Abstract

We investigate the nonreciprocity “∞”-shape optical bistability (OB) induced by the feedback dressing effect of six-wave mixing parametrically amplified process in a four-level atomic system. Compared to the traditional OB by scanning power, the “∞”-shape OB is scanning probe frequency and demonstrated by “∞”-shape non-overlapping region. More, this non-overlapping region in the x direction (frequency difference) and in the y direction (intensity difference) could demonstrate the degree of this OB phenomenon of dressed probe and conjugate signals, which can be changed by the intensity of feedback dressing. Further, we find the feedback intensity can be controlled by experimental parameters include powers of external-dressing, frequency detuning, incident phase and the nonlinear phase shift of internal-dressing beam. As a result, the nonreciprocity “∞”-shape OB is more sensitive and multiple than traditional OB. These outcomes have potential applications in logic-gate devices and quantum information processing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Parametric multi-wave mixing (MWM) process based on atomic coherence [1] plays potential roles in low-noise imaging [2] and quantum communication [3], as well as the development of squeezing states [4]. A spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing (SP-FWM) process generates two weak fields (Stokes field and anti-Stokes field) on a forward cone, which can be injected by input signal and lead to optical parametrically amplification (OPA) [5,6]. Recently, narrow-band bright entangled light beams have been produced through PA four-wave mixing (PA-FWM) process [7]. Subsequently, several important applications of using narrow-band squeezing light in entangled images [8,9], quantum metrology includes low frequency and controllable bandwidth squeezing [10], phase-sensitive amplifier [11], ultrasensitive measurement and plasmonic sensors [12,13], have all been experimentally demonstrated. However, there exists strong nonlinearity and dispersion in OPA process. Coherent population trapping is one manifestation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For optically thick media, radiation trapping and optical pumping have been studied extensively in astrophysics, plasma physics, and atomic spectroscopy [14–16]. Due capacity of gain, oscillation and radiation trapping in FWM process, optical bistability (OB) behavior based on atomic coherence and quantum interference are practiced [17,18]. In recent decades, some schemes for realizing optical stability through OPA-MWM process in an optical cavity have been studied experimentally and theoretically [19–21]. More, OB has been demonstrated without a cavity using degenerated FWM in atomic vapor with two counter-propagating laser beams [22]. Subsequently, OB has been became the subject of many studies because of its broad application prospects in all-optical logic [23] and quantum information processing [20].

In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the nonreciprocity “∞”-shape OB phenomenon of dressed signals (probe and conjugate) from PA-SWM process in 85Rb atomic vapor cell. The nonreciprocity of the signals on the frequency-increasing and frequency-decreasing processes (corresponding to the rising and falling edges in one frequency scanning round trip, respectively) is caused by the feedback dressing effect induced by the parametrical amplification closed loop process. Therefore, the signals curves of two edges are not overlap by folding them from the maxima of the ramp curves point. And the non-overlapping region of OB can be approximately viewed with infinite sidebands, so we named this kind of OB as “∞”-shape OB [24]. Compared with traditional cavity-type OB, we implement the way that scanning frequency to improve the extent of OB from dressed PA-FWM closed loop configurations. In our experiments, the external-dressing fields, to significantly enhance the feedback dressing effect as a major benefit of combined action of PA-SWM and PA-FWM. When we change one of parameters, the frequency difference (along the horizontal x direction of non-overlapping region) is caused by the different feedback dressing while the intensity difference (along the vertical y direction of non-overlapping region) is caused by the difference on conditions for suppression and enhancement [21]. Therefore, we can obtain different output multi-states and realize the conversion between these states by controlling input parameters. These merits will greatly facilitate the potential applications of quantum logic-gate devices such as quantum flip-flop converter and quantum memory in quantum information processing.

2. Experimental setup

The experimental considers a four-level atomic system as shown in Fig. 1(b). The four relevant energy levels are 5S1/2, F = 2 (|0>), 5S1/2, F = 3 (|1>), 5P1/2, F = 2 (|2>), and 5P3/2, F = 4 (|3>) in 85Rb. The three-level “double-Λ” type subsystem (|0>↔|1>↔|2>) is used to generate the SP-FWM process. With the laser frequency tuned to the D2 line transition of rubidium, the strong pump beam E1 (frequency ω1, wave vector k1, Rabi frequency G1, wavelength 795 nm, power up to 200 mW) is coupled into the cell by polarization beam splitter. The weak probe beam Ep (ωp, kp, Gp, 795 nm) with approximately 30 μW propagates in the same direction of E1 with an angle of 0.26° and is detected by a branch of a balanced homodyne detector. The generated conjugate signal that can establish the coherence between the two ground states |0> and |1> co-propagates with Ep symmetrically with respect to E1 and is received by the other branch of the balanced detector. If external-dressing beam E3 (ω3, k3, G3, 780 nm, 30 mW, from another ECDL) is injected in E1 direction, the four-level “N-type” PA-SWM process is formed.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a1) Spatial beams alignment of the PA-FWM and PA-SWM process. (a2) Phase-matching geometrical diagram of the SP-FWM process. (b) Energy-level diagram for the inverted-Y configuration in 85Rb vapor. (c) The signal of 85Rb, F = 2 (probe) that external-dressing field E3 is blocked (c1) and got through (c2), respectively. (d) Measured probe signal versus probe frequency. (e) Measured conjugate signal versus probe frequency. (f) Energy-level diagram for multi-peaks.

