Abstract

Operation of a light shutter usually requires that an electric addressing field is applied continuously to switch between a transparent and an extinct or opaque scattering state. To achieve low-power operation, a bistable light shutter, which consumes power only when switching between the two stable states, is preferred. Here, switching between the two stable states is induced with a short pulse rather than by applying a continuous field. In this work, we report bistable switching of an ion-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal between the transparent homeotropic and the scattering focal-conic states. Owing to ionic dopants, the use of complicated patterned electrodes or dual-frequency liquid crystals was not required for switching of the device. The light shutter exhibited an opaque state, which has higher scattering than previously reported bistable light shutters. Furthermore, doping of the reported device with a dichroic-dye enabled simultaneous control of light scattering and absorption. A new candidate for both smart window and see-through display applications is presented.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Light shutters for smart window and see-through display applications have been studied actively [1–11]. A light shutter can be used for the selective operation of a see-through display. It can replace the curtains in windows because it can control the light intensity passing through the window and protect an individual’s privacy by presenting an opaque surface. Various light shutter technologies, such as electro-chromic [7], suspended particle [8], and liquid crystal (LC) [12–24] devices, have been reported. In the scattering state, dichroic-dye-doped LC devices can hide objects behind them and present a black color, because they enable simultaneous control of light scattering and absorption. Recently, electrically induced scattering states with fast response times were observed in nematic LC doped with polymer [9,10]. They are thus suitable for both see-through displays and smart window applications.

A dichroic-dye-doped LC cell is switchable between two states: the transparent state which can be obtained with vertically aligned LC and dye molecules, and the opaque state, which can be obtained with randomly oriented LC and dye molecules [14–24]. The operation of a light shutter usually requires that an electric field be applied continuously to maintain either the transparent or the opaque state. To reduce the power consumption of a light shutter, bistable operation, which consumes power only when switching between the two states, is preferred.

To achieve bistable operation of a light shutter, a chiral nematic LC (CLC) cell switchable between the planar and focal-conic states has been studied [25–27]. However, it is not suitable for simultaneous control of light scattering and absorption because doped dichroic dye molecules absorb the incident light in the planar state. To control light scattering and absorption at the same time, the homeotropic state is used because vertically aligned LC and dye molecules can minimize both scattering and absorption of the incident light in this transparent state.

Bistable CLC cells that are switchable between homeotropic and focal-conic states have also been studied [28–31]. A stable homeotropic state can be realized by polymerization of the LC mixture, and the focal-conic state is used as a stable opaque state. However, these devices require a high fabrication cost due to the complicated electrode structure or the use of dual-frequency LC material [29–31]. Moreover, their optical characteristics in the opaque state may not be sufficient for practical applications. For practical applications, a bistable device with a simple structure and better optical characteristics is necessary.

In this paper, we propose a bistable CLC light shutter with a simple structure. The reported device is switchable between the two stable states: the homeotropic and focal-conic states. It can be switched from the homeotropic to the focal-conic state using the electro-hydrodynamic effect [32–38]. We can dope dichroic dye for simultaneous control of light scattering and absorption. The device is proposed as a new candidate for the selective operation of see-through displays and smart window applications.

2. Principles of operation

The schematic and operating principle of the reported device are shown schematically in Fig. 1. In the homeotropic state, vertically aligned LC and dye molecules minimize both scattering and absorption of the incident light so that the light shutter is transparent. Because the homeotropic state is stabilized with the polymer structure, it is stable without requiring a constantly applied electric field. It may be noted that the transmittance in the transparent state will decrease as the viewing angle is increased because, for oblique incidence, the long axis of the dyes is no longer perpendicular to the polarization direction of the incident light.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic and operation principle of an ion-doped CLC cell.

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For switching from the homeotropic to focal-conic state, we can use the electro-hydrodynamic effect, which can be achieved by doping ionic materials in the CLCs. As shown in previous studies on CLC cells with ionic dopants [26,27], a cell can be switched to the focal-conic state by the electro-hydrodynamic effect. In our experiment, the turbulence caused by the electro-hydrodynamic effect in a CLC cell changed the ordering of the LC and dye molecules when an electric field was applied. Once the applied voltage is removed, the turbulence no longer exists. However, the CLC cell remains in the focal-conic state. This state produces a black color and hides the background behind the cell through simultaneous control of light scattering and absorption. To produce the electro-hydrodynamic effect, it is necessary to choose the frequency of the applied electric field carefully [38]. In this work, we choose a direct current (DC) voltage because it can provide sufficient turbulence to cause the necessary change in the LC ordering.

