman, M. S.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

Anant, V.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

Ando, T.

N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).

Arndt, M.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

Athas, W. C.

J. G. Koller and W. C. Athas, “Adiabatic Switching, Low Energy Computing, And The Physics Of Storing And Erasing Information,” in Workshop on Physics and Computation (IEEE, 1992), pp. 267–270.

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Bellei, F.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).

Berggren, K. K.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

Beyer, A.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

Boes, F.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 32603 (2017).

Boroson, D. M.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

Bulgarini, G.

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J.-M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 1–10 (2016).

Buller, G. S.

Burianek, D. A.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

Calandri, N.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).

Casaburi, A.

A. Casaburi, A. Pizzone, and R. H. Hadfield, “Large area Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon detector arrays,” in 2014 Fotonica AEIT Italian Conference on Photonics Technologies (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Casas, J.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Charaev, I.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 32603 (2017).

Chen, S.-J.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Chen, T.-Y.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Chen, X.-F.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

China, F.

N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Cornwell, D. M.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

Dane, A. E.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).

Dauler, E. A.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

Dobrovolskiy, S.

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J.-M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 1–10 (2016).

Doerner, S.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 32603 (2017).

Dorenbos, S. N.

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J.-M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 1–10 (2016).

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Engert, S.

Fan, J.-Y.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Fritzsch, L.

Gemmell, N. R.

Gérard, J.-M.

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J.-M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 1–10 (2016).

Gerrits, T.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Gol’tsman, G.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

Gol’tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Goto, E.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Grein, M. E.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

Hadfield, R. H.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Casaburi, A. Pizzone, and R. H. Hadfield, “Large area Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon detector arrays,” in 2014 Fotonica AEIT Italian Conference on Photonics Technologies (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Harada, Y.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Haraguchi, T.

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Hashimoto, Y.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).

Henrich, D.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

Hidaka, M.

N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).

Hioe, W.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Hiraoka, Y.

Hofherr, M.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Horansky, R. D.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

Hosoya, M.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Ikuta, R.

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

Il’in, K.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

Ilin, K.

Imoto, N.

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

Jiang, X.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Jiang, Y.-F.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Kamikawai, R.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Kang, H.

H. Kang and S. B. Kaplan, “Current recycling and SFQ signal transfer in large scale RSFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 547–550 (2003).

Kaplan, S. B.

S. B. Kaplan, “Serial Biasing of 16 Modular Circuits at 50 Gb/s,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 22, 1300103 (2012).

H. Kang and S. B. Kaplan, “Current recycling and SFQ signal transfer in large scale RSFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 547–550 (2003).

Kerman, A. J.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

Khatri, F.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

Kinjo, M.

Koashi, M.

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

Koller, J. G.

J. G. Koller and W. C. Athas, “Adiabatic Switching, Low Energy Computing, And The Physics Of Storing And Erasing Information,” in Workshop on Physics and Computation (IEEE, 1992), pp. 267–270.

Kovalik, J. M.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

Krichel, N. J.

Kumor, D.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

Kuzmin, A.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 32603 (2017).

Likharev, K.

K. Likharev, “Dynamics of some single flux quantum devices: I. Parametric quantron,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 13(1), 242–244 (1977).

Likharev, K. K.

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson-junction technology for sub-terahertz-clock-frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(1), 3–28 (1991).

Lipatov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Lita, A. E.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Liu, D.

Makise, K.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
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H. Terai, K. Makise, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Design and testing of SFQ signal processor for 64-pixel SSPD array,” in The Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014 (ASC 2014) (2014).

Mao, Y.-L.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Marsili, F.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Matsushima, T.

Y. Yamanashi, T. Matsushima, N. Takeuchi, N. Yoshikawa, and T. Ortlepp, “Evaluation of current sensitivity of quantum flux parametron,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 84004 (2017).

May, T.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

McCarthy, A.

McCaughan, A. N.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).

Meyer, H.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

Meyer, H.-G.

Miki, S.