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3. Basic theory

3.1 Dressed SP-FWM and SP-SWM

Actually, dressed SP-FWM can be considered as a coherent superposition of one pure SP-FWM process and one pure SP-SWM process. First, with only beam E1 turned on, the three-level “double-Λ” type rubidium (Rb) subsystem (|0>↔|1>↔|2>) is formed. With the frequency detuning of E1, the SP-FWM process will occur in the “double-Λ” configuration, which can generate the Stokes field ES and anti-Stokes field EaS (satisfying the phase match conditions (PMCs) kS = 2k1-kaS and kaS = 2k1-kS, respectively) on the forward cone shown in Fig. 1(a). Here the detuning ∆i = Ωi-ωi is defined as the difference between the resonant transition frequency Ωi and the laser frequency ωi of Ei. The generated ES and EaS field could be obtained by the via perturbation chains ρ11(0)ω1ρ21(1)ωaSρ01(2)ω1ρ21(S)(3) (ES) and ρ00(0)ω1ρ20(1)ωSρ10(2)ω1ρ20(aS)(3) (EaS), respectively. Then, we add the strong external-dressing field E3 at E1 direction which is coupling to the transition |1>↔|3> in Fig. 1(b). Taking into account the external-dressing effect of E3, the corresponding third-order density matrix elements ρ(3)21(S) and ρ(3)20(aS) of dressed SP-FWM can be rewritten as:

ρ21(S)(3)=iG12GaS/d21d01Dd21.
ρ20(aS)(3)=iG12GS/d20d10Dd20.
Where Gi = μijEi (i, j = 1, 2, 3, S, aS) is the Rabi frequency between levels |i>↔|j>, and μij is the dipole momentum; d20 = Γ20 + i1, d10D = d10 + G32/d30, d10 = Γ10 + i(∆1-∆S), d30 = Γ13 + i(∆1-∆S + ∆3), d'20 = Γ20 + i(∆1-∆S + ∆'1), d21 = Γ21 + i∆'1, d01D = d01 + G32/d31, d01 = Γ01 + i(∆'1-∆aS), d31 = Γ31 + i(∆'1-∆aS + ∆3), d'21 = Γ21 + i(∆'1-∆aS + ∆1); Γij = (Γi + Γj)/2 is the de-coherence rate between |i> and |j>. More interestingly, under the weak field limit (|G3|2<<Γ21Γ31 or Γ20Γ30), Eqs. (1) and (2) can be expanded to be:
ρ21(S)(3)=ρ21(S)(3)+(G32/d01d31)ρ21(S)(3)=ρ21(S)(3)+ρ21(S)(5).
ρ20(aS)(3)=ρ20(aS)(3)+(G32/d10d13)ρ20(aS)(3)=ρ20(aS)(3)+ρ20(aS)(5).
Here, ρ(5)21(S) = (-G32/d01d31)ρ(3)21(S) and ρ(5)20(aS) = (-G32/d10d30)ρ(3)20(aS) are the corresponding fifth-order density matrix elements of formed SP-SWM process which can be deduced by the via perturbationsρ11(0)ω3ρ31(1)ω3ρ11(2)ω1ρ21(3)ωaSρ01(4)ω1ρ21(S)(5) and ρ00(0)ω1ρ20(1)ωSρ10(2)ω3ρ30(3)ω3ρ10(4)ω1ρ20(aS)(5), respectively. This means that the density-matrix element of the dressed SP-FWM can be considered as a coherent superposition of one pure SP-FWM process and one pure SP-SWM process under the weak field limit.

3.2 Dressed PA-FWM and PA-SWM

Finally, we add the weak probe beam Ep propagates in the E1 direction with an angle of 0.26°. The presence of Ep can be viewed as being injected into the Stokes or anti-Stokes port of the dressed SP-FWM process, and the injection will serve as an optical parametric amplification (OPA) process (with PMCs kaS = 2k1-kp and kS = 2k1-kp) assisted by the cascaded nonlinear process. When Ep is injected into the Stokes port of the dressed SP-FWM process, it can amplify the seeded signal in an appropriate condition. The photon numbers of the output Stokes and anti-Stokes fields in the amplification process with injection are described as:

a^out+a^out=ga^in+a^in+(g1).
b^out+b^out=(g1)a^in+a^in+g.
Where g={cos[2tABsin(φ1+φ2)/2]+cosh[2tABcos(φ1+φ2)/2]}/2 is the dressed SP-FWM gain with the modulus A and B (phase angles φ1 and φ2) defined in ρ'(3)21(S) = Ae1 and ρ'(3)20(aS) = Be2 for ES and EaS, respectively. With Ep injected, dressed PA-FWM process is formed. This moment, the output a^D+a^D and b^D+b^D are named probe and conjugate fields of dressed PA-FWM, respectively. For another, if Ep is injected into the Stokes port of the SP-SWM process, the gain g can be defined in ρ(5)21(S) = Ce3 and ρ(5)20(aS) = De4, and the output a^6+a^6 and b^6+b^6 are part of PA-SWM process which can be deduced by the via perturbations ρ11(0)ω3ρ31(1)ω3ρ11(2)ω1ρ21(3)ωConjρ01(4)ω1ρ21(S)(5) (ES) and ρ00(0)ω1ρ20(1)ωPρ10(2)ω3ρ30(3)ω3ρ10(4)ω1ρ20(aS)(5) (EaS), respectively.

3.3 Feedback dressing of OPA process

Specially, considering OPA process with enhanced nonlinearity, there exists an un-neglected feedback effect (also a self-dressing effect) [21]. Clearly, the generated probe and conjugate fields have an self-dressing effect of |GF|2 (|GP|2 and |GC|2), which are derived from the relatively strong feedback effect. These self-dressings effect have a similar influence with the internal-dressing effect of E1 and the external-dressing effect of E3, which can together result in OPA process. Besides, we have demonstrated the dressed SP-FWM can be considered as a coherent superposition of two pure processes (SP-FWM and SP-SWM). Therefore, with the injection of Ep, the output a^D+a^Dand b^D+b^D of dressed PA-FWM can be expanded by corresponding third-order density matrix elements:

ρ21(S)(3)=ρ21(S)(3)+ρ21(S)(5).
ρ20(aS)(3)=ρ20(aS)(3)+ρ20(aS)(5).
Here, the corresponding fifth-order density matrix elements ρ'(5)21(S) and ρ'(5)20(aS) of PA-SWM process can be written as:
ρ21(S)(5)=iGcG12G32[Γ21+iΔ1+G32/(Γ23+iΔ1Δ3)+Gp2/Γ22][Γ01+G12ei(Δα+Δϕ)/(Γ21+iΔ1)]×1[G12ei(Δα+Δϕ)/[Γ01+i(Δ1'Δ1)]+Gp2/[Γ11i(Δ1'Δ1)]+G12ei(Δα+Δϕ)/Γ22+G32/(Γ23+iΔ1Δ3)+iΔ1'+Γ21](Γ31+iΔ3)Γ11.
ρ20(aS)(5)=iGpG12G32[Γ10+G32/(Γ30+Δ3)+G12ei(Δα+Δϕ)/(Γ20+iΔ1)+G12ei(Δα+Δϕ)/(Γ12iΔ1)]×1[Γ20+iΔ1+G12ei(Δα+Δϕ)/Γ22+G12ei(Δα+Δϕ)/(Γ10+i(Δ1Δ1))].×1[Γ20+iΔ1+Gc2/Γ00][Γ30+Δ3][Γ10]
where relative phase factor eiα is related to the orientations of induced dipole moments μ1 and μp, which can be manipulated by means of altering the incident angle α between the pump field E1 and the probe field Ep. The eiΦ is nonlinear phase shift introduced as Φ = 2kP/Cn2I1e-ξ· ξz/n0, where kp/C = kS = kaS, n2 is cross-Kerr of internal-dressing field E1. In order to research the propagate effect in this system, we consider the internal-dressing effect of the pump field E1 and introduce an additional phase factor ei(∆α+Φ) into the dressing term. Also, with Ep and E1 viewed as probe and coupling fields, respectively, the first-order density matrix ρ(1)20 of the probe transmission signal with dressing effect is:
ρ20(1)=iGp/[d21+|Gp|2/Γ11+|Gp|2/Γ22+|G1|2/d10+|G1|2/[Γ22+i(ΔpΔ1)]].
Consequently, the intensity of the probe (conjugate) signal with gain and dressing effect can be expressed by IP ∝ (I0-Imρ(1)20 + |ρ” (3)21(S)|2) [IC ∝ (I0 + |ρ” (3)20(aS)|2)], where I0 is the intensity of the probe field without Doppler absorption.

3.4 Non-overlapping region and suppression (enhancement) conditions of nonreciprocity “∞”-shape OB

What’s more, because OPA process in the above mainly produce an un-neglected feedback dressing |GF|2 (|GP|2 and |GC|2), the folded signals of probe and conjugate could exist “∞”-shape non-overlapping region includes the frequency difference in x direction and the intensity difference in y direction. Firstly, there exists frequency difference (δ) between the two peaks or dips (Figs. 2-4) in the same baseline. Whereas the nonreciprocity reflected from the change of nonreciprocity phaseΔφis as follow:

Δφ=N(n2upIupn2downIdown)ωpl/c=n1δl/c.
δ is the frequency difference that can reflect the OB phenomenon directly, n1 is the linear refractive index of the Rb cell. The feedback intensity Iup (Idown) is generated at the same frequency scan. n2up (n2down) is the nonlinear refractive index coefficient that can be generally expressed as n2upn2downn2 = Re[χ(3)/(ε0cn0)], which is the mainly dominated by the Kerr coefficient of E1. Besides, the intensity difference at the frequency-rising and frequency-falling edges can also advocate the OB phenomenon in the OPA process. Physically, the intensity difference of the probe (conjugate) signals can be understood through requirement for the dressing suppression and enhancement. When considering the different feedback dressing on the rising and falling edges, the signal will meet different enhancement (or suppression) conditions, which results in the nonreciprocity of intensity difference ∆I.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Measured (a) probe and (b) conjugate fields with external-dressing field E3 at different power of E3. From bottom to top, the power of E3 is changed from 8mw to 18mw. The signals in (c,d) and (e,f) are enlarged views from dressed probe signal in (a) and dressed conjugate signal in (b), respectively. And the signals in (c,e) and (d,f) are 85Rb, F = 3 and 85Rb, F = 2, respectively. In (c-f), the left (right) peaks belong to the signals of rising (falling) edge.

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 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Same as Fig. 2, but with external-dressing field E3 at different pump detuning ∆1. From bottom to top, the wavelength of E1 is changed from 795.9741 nm to 795.9720 nm.

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 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Same as Fig. 2, but with external-dressing field E3 at different diameter of pump beam E1. From bottom to top, the diameter of E1 is changed from large to small. Besides, the signals in (c,e) and (d,f) are 85Rb, F = 2 and 85Rb, F = 3, respectively. In (c-f), the left (right) peaks belong to the signals of falling (rising) edge.

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Additionally, the suppression and enhancement of these signals play a very important role in the OPA process. For instance, the primary Autler-Townes (AT) splitting is caused by external-dressing field E3 and the corresponding eigenvalues are λ ± = [∆3 ± (∆32 + 4|G3|2)1/2]/2. The secondary AT splitting is caused by self-dressing effect EF whose corresponding eigenvalues are λ+ ± = [∆'F ± (∆'F2 + 4|GF|2)1/2]/2 (∆'F = ∆F-λ+). With the feedback dressing and external-dressing effects considered, the corresponding suppression and enhancement conditions of ES and EaS are ∆S-∆'F = 0, ∆aS-∆ʺF = 0 and ∆S-λ+-λ++ = 0, ∆aS-λ+-λ++ = 0, respectively.