The reported cell can be switched from the focal-conic back to the initial homeotropic state with a 100-Hz voltage wave. Because the aligning effect induced by the applied electric field is dominant and turbulence is negligible, the positive LC and dye molecules tend to be oriented perpendicular to the substrates. When the applied field is removed, the homeotropic state is maintained, owing to the sufficiently strong aligning effect of the polymer structures, which can hold the LCs in the homeotropic state without consuming power.

3. Cell fabrication

To find the stable condition in both states, we fabricated LC cells with various UV-curable monomer concentrations. The parameters of the LC mixture for the fabrication of LC cells are as follows. Positive nematic LCs (E7, Δn: 0.223, Δε: 13.5, Merck) were mixed with 10 wt% of chiral dopant (S811, pitch: 1 μm), 0.1 wt% of ionic dopant (Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, Sigma-Aldrich), 4, 5, 6 wt% of UV-curable monomer (RM257, Merck), a small amount of photo-initiator (Irgacure 651, BASF), and 1 wt% of black dichroic-dye mixture (S-428, Mitsui). The dichroic ratio of the black dye used in this work was 10.96.

The LC mixtures were injected into empty cells with a thickness of 10 μm. For polymerization, the LC cells were exposed to UV light with an intensity of 25 mW/cm2 for 30 min. During polymerization, an electric field was applied between the top and bottom electrodes, to maintain the homeotropic state. Bistable switching between the homeotropic and focal-conic states required accurate control of the concentration of UV-curable monomer and the curing UV intensity. In our experiment, the concentration of UV-curable monomer was chosen to be 5 wt%. When it was lower than 5 wt%, the homeotropic state was not stable. On the other hand, when it was higher than 5 wt%, the focal-conic state was not stable.

4. Experimental results and discussion

To demonstrate the optical performance of the fabricated LC cells, a haze meter (HM-65W, Murakami Color Research Laboratory) was used. Using the haze meter, we can measure the total transmittance, specular transmittance, and haze. The specular [diffuse] transmittance, Ts [Td], refers to the ratio of the power of the beam that emerges from a sample cell, which is parallel (within a small range of angles of 2.5°) [not parallel] to a beam entering the cell, to the power carried by the beam entering the cell, as shown in Fig. 2. The total transmittance Tt is the sum of the specular transmittance Ts and the diffuse transmittance Td. The haze H can be calculated as H = Td/Tt.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Experimental setup for evaluation of the optical performance of the fabricated cells.

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To investigate the electro-hydrodynamic effect in an ion-doped CLC cell, we examined the polarized optical microscope (POM) images carefully while increasing the applied voltage. We observed the initial dark state independent of the ion dopants because the cells were polymerized in the homeotropic state and no voltage was applied, as shown in Fig. 3(a) (undoped cell) and 3(c) (doped cell). When a DC voltage was applied to the cells, we observed the domains of randomly oriented LC and dye molecules only if the cell was doped with ionic materials, as shown in Fig. 3(b) (undoped cell, remains dark) and Fig. 3(d) (doped cell, becomes clear). The electro-hydrodynamic effect [32–38] can generate turbulence, which may have changed the ordering of the LC and dye molecules in the reported cell [26,27].

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 POM images of the fabricated CLC cells without ions at (a) 0 V, (b) DC 90 V or with ions at (c) 0 V, (d) DC 90 V.

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The switching characteristics of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell are shown in Fig. 4. The stable homeotropic and focal-conic states were observed with a monomer concentration of 5 wt%. Switching between the homeotropic and focal-conic states of the ion-doped CLC cell was achieved by applying a DC voltage of 90 V and a 100-Hz voltage wave of ± 90 V, as shown in Fig. 4. By applying a DC voltage, the homeotropic state can be switched to the focal-conic state. When a 100-Hz voltage wave was applied to the cell, the focal-conic state switched to the homeotropic state. Either state was maintained after the applied voltage was removed. It may be noted that there was a slight change in the transmittance when the applied voltage was removed.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Switching characteristics of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.