S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Stable, high-performance operation of a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6796–6804 (2017).
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Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
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E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
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S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
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T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
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H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout Electronics Using Single-Flux-Quantum Circuit Technology for Superconducting Single-Photon Detector Array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 350–353 (2009).

H. Terai, K. Makise, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Design and testing of SFQ signal processor for 64-pixel SSPD array,” in The Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014 (ASC 2014) (2014).

Mirin, R.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Molnar, R. J.

Monroy, E.

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J.-M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 1–10 (2016).

Murphy, D. V.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

Nagasawa, S.

N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).

Nakane, H.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Nam, S. W.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Numata, H.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).

Ohkubo, M.

K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).

Okunev, O.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Ortlepp, T.

Y. Yamanashi, T. Matsushima, N. Takeuchi, N. Yoshikawa, and T. Ortlepp, “Evaluation of current sensitivity of quantum flux parametron,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 84004 (2017).

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ozawa, D.

N. Takeuchi, D. Ozawa, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “An adiabatic quantum flux parametron as an ultra-low-power logic device,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 35010 (2013).

Pan, J.-W.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Pizzone, A.

A. Casaburi, A. Pizzone, and R. H. Hadfield, “Large area Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon detector arrays,” in 2014 Fotonica AEIT Italian Conference on Photonics Technologies (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Rall, D.

Redaelli, L.

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J.-M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 1–10 (2016).

Ren, X.

Robinson, B. S.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

Rosenberg, D.

Rosfjord, E. K. M.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

Sano, K.

K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).

Santavicca, D. F.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).

Semenov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Semenov, V. K.

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: a new Josephson-junction technology for sub-terahertz-clock-frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(1), 3–28 (1991).

Shaw, M. D.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Shimoda, T.

K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).

Siegel, M.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 32603 (2017).

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Sodnik, Z.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Burianek, F. Khatri, J. M. Kovalik, Z. Sodnik, and D. M. Cornwell, “Overview and results of the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710S (2014).

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Stevens, M.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

Suda, R.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Sun, Q.-C.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Suzuki, H.

N. Takeuchi, H. Suzuki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of low bit-error-rates of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconductor voltage driver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 202601 (2017).

Tahara, S.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).

Takeuchi, N.

N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).

Y. Yamanashi, T. Matsushima, N. Takeuchi, N. Yoshikawa, and T. Ortlepp, “Evaluation of current sensitivity of quantum flux parametron,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 84004 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, H. Suzuki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of low bit-error-rates of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconductor voltage driver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 202601 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Thermodynamic study of energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(3), 034007 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28, 15003 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173912 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of 10 zJ energy dissipation of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconducting resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 52602 (2013).

N. Takeuchi, D. Ozawa, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “An adiabatic quantum flux parametron as an ultra-low-power logic device,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 35010 (2013).

Tanner, M. G.

Terai, H.

S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Stable, high-performance operation of a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6796–6804 (2017).
[PubMed]

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[PubMed]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout Electronics Using Single-Flux-Quantum Circuit Technology for Superconducting Single-Photon Detector Array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 350–353 (2009).

H. Terai, K. Makise, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Design and testing of SFQ signal processor for 64-pixel SSPD array,” in The Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014 (ASC 2014) (2014).

Toepfer, H.

Toussaint, J.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H. Meyer, “Time-Tagged Multiplexing of Serially Biased Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Verma, V. B.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).

Voronov, B.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Wada, Y.

M. Hosoya, W. Hioe, J. Casas, R. Kamikawai, Y. Harada, Y. Wada, H. Nakane, R. Suda, and E. Goto, “Quantum flux parametron: a single quantum flux device for Josephson supercomputer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(2), 77–89 (1991).

Wang, H.-Z.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. F. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 1–6 (2017).

Wang, Z.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[PubMed]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout Electronics Using Single-Flux-Quantum Circuit Technology for Superconducting Single-Photon Detector Array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 350–353 (2009).