4. Results and discussions

In our experiment, the signals of dressed probe and conjugate fields are shown on Figs. 1(d) and 1(e), respectively. Where E1, E3 and Ep are turned on together, each combination of electromagnetically induced absorption dip (ρ20(1)) and gain peak (ρ” (3)P(S/aS)) can be seen in the dressed probe signal (IP ∝ (I0-Imρ(1)20 + |ρ” (3)21(S)|2)), but the dressed conjugate signal only shows the gain peaks (ρ” (3)C(S/aS)). Besides, there exists six peaks and dips at the rising edge both in dressed probe and conjugate signals. If probe beam Ep connect upper transition |2> to |1> in Fig. 1(b), with ωp1<0, the output probe signal is injected into Stokes in Fig. 1(a), and there will generate dip (d6) 87Rb, F = 2, peak (d5) 85Rb, F = 3 and peak (d4) near-degenerate PA-FWM Stokes signal in Fig. 1(d). At the same time, the output conjugate signal is poured into anti-Stokes, then peak (e6) 87Rb, F = 2, peak (e5) 85Rb, F = 3 and peak (e4) near-degenerate Stokes PA-FWM signal will produce in Fig. 1(e). Analogously, when Ep connect upper transition |2> and |0>, with ωp1>0, the output probe signal is injected into anti-Stokes, and there will generate peak (d3) near-degenerate PA-FWM anti-Stokes signal, peak (d2) 85Rb, F = 2, peak (d1) 87Rb, F = 1 in Fig. 1(d). Meanwhile, the output conjugate signal is poured into Stokes, then peak (e3) near-degenerate PA-FWM anti-Stokes signal, peak (e2) 85Rb, F = 2 and peak (e1) 87Rb, F = 1 will produce in Fig. 1(e). At ωp1 = 0, probe and pump fields are resonant. Besides, the dressed probe and conjugate signals at the falling edge is symmetrical with the rising edge signals in Figs. 1(d) and 1(e).

In Fig. 1(c), there are the two peaks (85Rb, F = 2) of probe signal that E3 is dressed in Fig. 1(c1) while E3 is blocked in Fig. 1(c2). If taking into account the dressing effect of E3, Stokes or anti-Stokes of dressed PA-FWM can be expanded as: ρ20(as)(3)=ρ20(as)(3)+ρ20(as)(5) at Eq. (8), we set ρ(3)=Beiφ2 and ρ(5)=Deiφ4. We make IF = B2 and IS = D2 represent the intensity of PA-FWM and PA-SWM, respectively. Besides, Ix = 2BDcos∆φ (∆φ = φ2-φ4) represent interference term. When we intentionally set experiment satisfies the suppression condition ∆'1-∆3 = 0, the relative nonlinear phase between PA-FWM and PA-SWM changed to ∆φ = π. Thus the cross term Ix = 2BDcos∆φ is negative, leading to |ρ(3)+ρ(5)|=IF+IS2BD=|ρ(3)||ρ(5)|. It can be concluded that intensity of dressed PA-FWM is greatly suppressed when suppression condition is satisfied. This is the reason that the signal of Fig. 1(c2) is obvious suppression where E3 is dressed. Further, the experiment results (Figs. 1(d), 1(e) and 2-4) all have dressing field E3, which means the dressed signals of OPA process can be considered as suppressed PA-FWM (PA-FWM - PA-SWM).

Besides, the signals on the rising and falling edges in one complete cycle by folding from the turning point of the round trip do not overlap. In the following experimental results (Figs. 2-4), we investigate the nonreciprocity “∞”-shape OB phenomena by comparing the folded dressed signals of 85Rb, F = 3 and 85Rb, F = 2 (probe and conjugate) and analyzing the size of non-overlapping region.

Figure. 2 represents “∞”-shape OB phenomena by scanning detuning Δp at different power of external-dressing field E3. Besides, the incident angle ∆α between pump field E1 and probe field Ep is large and the diameter of E1 is small. In Fig. 2(a), there is dressed probe signal, which can be expressed as a^D=a^4+a^6 (dressed PA-FWM = PA-FWM + PA-SWM) in Eq. (7). Similarly, dressed conjugate signal in Fig. 2(b) also can be expressed as b^D=b^4+b^6 (dressed PA-FWM = PA-FWM + PA-SWM) in Eq. (8). Then, we will analyze the size of folded signals about “∞”-shape non-overlapping region that we have illustrated in section 3.4 of theory.

In x direction, frequency difference (δ) is shown in Fig. 2(a1). The intensity of Stokes signal 85Rb, F = 3 is IP ∝ (I0-Imρ(1)20 + |ρ” (3)21(S)|2). Since the two peaks in Fig. 2(c1) have the same baseline, the feedback dressing (also a self-dressing) term |GP|2 on the rising and falling edges are not equal in Eq. (12). Therefore, the intensity Ip(up) is not equal to Ip(down) while n2upn2down,so Eq. (12) can be changed to ∆φ = Nn2(Iup-Idown)ωpl/c = n1δl/c, it is obvious that δ is mainly induced by the difference between Iup and Idown. Further, it can be seen that δ wax from bottom to top in Fig. 2(c). Where (Iup-Idown) is fixed in Eq. (12), hence δ is proportional to n2. Meanwhile, n2 = Re[χ(3)/(ε0cn0)]∝ρ(3) is related to E3, it is clear that δ vary due to the change in power of E3 in Fig. 2(c). For the same reason attributes the anti-stokes signal 85Rb, F = 2 (IP ∝ (I0-Imρ(1)20 + |ρ” (3)20(aS)|2)) in Fig. 2(d), the δ is induced by the feedback dressing term |GP|2, where δ wax from bottom to top is also caused by different power of E3. In Fig. 2(b), the intensity of dressed conjugate signal is IC ∝ (I0 + |ρ” (3)(S/aS)|2), where δ is induced by different self-dressing |GC|2 on the rising (falling) edge in Eqs. (9) and (10). Especially, the change of δ from bottom to top is very tiny in Figs. 2(e) and 2(f), where δ of dressed probe signal is more sensitive than dressed conjugate signal for different power of E3. This is caused by the different feedback intensity that |GP|2 is stronger than |GC|2, where the input probe beam with a intensity of Ip is amplified to produce an output probe with intensity gIp and an output conjugate with intensity (g-1)Ip.