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We also measured the specular transmittance as we varied the monomer concentration. The aligning effect caused by the polymer structures played an important role as discussed in previous research [28–31]. A strong aligning force breaks the stable condition in the focal-conic state [39], whereas a weak aligning force cannot support the stable homeotropic state. In Fig. 5, we show the response of the ion-doped CLC cells to a DC applied voltage for different monomer concentrations. The specular transmittance was measured after the applied voltage was removed.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Specular transmittance vs applied DC voltage of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cells with the monomer concentration as a parameter.

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The cell with a monomer concentration of 4 wt% exhibited a lower initial specular transmittance than others because the polymer structure was not strong enough to hold the LCs in the homeotropic state. The cell cannot obtain the stable transparent state. In the cell with a monomer concentration of 5 wt%, the measured initial specular transmittance was 71.4%. In this case, the aligning effect produced by the polymer structure was sufficiently strong to maintain the homeotropic state.

The fabricated LC cell can be switched to the opaque state by applying a DC voltage. Bistable operation of an ion-doped CLC cell can be achieved with a monomer concentration of 5 wt%. However, when the monomer concentration was higher than 5 wt%, the scattering effect in the opaque state was not sufficient because the aligning effect of the polymer structure was too strong. We measured the electro-optical characteristics for applied voltages less than 90 V because there was degradation in the transparent state when the applied voltage was higher than 90 V.

Figure 6 shows the specular transmittance of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell. To switch from the homeotropic to focal-conic state, a DC voltage was applied. The ion-doped CLC cell in the initial transparent homeotropic state exhibited a specular transmittance of 71.4%. As the applied voltage was increased, the specular transmittance decreased due to the electro-hydrodynamic effect. When the applied voltage was removed, the specular transmittance in the opaque state was 12.8%.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Specular transmittance vs applied voltage of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.

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For switching from the focal-conic to the homeotropic state, a 100-Hz voltage wave was applied. The measured specular transmittance of the ion-doped CLC cell in the focal-conic state was 12.8%. As the applied voltage was increased, the specular transmittance increased because the applied field aligns the LC and dye molecules perpendicular to the substrates. When the applied voltage was removed, the device returned to the initial transparent homeotropic state with the specular transmittance of 71.4%. As shown in Fig. 6, both stable transparent and stable opaque states can be obtained with a temporarily applied voltages of 90 Vdc and a ± 90 V 100-Hz signal, respectively.

We compared the haze value of the reported ion-doped CLC cell with that of a bistable CLC cell driven with crossed patterned electrodes [31], as shown in Table 1. The cell parameters of the CLC cell driven with crossed patterned electrodes are as follows. Positive nematic LCs (E7, Δn: 0.223, Δε: 13.5, Merck) were mixed with 10 wt% of chiral dopant (S811, pitch: 1 μm), 6.2 wt% of UV curable monomer (RM257, Merck), 0.5 wt% of photo-initiator (Irgacure 651, BASF), and 1 wt% of black dichroic-dye (S-428, Mitsui). The width and gap of the patterned electrodes were 2.8 μm and 12 μm, respectively. The thickness of the LC layer was chosen to be 20 μm. The haze value in the opaque state of a CLC cell with patterned electrodes was quite low because there exist regions where LCs are not switched. On the other hand, because focal-conic domains were formed over the entire area of the reported cell, it can provide a haze value of 79.8%, which is approximately 12.7% higher than a CLC cell driven with patterned electrodes.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Haze and specular transmittance of an ion-doped CLC cell and a CLC cell driven with patterned electrodesa

We have shown that we can fabricate an ion-doped CLC cell which is stable in both the homeotropic and focal-conic states. In other words, with the proper monomer concentration, we could develop a bistable ion-doped CLC cell. Figure 7 shows the photographs of an ion-doped CLC cell placed on a sheet of paper with a logo print. In the transparent state, we can see through the printed image clearly. In the opaque state, the printed image can be hidden completely and the cell provides a black color because of the dichroic-dye.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Photographs of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell placed on printed paper.

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To check the stability over time, we measured the haze and specular transmittance of the ion-doped CLC cell hourly after the applied voltage was removed. Figure 8 shows that both states remained stable after 24 hours. Due to the aligning effect of the polymer structure and the stable focal-conic state, both the transparent and opaque states can be sustained without power consumption. Power is required only for switching between the two states.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Haze value and specular transmittance vs time of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.