H. Terai, K. Makise, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Design and testing of SFQ signal processor for 64-pixel SSPD array,” in The Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014 (ASC 2014) (2014).

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).

Wuensch, S.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 32603 (2017).

Yabuno, M.

Yamamoto, J.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

Yamanashi, Y.

Y. Yamanashi, T. Matsushima, N. Takeuchi, N. Yoshikawa, and T. Ortlepp, “Evaluation of current sensitivity of quantum flux parametron,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 84004 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).

K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Thermodynamic study of energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(3), 034007 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173912 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28, 15003 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of 10 zJ energy dissipation of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconducting resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 52602 (2013).

N. Takeuchi, D. Ozawa, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “An adiabatic quantum flux parametron as an ultra-low-power logic device,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 35010 (2013).

Yamashita, T.

S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Stable, high-performance operation of a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6796–6804 (2017).
[PubMed]

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 81907 (2014).

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[PubMed]

H. Terai, K. Makise, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Design and testing of SFQ signal processor for 64-pixel SSPD array,” in The Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014 (ASC 2014) (2014).

Yang, J. K. W.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, E. K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).

Yasui, S.

T. Kobayashi, R. Ikuta, S. Yasui, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 441–444 (2016).

Yoshikawa, N.

K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, H. Suzuki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of low bit-error-rates of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconductor voltage driver,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 202601 (2017).

Y. Yamanashi, T. Matsushima, N. Takeuchi, N. Yoshikawa, and T. Ortlepp, “Evaluation of current sensitivity of quantum flux parametron,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 84004 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, S. Nagasawa, F. China, T. Ando, M. Hidaka, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm −2 niobium fabrication process,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 35002 (2017).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 173912 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28, 15003 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Thermodynamic study of energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(3), 034007 (2015).

N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “Measurement of 10 zJ energy dissipation of adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic using a superconducting resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 52602 (2013).

N. Takeuchi, D. Ozawa, Y. Yamanashi, and N. Yoshikawa, “An adiabatic quantum flux parametron as an ultra-low-power logic device,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 35010 (2013).

You, L.-X.

Q.-C. Sun, Y.-L. Mao, S.-J. Chen, W. Zhang, Y.-F. Jiang, Y.-B. Zhang, W.-J. Zhang, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, X. Jiang, T.-Y. Chen, L.-X. You, X.-F. Chen, Z. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 671–675 (2016).

Zen, N.

K. Sano, T. Shimoda, Y. Abe, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, N. Zen, and M. Ohkubo, “Reduction of the supply current of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters by current recycling techniques,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 27, 1 (2017).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 AQFP readout interface for an SSPD. (a) Schematic. The comparator samples the current signal from an SSPD. The XOR gate compares the last sampling result with the second to last sampling result. The voltage driver amplifies the logic signals of AQFP into mV-range binary signals. (b) Timing chart. A pair of logic 1s is generated for each SSPD current pulse. (c) Micrograph.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Waveforms of the preliminary test. The AQFP readout interface is driven by the two sinusoidal bias currents with a phase separation of 90 degrees, Ix1 and Ix2. Independent of the pulse width of Iin, a pair of high voltage signals (logic 1s) is generated at Vout for each current pulse.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measurement setup. The SSPD receives the attenuated laser pulse train and generates current pulses (Iin), which are directly sampled by the AQFP readout interface without amplification. Logic-1 pairs (Vout) are generated by the interface and their count rate is measured by the pulse counter via an amplification using LNAs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Count rate, CRaqfp, as a function of the sampling frequency, fsample. CRaqfp increases with fsample and reaches the output rate of the pulse laser (106 cps) at fsample of approximately 100 MHz. The inset shows the observed waveform of the SSPD current pulse with a decay time of approximately 10 ns.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Count rates, CRaqfp and CRsspd, as a function of the number of photons per pulse, Nphoton. For the entire range of Nphoton, CRaqfp agreed well with CRsspd, which indicates that the AQFP readout interface correctly samples and digitize the SSPD current pulses.

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