What’s more, it is obvious that the left peaks is higher than right peaks in the same baseline in Fig. 2(c), which is caused by the different enhancement conditions of dressed probe signals. Here we consider second-order splitting caused by dressing field of E3 and feedback dressing effect of |GP|2 that we have been described in section 3.4 of theory. Because of different feedback dressing term |GP|2 on the rising (falling) edges, the enhancement conditions ∆S-λ+(up)-λ+ + (up) = 0 and ∆S-λ+(down)-λ+ + (down) = 0 of left and right peaks, respectively, are not same while there are different corresponding eigenvalues λ. As a result, one can find that the enhancement of left peaks are bigger than right peaks as shown in Fig. 2(c) and vice verse in Fig. 2(d), this contrary phenomenon relates to the energy-level of hyperfine states of 85Rb atomic system. It depends on the different dipole moment between 85Rb 5S1/2 (F = 2) and 85Rb 5S1/2(F = 3). Moreover, in Fig. 2(b), the enhancement condition is ∆aS/S-λ+++ = 0, and the enhancement of left peaks is bigger than right peaks in Fig. 2(e) while the enhancement of left peaks is similar with right peaks in Fig. 2(f).

In Fig. 3, we demonstrate “∞”-shape OB phenomena by changing the pump detuning ∆1. In Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), there are dressed probe signals (a^D=a^4+a^6) and dressed conjugate signals (b^D=b^4+b^6), respectively. Besides, the power of external-dressing E3 in Fig. 3 is bigger than the power of E3 in Fig. 2. In order to better analyze “∞”-shape non-overlapping region, we subtract a common part from Figs. 3(c)-3(f). Besides, it is particular that generating mechanism of multi-peaks can find in PA-SWM process in Fig. 3.

The multi-peaks of probe and conjugate signals in Figs. 1(d) and 1(e) are dominantly controlled by the amount of the incident angle ∆α between probe field and pump field. The multi-peaks accompanied with near-degenerate PA-FWM process that is hard to be induced by large ∆α in Fig. 2. But with small ∆α in Figs. 1(d) and 1(e), the process of near-degenerate PA-FWM is triggered easily due to pumping effect. Under the signals of multi-peaks in Figs. 1(d2)-1(d5), there are correspondent energy-level diagrams for the multi-peaks in Figs. 1(f1)-1(f4). As a result, when we set ∆α same as Figs. 1(d) and 1(e) in Fig. 3, there appears “∞”-shape OB of multi-peaks and non-overlapping region induced by different feedback dressing |GF|2 on the rising (falling) edge and difference on conditions for suppression and enhancement. What’s more, some multi-peaks are so small that we cannot find them easily, which is caused by strong suppression effect.

Secondly, frequency difference in x direction of “∞”-shape non-overlapping region can also be observed in Fig. 3. Same with Fig. 2, δ is induced by different feedback dressing term |GF|2 on the rising (falling) edge in Fig. 3. From bottom to top in Figs. 3(c1)-3(c5), the δ is increased gradually, where (Iup-Idown) is fixed in Eq. (12), so the change of δ is caused by the increases of n2. In Fig. 3, with decreased pump detuning Δ1, n2 is increasing from bottom to top gradually, which will enhance the feedback intensity. For this reason, the δ is increased from bottom to top gradually in Fig. 3(e). But the change of δ is very small in Figs. 3(d) and 3(f), it demonstrates that the δ of 85Rb, F = 2 is more sensitive than the δ of 85Rb, F = 3 for the changed ∆1. Besides, the small ∆α in Fig. 3 also enhance the feedback intensity of probe and conjugate signals, so comparing with Fig. 2, the change of δ is saturated in Fig. 3(d) and is larger in Fig. 3(e).

Finally, intensity difference in y direction can also be found in Fig. 3. For one thing, the right peaks are higher than left peaks in Figs. 3(c)-3(f), which is caused by the different enhancement conditions of right peaks and left peaks. For another, from bottom to top in Figs. 3(c)-3(f), the change of intensity at one side go thought a gradually process from low to high and then to low again, where the enhancement of peaks is from weak to strong and then to weak again.

In Fig. 4, we analyze the “∞”-shape OB phenomena of dressed probe (a^D=a^4+a^6) and conjugate (b^D=b^4+b^6) signals at different diameter of pump beam E1. Similar to Fig. 3, the power of E3 in Fig. 4 is bigger than Fig. 2, so we subtract a common part in Figs. 4(c)-4(f) to analyze “∞”-shape OB phenomena preferably. And the incident angle ∆α is small in Fig. 4, so there also exists multi-peaks. Same with Figs. 2 and 3, Figure. 4 investigate “∞”-shape OB phenomena also by comparing the non-overlapping region of signals. Specially, what does attract here is the difference of full width at half maxium (FWHM) between the rising edge signals and falling edge signals in Fig. 4.