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We tested whether switching of the reported bistable light shutter between transparent and opaque states could be repeated multiple times without any degradation in device performance. As shown in Fig. 9, the specular transmittance in each state remained almost the same after 20 cycles of repeated switching.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Measured specular transmittance under repeated switching of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.

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The temporal switching behaviors of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell are shown in Fig. 10. When a DC voltage of 90 V was applied to the fabricated cell for switching from the transparent to opaque state, the measured switching time was 114.9 ms. When a 100-Hz voltage wave of ± 90 V was applied to the fabricated cell for switching from the opaque to transparent state, the measured switching time was 15 ms. Because switching from the transparent to opaque state relies on the electro-hydrodynamic effect by ions, it is slower time than switching from the opaque to transparent state.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 Measured response time of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.

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5. Conclusion

We demonstrated a bistable light shutter device using dye-doped CLCs with ionic dopants. The device is switchable between two stable states: homeotropic (transparent) and focal-conic (opaque) states. The reported cell relies on the electro-hydrodynamic effect for switching from the homeotropic to the focal-conic state to control light scattering and absorption simultaneously. The opaque focal-conic state can be used to hide objects behind a display panel or smart window and to present a black color. The reported cell is suitable for smart privacy window and display applications.

Funding

National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (2017R1A2A1A05001067).

References and links

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2. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).

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6. H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432 (2002).

7. A. Azens and C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic smart windows: Energy efficiency and device aspects,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 7(2), 64–68 (2003).

8. R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).

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13. T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017). [PubMed]  

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21. J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3792–3795 (2015).

22. B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).

23. S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigm. 134, 36–40 (2016).

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References

  • View by:

  1. G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. a new electrooptic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).
  2. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
  3. P. S. Drzaic, “Polymer dispersed nematic liquid crystal for large area displays and light valves,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2142 (1986).
  4. P. P. Crooker and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-dispersed chiral liquid crystal color display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(24), 2529–2531 (1990).
  5. D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
  6. H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432 (2002).
  7. A. Azens and C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic smart windows: Energy efficiency and device aspects,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 7(2), 64–68 (2003).
  8. R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).
  9. A. Lorenz, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Continuous optical phase modulation in a copolymer network nematic liquid crystal,” ACS Photonics 3, 1188–1193 (2016).
  10. A. Lorenz, F. Omairat, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Nematic copolymer network LCs for swift continuous phase modulation and opaque scattering states,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 646, 220–225 (2017).
  11. H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).
  12. T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).
  13. T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
    [PubMed]
  14. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Chen, C.-K. Liu, and K.-T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  15. G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, “Characteristics of color optical shutter with dye-doped polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 754–756 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  16. C.-T. Wang and T.-H. Lin, “Bistable reflective polarizer-free optical switch based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1457–1462 (2011).
  17. B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, K.-H. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dichroic-dye-doped long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29332–29337 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  18. M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
    [PubMed]
  19. J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5, 047118 (2015).
  20. B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).
  21. J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3792–3795 (2015).
  22. B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).
  23. S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigm. 134, 36–40 (2016).
  24. J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Technologies for display application of liquid crystal light shutter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 644(1), 120–129 (2017).
  25. D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).
  26. A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
  27. Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).
  28. R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
  29. J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).
  30. C.-C. Li, H.-Y. Tseng, T.-W. Pai, Y.-C. Wu, W.-H. Hsu, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with multielectrode driving,” Appl. Opt. 53(22), E33–E37 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  31. J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).
  32. G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).
  33. G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Further studies of the dynamic scattering mode in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 17(1), 22–26 (1970).
  34. W. Helfrich, “Electrohydrodynamic and dielectric instabilities of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(2), 839–842 (1971).
  35. J.-H. Huh, “Electrohydrodynamic instability in cholesteric liquid crystals in the presence of a magnetic field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 477, 67–76 (2007).
  36. H. Lu, W. Xu, Z. Song, S. Zhang, L. Qiu, X. Wang, G. Zhang, J. Hu, and G. Lv, “Electrically switchable multi-stable cholesteric liquid crystal based on chiral ionic liquid,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6795–6798 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  37. B. Zhang and H. Kitzerow, “Pattern formation in a nematic liquid crystal mixture with negative anisotropy of the electric conductivity-A long-known system with “Inverse” light scattering revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(27), 6865–6871 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  38. K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  39. A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

2017 (5)

A. Lorenz, F. Omairat, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Nematic copolymer network LCs for swift continuous phase modulation and opaque scattering states,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 646, 220–225 (2017).