Specifically, by adjusting the pump beam diameter in our experiment, the relative position of pump and probe beams will be changed, so an additional nonlinear phase shift factor eiΔΦ is introduced via cross-Kerr effect in Eqs. (9) and (10). Meanwhile, when taking thestrong internal dressing effect of E1, the excited state energy level 5P1/2(|2>) would be split into G2 ± and G'2 ± . The corresponding eigenvalues are λS ± = [∆'1 ± (∆'12 + 4|G1|2cos(Φ))1/2]/2, (|G2 ± ›), and λaS ± = [∆1 ± (∆12 + 4|G1|2cos(Φ))1/2]/2, (|G'2 ± ›). The secondary AT splitting is caused by the self-dressing effect of EF whose corresponding eigenvalues are λS+ ± = [∆'F ± (∆'F2 + 4|GF|2)1/2]/2, [∆'F =F-λS+], (|G2 + ± ›) and λaS+ ± = [∆ʺF ± (∆ʺF2 + 4|GF|2)1/2]/2, [∆ʺF =F-λaS+], (|G'2 + ± ›). So the suppression and enhancement conditions of ES and EaS are ∆S-∆'F = 0, ∆aS-∆ʺF = 0 and ∆S-λ+-λ++ = 0, ∆aS-λ+-λ++ = 0, respectively. Theoretically, the change of Ф leads to the move of E1-split energy levels, which means the switch of enhancement and suppression. As a result, in same baseline at Fig. 4(c5), the FWHM of right peak is bigger than left peak’s attributed to different feedback dressing term |GP|2 at rising and falling edges. The FWHM of right peaks is bigger than left peaks’ in Fig. 4, which means the feedback intensity at rising edge is stronger than falling edge. From top to bottom, the FWHM of peaks on one side are obvious increasing in Figs. 4(c)-4(f), where the enhancement of peaks is stronger with increased diameter of E1.

The frequency difference in x direction of “∞”-shape non-overlapping region is also obvious in Fig. 4. From bottom to top in Figs. 4(c)-4(f), the change of δ is minute, where the change of FWHM is offsetting the influence of different diameter of E1. For the same reason, intensity difference in y direction also is little-changed.

5. Conclusion

In summary, generalized nonreciprocity “∞”-shape OB of the dressed probe (conjugate) signals caused by self-dressing effect in PA-SWM process (a^6and b^6) was experimentally and theoretically observed. We found that there exists “∞”-shape non-overlapping region includes frequency difference and intensity difference, whereas the nonreciprocity of frequency difference is much more obviously. Besides, we also found that the feedback intensity can be controlled by experimental parameters of dressing fields. As a result, increasing the power of external-dressing can make frequency difference more obvious, and changing the phase includes incident angle α and the diameter of internal-dressing fields can induce multi-peaks and FWHM difference, respectively. In brief, our experiment reveals that nonreciprocity “∞”-shape OB can be controlled by feedback intensity attributed to feedback dressing. This research can provide and novel methodology for the applications of logic-gate devices and quantum information processing.

Funding

National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFA0303700); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11474228, 61605154, 61308015); Key Scientific and Technological Innovation Team of Shaanxi Province (2014KCT-10).

References and links

1. M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(9), 1847–1850 (1999). [CrossRef]  

2. L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. C. F. Mccormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043816 (2008). [CrossRef]  

8. J. B. Clark, Z. Zhou, Q. Glorieux, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Letter, “Imaging using quantum noise properties of light,” Opt. Express 20(15), 17050 (2012). [CrossRef]  

9. M. W. Holtfrerich, M. Dowran, R. Davidson, B. J. Lawrie, R. C. Pooser, and A. M. Mareno, “Toward quantum plasmonic networks,” Optica 3(9), 985 (2016). [CrossRef]  

10. C. Liu, J. Jing, Z. Zhou, R. C. Pooser, F. Hudelist, L. Zhou, and W. Zhang, “Realization of low frequency and controllable bandwidth squeezing based on a four-wave-mixing amplifier in rubidium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2979–2981 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. Y. M. Fang and J. T. Jing, “Quantum squeezing and entanglement from a two-mode phase-sensitive amplifier via four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 023027 (2015). [CrossRef]  

12. R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Ultrasensitive measurement of microcantilever displacement below the shot-noise limit,” Optica 2(5), 393 (2015). [CrossRef]  

13. R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit,” ACS Photonics 3(1), 8–13 (2016). [CrossRef]  

14. A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, “Radiation trapping in coherent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133601 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. W. Happer, “Optical Pumping,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 44(2), 169–249 (1972). [CrossRef]  

17. A. Yariv and D. M. Pepper, “Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 1(1), 16 (1977). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. H. G. Winful and J. H. Marburger, “Hysteresis and optical bistability in degenerate fourwave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(8), 613–614 (1980). [CrossRef]  

19. H. Wang, D. J. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Bistability and instability of three-level atoms inside an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011801 (2001). [CrossRef]  

20. A. Joshi, A. Brown, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Controlling optical bistability in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 041801 (2003). [CrossRef]  

21. J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012). [CrossRef]  

22. D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization bistability of counterpropagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(15), 1721–1724 (1990). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. Z. Zhang, D. Ma, J. Liu, Y. Sun, L. Cheng, G. A. Khan, and Y. Zhang, “Comparison between optical bistabilities versus power and frequency in a composite cavity-atom system,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8916–8925 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(9), 1847–1850 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. F. Mccormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043816 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. B. Clark, Z. Zhou, Q. Glorieux, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Letter, “Imaging using quantum noise properties of light,” Opt. Express 20(15), 17050 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. W. Holtfrerich, M. Dowran, R. Davidson, B. J. Lawrie, R. C. Pooser, and A. M. Mareno, “Toward quantum plasmonic networks,” Optica 3(9), 985 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Liu, J. Jing, Z. Zhou, R. C. Pooser, F. Hudelist, L. Zhou, and W. Zhang, “Realization of low frequency and controllable bandwidth squeezing based on a four-wave-mixing amplifier in rubidium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2979–2981 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. M. Fang and J. T. Jing, “Quantum squeezing and entanglement from a two-mode phase-sensitive amplifier via four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 023027 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Ultrasensitive measurement of microcantilever displacement below the shot-noise limit,” Optica 2(5), 393 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit,” ACS Photonics 3(1), 8–13 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, “Radiation trapping in coherent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133601 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. W. Happer, “Optical Pumping,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 44(2), 169–249 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Yariv and D. M. Pepper, “Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 1(1), 16 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H. G. Winful and J. H. Marburger, “Hysteresis and optical bistability in degenerate fourwave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(8), 613–614 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Wang, D. J. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Bistability and instability of three-level atoms inside an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011801 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Joshi, A. Brown, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Controlling optical bistability in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 041801 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization bistability of counterpropagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(15), 1721–1724 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Z. Zhang, D. Ma, J. Liu, Y. Sun, L. Cheng, G. A. Khan, and Y. Zhang, “Comparison between optical bistabilities versus power and frequency in a composite cavity-atom system,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8916–8925 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

M. W. Holtfrerich, M. Dowran, R. Davidson, B. J. Lawrie, R. C. Pooser, and A. M. Mareno, “Toward quantum plasmonic networks,” Optica 3(9), 985 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit,” ACS Photonics 3(1), 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Y. M. Fang and J. T. Jing, “Quantum squeezing and entanglement from a two-mode phase-sensitive amplifier via four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 023027 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Ultrasensitive measurement of microcantilever displacement below the shot-noise limit,” Optica 2(5), 393 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. B. Clark, Z. Zhou, Q. Glorieux, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Letter, “Imaging using quantum noise properties of light,” Opt. Express 20(15), 17050 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

C. F. Mccormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Joshi, A. Brown, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Controlling optical bistability in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 041801 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

H. Wang, D. J. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Bistability and instability of three-level atoms inside an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011801 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, “Radiation trapping in coherent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133601 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(9), 1847–1850 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization bistability of counterpropagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(15), 1721–1724 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

H. G. Winful and J. H. Marburger, “Hysteresis and optical bistability in degenerate fourwave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(8), 613–614 (1980).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1972 (1)

W. Happer, “Optical Pumping,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 44(2), 169–249 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ankerhold, G.

G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization bistability of counterpropagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(15), 1721–1724 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyer, V.

C. F. Mccormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brown, A.

A. Joshi, A. Brown, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Controlling optical bistability in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 041801 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chalopin, B.

L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.

Cirac, J. I.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, J. B.

Davidson, R.

Dowran, M.

Duan, L. M.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Y. M.

Y. M. Fang and J. T. Jing, “Quantum squeezing and entanglement from a two-mode phase-sensitive amplifier via four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 023027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feng, W. K.

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fink, Y.

M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(9), 1847–1850 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization bistability of counterpropagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(15), 1721–1724 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization bistability of counterpropagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(15), 1721–1724 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glorieux, Q.

Goorskey, D. J.

H. Wang, D. J. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Bistability and instability of three-level atoms inside an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011801 (2001).
[Crossref]

Happer, W.

W. Happer, “Optical Pumping,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 44(2), 169–249 (1972).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L. W.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtfrerich, M. W.

Hudelist, F.

Ibanescu, M.

M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, J.

Jing, J. T.

Y. M. Fang and J. T. Jing, “Quantum squeezing and entanglement from a two-mode phase-sensitive amplifier via four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 023027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

A. Joshi, A. Brown, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Controlling optical bistability in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 041801 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khan, G. A.

Lange, W.

G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawrie, B.

R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit,” ACS Photonics 3(1), 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Ultrasensitive measurement of microcantilever displacement below the shot-noise limit,” Optica 2(5), 393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lawrie, B. J.

Lett, P. D.

C. F. Mccormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

Letter, P. D.

Li, C.

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P. Y.

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Liu, J.

Lopez, L.

L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(9), 1847–1850 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ma, D.

Maitre, A.

L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malcuit, M. S.

D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization bistability of counterpropagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(15), 1721–1724 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marburger, J. H.

H. G. Winful and J. H. Marburger, “Hysteresis and optical bistability in degenerate fourwave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(8), 613–614 (1980).
[Crossref]

Mareno, A. M.

Marino, A. M.

J. B. Clark, Z. Zhou, Q. Glorieux, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Letter, “Imaging using quantum noise properties of light,” Opt. Express 20(15), 17050 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. F. Mccormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, “Radiation trapping in coherent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133601 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(9), 1847–1850 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mccormick, C. F.

C. F. Mccormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mertz, J. C.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mutschall, D.

G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novikova, I.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, “Radiation trapping in coherent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133601 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, D. M.

Pooser, R. C.

Schiffer, M.

G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholz, T.

G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, “Radiation trapping in coherent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133601 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(9), 1847–1850 (1999).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Tian, Y.

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Treps, N.

L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valley, J. F.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

A. Joshi, A. Brown, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Controlling optical bistability in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 041801 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, D. J. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Bistability and instability of three-level atoms inside an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011801 (2001).
[Crossref]

Welch, G. R.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, “Radiation trapping in coherent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133601 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winful, H. G.

H. G. Winful and J. H. Marburger, “Hysteresis and optical bistability in degenerate fourwave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(8), 613–614 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Joshi, A. Brown, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Controlling optical bistability in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 041801 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, D. J. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Bistability and instability of three-level atoms inside an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011801 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yao, X.

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

Yuan, J. M.

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yurke, B.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Zhang, D. Ma, J. Liu, Y. Sun, L. Cheng, G. A. Khan, and Y. Zhang, “Comparison between optical bistabilities versus power and frequency in a composite cavity-atom system,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8916–8925 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. P.

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Q.

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, D. Ma, J. Liu, Y. Sun, L. Cheng, G. A. Khan, and Y. Zhang, “Comparison between optical bistabilities versus power and frequency in a composite cavity-atom system,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8916–8925 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, H.

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, H. B.

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Zhou, Z.