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[PubMed]

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Technologies for display application of liquid crystal light shutter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 644(1), 120–129 (2017).

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).

2016 (7)

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).

B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigm. 134, 36–40 (2016).

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Continuous optical phase modulation in a copolymer network nematic liquid crystal,” ACS Photonics 3, 1188–1193 (2016).

B. Zhang and H. Kitzerow, “Pattern formation in a nematic liquid crystal mixture with negative anisotropy of the electric conductivity-A long-known system with “Inverse” light scattering revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(27), 6865–6871 (2016).
[PubMed]

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (4)

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5, 047118 (2015).

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3792–3795 (2015).

2014 (3)

C.-C. Li, H.-Y. Tseng, T.-W. Pai, Y.-C. Wu, W.-H. Hsu, H.-C. Jau, C.-W. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with multielectrode driving,” Appl. Opt. 53(22), E33–E37 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

H. Lu, W. Xu, Z. Song, S. Zhang, L. Qiu, X. Wang, G. Zhang, J. Hu, and G. Lv, “Electrically switchable multi-stable cholesteric liquid crystal based on chiral ionic liquid,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6795–6798 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).

2007 (1)

J.-H. Huh, “Electrohydrodynamic instability in cholesteric liquid crystals in the presence of a magnetic field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 477, 67–76 (2007).

2004 (1)

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).

2003 (1)

A. Azens and C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic smart windows: Energy efficiency and device aspects,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 7(2), 64–68 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432 (2002).

1994 (1)

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).

1992 (1)

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).

1990 (1)

P. P. Crooker and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-dispersed chiral liquid crystal color display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(24), 2529–2531 (1990).

1986 (2)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).

P. S. Drzaic, “Polymer dispersed nematic liquid crystal for large area displays and light valves,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2142 (1986).

1971 (1)

W. Helfrich, “Electrohydrodynamic and dielectric instabilities of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(2), 839–842 (1971).

1970 (1)

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Further studies of the dynamic scattering mode in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 17(1), 22–26 (1970).

1968 (2)

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. a new electrooptic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).

Azens, A.

A. Azens and C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic smart windows: Energy efficiency and device aspects,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 7(2), 64–68 (2003).

Baek, J.-M.

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigm. 134, 36–40 (2016).

Bao, R.

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).

Barrios, D.

R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).

Barton, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Further studies of the dynamic scattering mode in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 17(1), 22–26 (1970).

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).

Braun, L.

A. Lorenz, F. Omairat, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Nematic copolymer network LCs for swift continuous phase modulation and opaque scattering states,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 646, 220–225 (2017).

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Continuous optical phase modulation in a copolymer network nematic liquid crystal,” ACS Photonics 3, 1188–1193 (2016).

Castles, F.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Chen, C.-C.

Chen, C.-W.

Cheng, K.-T.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Chen, C.-K. Liu, and K.-T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
[PubMed]

Cheng, W.-F.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chien, L.-C.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).

Choe, J.

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Choi, T.-H.

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).

Choi, Y.

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).

Coles, H. J.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Contreras-Lallana, P.

R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).

Crooker, P. P.

P. P. Crooker and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-dispersed chiral liquid crystal color display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(24), 2529–2531 (1990).

Dai, H.

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).

Doane, J. W.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).

Drzaic, P. S.

P. S. Drzaic, “Polymer dispersed nematic liquid crystal for large area displays and light valves,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2142 (1986).

Fan, Y.-H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).

Fuh, Y.-G.

Gardiner, D. J.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Granqvist, C. G.

A. Azens and C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic smart windows: Energy efficiency and device aspects,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 7(2), 64–68 (2003).

Heilmeier, G. H.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Further studies of the dynamic scattering mode in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 17(1), 22–26 (1970).

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. a new electrooptic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).

Helfrich, W.

W. Helfrich, “Electrohydrodynamic and dielectric instabilities of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(2), 839–842 (1971).

Heo, J.

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Technologies for display application of liquid crystal light shutter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 644(1), 120–129 (2017).