Zoller, P.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit,” ACS Photonics 3(1), 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. G. Winful and J. H. Marburger, “Hysteresis and optical bistability in degenerate fourwave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(8), 613–614 (1980).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

Y. M. Fang and J. T. Jing, “Quantum squeezing and entanglement from a two-mode phase-sensitive amplifier via four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 023027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

C. F. Mccormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Ankerhold, M. Schiffer, D. Mutschall, T. Scholz, and W. Lange, “Nonlinear effects of radiation trapping in ground-state oriented sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 48(6), 4031–4034 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, D. J. Goorskey, and M. Xiao, “Bistability and instability of three-level atoms inside an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011801 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Joshi, A. Brown, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Controlling optical bistability in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 041801 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yuan, W. K. Feng, P. Y. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhang, H. B. Zheng, and Y. P. Zhang, “Controllable vacuum Rabi splitting and optical bistability of multi-wave-mixing signal inside a ring cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Soljacić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 055601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarization bistability of counterpropagating laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(15), 1721–1724 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, “Radiation trapping in coherent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133601 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, A. B. Matsko, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum noise and correlations in resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(9), 1847–1850 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Lopez, N. Treps, B. Chalopin, C. Fabre, and A. Maitre, “Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013604 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(22), 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

W. Happer, “Optical Pumping,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 44(2), 169–249 (1972).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

H. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Yao, Z. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Parametrically amplified bright-state polariton of four- and six-wave mixing in an optical ring cavity,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Tian, H. Chen, C. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a1) Spatial beams alignment of the PA-FWM and PA-SWM process. (a2) Phase-matching geometrical diagram of the SP-FWM process. (b) Energy-level diagram for the inverted-Y configuration in 85Rb vapor. (c) The signal of 85Rb, F = 2 (probe) that external-dressing field E 3 is blocked (c1) and got through (c2), respectively. (d) Measured probe signal versus probe frequency. (e) Measured conjugate signal versus probe frequency. (f) Energy-level diagram for multi-peaks.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured (a) probe and (b) conjugate fields with external-dressing field E 3 at different power of E 3. From bottom to top, the power of E 3 is changed from 8mw to 18mw. The signals in (c,d) and (e,f) are enlarged views from dressed probe signal in (a) and dressed conjugate signal in (b), respectively. And the signals in (c,e) and (d,f) are 85Rb, F = 3 and 85Rb, F = 2, respectively. In (c-f), the left (right) peaks belong to the signals of rising (falling) edge.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Same as Fig. 2, but with external-dressing field E 3 at different pump detuning ∆1. From bottom to top, the wavelength of E 1 is changed from 795.9741 nm to 795.9720 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Same as Fig. 2, but with external-dressing field E3 at different diameter of pump beam E1. From bottom to top, the diameter of E1 is changed from large to small. Besides, the signals in (c,e) and (d,f) are 85Rb, F = 2 and 85Rb, F = 3, respectively. In (c-f), the left (right) peaks belong to the signals of falling (rising) edge.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ 21 ( S ) ( 3 ) = i G 1 2 G aS / d 21 d 01 D d 21 .
ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 3 ) = i G 1 2 G S / d 20 d 10 D d 20 .
ρ 21 ( S ) ( 3 ) = ρ 21 ( S ) ( 3 ) + ( G 3 2 / d 01 d 31 ) ρ 21 ( S ) ( 3 ) = ρ 21 ( S ) ( 3 ) + ρ 21 ( S ) ( 5 ) .
ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 3 ) = ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 3 ) + ( G 3 2 / d 10 d 13 ) ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 3 ) = ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 3 ) + ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 5 ) .
a ^ o u t + a ^ o u t = g a ^ i n + a ^ i n + ( g 1 ) .
b ^ o u t + b ^ o u t = ( g 1 ) a ^ i n + a ^ i n + g .
ρ 21 ( S ) ( 3 ) = ρ 21 ( S ) ( 3 ) + ρ 21 ( S ) ( 5 ) .
ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 3 ) = ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 3 ) + ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 5 ) .
ρ 21 ( S ) ( 5 ) = i G c G 1 2 G 3 2 [ Γ 21 + i Δ 1 + G 3 2 / ( Γ 23 + i Δ 1 Δ 3 ) + G p 2 / Γ 22 ] [ Γ 01 + G 1 2 e i ( Δ α + Δ ϕ ) / ( Γ 21 + i Δ 1 ) ] × 1 [ G 1 2 e i ( Δ α + Δ ϕ ) / [ Γ 01 + i ( Δ 1 ' Δ 1 ) ] + G p 2 / [ Γ 11 i ( Δ 1 ' Δ 1 ) ] + G 1 2 e i ( Δ α + Δ ϕ ) / Γ 22 + G 3 2 / ( Γ 23 + i Δ 1 Δ 3 ) + i Δ 1 ' + Γ 21 ] ( Γ 31 + i Δ 3 ) Γ 11 .
ρ 20 ( a S ) ( 5 ) = i G p G 1 2 G 3 2 [ Γ 10 + G 3 2 / ( Γ 30 + Δ 3 ) + G 1 2 e i ( Δ α + Δ ϕ ) / ( Γ 20 + i Δ 1 ) + G 1 2 e i ( Δ α + Δ ϕ ) / ( Γ 12 i Δ 1 ) ] × 1 [ Γ 20 + i Δ 1 + G 1 2 e i ( Δ α + Δ ϕ ) / Γ 22 + G 1 2 e i ( Δ α + Δ ϕ ) /( Γ 10 + i ( Δ 1 Δ 1 ) ) ] . × 1 [ Γ 20 + i Δ 1 + G c 2 / Γ 00 ] [ Γ 30 + Δ 3 ] [ Γ 10 ]
ρ 20 ( 1 ) = i G p / [ d 21 + | G p | 2 / Γ 11 + | G p | 2 / Γ 22 + | G 1 | 2 / d 10 + | G 1 | 2 / [ Γ 22 + i ( Δ p Δ 1 ) ] ] .
Δ φ = N ( n 2 u p I u p n 2 d o w n I d o w n ) ω p l / c = n 1 δ l / c .

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