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigm. 134, 36–40 (2016).

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3792–3795 (2015).

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5, 047118 (2015).

Hsu, W.-H.

Hu, J.

Huh, J.-H.

J.-H. Huh, “Electrohydrodynamic instability in cholesteric liquid crystals in the presence of a magnetic field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 477, 67–76 (2007).

Huh, J.-W.

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Technologies for display application of liquid crystal light shutter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 644(1), 120–129 (2017).

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[PubMed]

B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3792–3795 (2015).

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5, 047118 (2015).

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, K.-H. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dichroic-dye-doped long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29332–29337 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hwang, K. Y.

Jang, J. E.

Jau, H.-C.

Ji, S.-M.

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Technologies for display application of liquid crystal light shutter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 644(1), 120–129 (2017).

B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).

Jin, Y. W.

Jo, Y.-S.

Jung, H.-T.

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jung, J. E.

Kim, D. H.

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kim, J.-H.

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[PubMed]

B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).

Kim, K.-H.

Kim, M.

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kim, W.-S.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Kitzerow, H.

B. Zhang and H. Kitzerow, “Pattern formation in a nematic liquid crystal mixture with negative anisotropy of the electric conductivity-A long-known system with “Inverse” light scattering revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(27), 6865–6871 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kolosova, V.

A. Lorenz, F. Omairat, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Nematic copolymer network LCs for swift continuous phase modulation and opaque scattering states,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 646, 220–225 (2017).

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Continuous optical phase modulation in a copolymer network nematic liquid crystal,” ACS Photonics 3, 1188–1193 (2016).

Lan, Z.

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).

Lee, G. H.

Lee, P.-Y.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

Li, C.-C.

Li, Y.

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).

Lin, T.-H.

Lin, Y.-H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).

Liu, C.-K.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Chen, C.-K. Liu, and K.-T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
[PubMed]

Liu, C.-M.

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).

Lorenz, A.

A. Lorenz, F. Omairat, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Nematic copolymer network LCs for swift continuous phase modulation and opaque scattering states,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 646, 220–225 (2017).

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Continuous optical phase modulation in a copolymer network nematic liquid crystal,” ACS Photonics 3, 1188–1193 (2016).

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Lu, H.

Luo, D.

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).

Lv, G.

Ma, J.

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).

Moheghi, A.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).

Morris, S. M.

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Nemati, H.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).

Oh, S.-W.

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigm. 134, 36–40 (2016).

Ok, J. M.

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

Omairat, F.

A. Lorenz, F. Omairat, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Nematic copolymer network LCs for swift continuous phase modulation and opaque scattering states,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 646, 220–225 (2017).

Pai, T.-W.

Park, K. J.

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

Qasim, M. M.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Qiu, L.

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432 (2002).

Sánchez-Pena, J.-M.

R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).

Seok, S.

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shi, L.

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).

Song, Z.

Tseng, H.-Y.

Vásquez, C.

R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).

Vergaz, R.

R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).

Wang, C.-T.

Wang, X.

West, J. L.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).

Wilkinson, T. D.

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Woo, J.-H.

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).

Wu, S.-T.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432 (2002).

Wu, Y.-C.

Xu, W.

Yang, D.-K.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).

P. P. Crooker and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-dispersed chiral liquid crystal color display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(24), 2529–2531 (1990).

Yoon, T.-H.

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Huh, J.-H. Woo, J.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching between transparent and translucent states of a two-dimensional liquid crystal phase grating device with crossed interdigitated electrodes,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11275–11282 (2017).
[PubMed]

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Technologies for display application of liquid crystal light shutter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 644(1), 120–129 (2017).

B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigm. 134, 36–40 (2016).

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3792–3795 (2015).

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5, 047118 (2015).

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, K.-H. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dichroic-dye-doped long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29332–29337 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yu, B.-H.

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Technologies for display application of liquid crystal light shutter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 644(1), 120–129 (2017).

B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3792–3795 (2015).

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, K.-H. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dichroic-dye-doped long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29332–29337 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yu, B.-Y.

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Further studies of the dynamic scattering mode in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 17(1), 22–26 (1970).

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. a new electrooptic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang and H. Kitzerow, “Pattern formation in a nematic liquid crystal mixture with negative anisotropy of the electric conductivity-A long-known system with “Inverse” light scattering revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(27), 6865–6871 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, S.

Žumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

M. Kim, K. J. Park, S. Seok, J. M. Ok, H.-T. Jung, J. Choe, and D. H. Kim, “Fabrication of microcapsules for dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal-based smart windows,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(32), 17904–17909 (2015).
[PubMed]

K.-T. Cheng, P.-Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C.-K. Liu, W.-F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483 (2016).
[PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Continuous optical phase modulation in a copolymer network nematic liquid crystal,” ACS Photonics 3, 1188–1193 (2016).

AIP Adv. (1)

J. Heo, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes,” AIP Adv. 5, 047118 (2015).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

R. Bao, C.-M. Liu, and D.-K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, “Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. a new electrooptic effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13(3), 91–92 (1968).

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).

P. P. Crooker and D.-K. Yang, “Polymer-dispersed chiral liquid crystal color display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(24), 2529–2531 (1990).

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432 (2002).

A. Lorenz, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, S. S. Choi, W.-S. Kim, H. J. Coles, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrical addressing of polymer stabilized hyper-twisted chiral nematic liquid crystals with interdigitated electrodes: Experiment and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 071102 (2014).

Dyes Pigm. (1)

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film,” Dyes Pigm. 134, 36–40 (2016).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Lan, Y. Li, H. Dai, and D. Luo, “Bistable smart window based on ionic liquid doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 2200307 (2017).

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (2)

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Further studies of the dynamic scattering mode in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 17(1), 22–26 (1970).

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, J.-M. Baek, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast control of haze value using electrically switchable diffraction in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal device,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 64(8), 3213–3218 (2017).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3609–3611 (2004).

P. S. Drzaic, “Polymer dispersed nematic liquid crystal for large area displays and light valves,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2142 (1986).

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. Helfrich, “Electrohydrodynamic and dielectric instabilities of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 55(2), 839–842 (1971).

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J.-W. Huh, S.-M. Ji, J. Heo, B.-Y. Yu, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals driven with crossed patterned electrodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(8), 779–783 (2016).

J. Info. Displ. (1)

B.-H. Yu, S.-M. Ji, J.-H. Kim, J.-W. Huh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Light shutter using dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with polymer network structure,” J. Info. Displ. 18(1), 13–17 (2016).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. Zhang and H. Kitzerow, “Pattern formation in a nematic liquid crystal mixture with negative anisotropy of the electric conductivity-A long-known system with “Inverse” light scattering revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(27), 6865–6871 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Solid State Electrochem. (1)

A. Azens and C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic smart windows: Energy efficiency and device aspects,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 7(2), 64–68 (2003).

Liq. Cryst. (1)

B.-H. Yu, J.-W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (3)

A. Lorenz, F. Omairat, L. Braun, and V. Kolosova, “Nematic copolymer network LCs for swift continuous phase modulation and opaque scattering states,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 646, 220–225 (2017).

J.-H. Huh, “Electrohydrodynamic instability in cholesteric liquid crystals in the presence of a magnetic field,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 477, 67–76 (2007).

J.-W. Huh, B.-H. Yu, J. Heo, S.-M. Ji, and T.-H. Yoon, “Technologies for display application of liquid crystal light shutter,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 644(1), 120–129 (2017).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, and L. A. Barton, “Dynamic scattering: a new electrooptic effect in certain classes of nematic liquid crystals,” Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1162–1171 (1968).

Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. (1)

R. Vergaz, J.-M. Sánchez-Pena, D. Barrios, C. Vásquez, and P. Contreras-Lallana, “Modelling and electro-optical testing of suspended particle devices,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 92(11), 1483–1487 (2008).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic and operation principle of an ion-doped CLC cell.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for evaluation of the optical performance of the fabricated cells.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 POM images of the fabricated CLC cells without ions at (a) 0 V, (b) DC 90 V or with ions at (c) 0 V, (d) DC 90 V.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Switching characteristics of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Specular transmittance vs applied DC voltage of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cells with the monomer concentration as a parameter.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Specular transmittance vs applied voltage of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Photographs of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell placed on printed paper.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Haze value and specular transmittance vs time of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured specular transmittance under repeated switching of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured response time of the fabricated ion-doped CLC cell.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Haze and specular transmittance of an ion-doped CLC cell and a CLC cell driven with patterned electrodesa

Metrics